Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Trifolium repens
(white clover)



Trifolium repens (white clover)


  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trifolium repens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white clover
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trifolium repens

Preferred Common Name

  • white clover

International Common Names

  • English: Dutch clover
  • Spanish: Trebol; Trebol blanco; Trebol rastrero
  • French: Trefle blanc; Trefle rampant
  • Portuguese: trevo-branco; trevo-rasteiro

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weiss- Klee
  • Italy: Trifoglio bianco
  • Japan: Shirotsumekusa
  • Netherlands: witte Klaver
  • Sweden: Vitkloever

EPPO code

  • TRFRE (Trifolium repens)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Trifolium
  •                                     Species: Trifolium repens

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


South KoreaPresent


Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

-British ColumbiaPresent
United StatesPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent


-New South WalesPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

-Rio Grande do SulPresent

Distribution Database Table

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Distribution References

Abdalla O A, Ali A, 2012. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus associated with severe mosaic and mottling of pepper (Capsicum annuum) and white clover (Trifolium repens) in Oklahoma. Plant Disease. 96 (11), 1705-1706.

Abraham A D, Menzel W, Vetten H J, Saucke H, 2007. First report of Soybean dwarf virus (Genus Luteovirus) infecting faba bean and clover in Germany. Plant Disease. 91 (8), 1059. HTTP:// DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1059B

Alemzadeh E, Ghorbani A, 2016. Occurrence of Pelargonium leaf curl virus and Moroccan pepper virus on natural hosts. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 11 (1), 8.

Bai Q R, Jiang X Y, Xie Y Y, Sun H Y, Gao J, 2014. Summer blight of white clover (Trifolium repens) caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in China. Plant Disease. 98 (8), 1153. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0987-PDN

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Clapp J P, Stoel C D van der, Putten W H van der, 2000. Rapid identification of cyst (Heterodera spp., Globodera spp.) and root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes on the basis of ITS2 sequence variation detected by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in cultures and field samples. Molecular Ecology. 9 (9), 1223-1232. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00995.x

Dąbkowska T, Sygulska P, 2013. Variations in weed flora and the degree of its transformation in ecological and extensive conventional cereal crops in selected habitats of the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains. Acta Agrobotanica. 66 (2), 123-136. DOI:10.5586/aa.2013.029

Dangwal L R, Antima Sharma, Amandeep Singh, Rana C S, Tajinder Singh, 2011. Weed flora of S.R.T. Campus Badshahi Thaul Tehri Garhwal (H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, Uttarakhand), India. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 387-396.

Duan HuiSheng, Yu Yi, Zhang AnSheng, Guo Dong, Tao YuLi, Chu Dong, 2013. Sudden widespread distribution of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Shandong province, China. Florida Entomologist. 96 (3), 933-940. DOI:10.1653/024.096.0330

Esquivel J F, 2016. Nezara viridula (L.) in Central Texas: I. New host plant associations and reproductive status of adults encountered within. Southwestern Entomologist. 41 (4), 895-904.

Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 21 (3), 425-433.

Groves R L, Walgenbach J F, Moyer J W, Kennedy G G, 2002. The role of weed hosts and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, in the epidemiology of tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease. 86 (6), 573-582. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.573

Hassannejad S, Ghafarbi S P, 2013. Weed flora survey of Tabriz wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 3 (9), 118-132.

Hassannejad S, Ghafarbi S P, Abbasvand E, Ghisvandi B, 2014. Quantifying the effects of altitude and soil texture on weed species distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 5 (1), 590-596.

Hwang KiSeon, Eom MinYong, Park SuHyuk, Won OkJae, Lee InYong, Park KeeWoong, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of weed species on horticulture fields in Chungnam province of Korea. Journal of Ecology and Environment. 38 (3), 353-360. DOI:10.5141/ecoenv.2015.036

Karpavičienė B, Radušienė J, Viltrakytė J, 2015. Distribution of two invasive goldenrod species Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea in Lithuania. Botanica Lithuanica. 21 (2), 125-132.

Kondo T, Gullan P J, Peronti A L B G, Ramos-Portilla A A, Caballero A, Villarreal-Pretelt N, 2016. First records of the iceryine scale insects Crypticerya brasiliensis (Hempel) and Crypticerya genistae (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) for Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-9.

Kwon JinHyeuk, Cho HyeounSuk, Shen ShunShan, Kim JinWoo, 2013. The occurrence of Sclerotium rot on white clover (Trifolium repens L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 8 (1), 89-91. DOI:10.1007/s13314-013-0103-0

Lee H B, Thuong N T T, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe trifoliorum (Wallr.) U. Braun on white clover in Korea. Plant Disease. 99 (9), 1276. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1343-PDN

Li X, Boer S H de, 2005. First report of Burkholderia andropogonis causing leaf spots of Bougainvillea sp. in Hong Kong and clover in Canada. Plant Disease. 89 (10), 1132. HTTP:// DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1132A

Mier Durante M P, Foottit R, Dohlen C D von, Ortego J, 2012. First American records of Aphis intybi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with notes on two other related adventive species in Argentina. Florida Entomologist. 95 (4), 1154-1162. DOI:10.1653/024.095.0446

Miller G L, Jensen A S, Favret C, Metz M A, Parmenter R R, 2016. The first report of the aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) of the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, USA. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 118 (2), 289-296. DOI:10.4289/0013-8797.118.2.289

Oh S M, Moon B C, Kim C S, 2007. Current status on influx and habitat of exotic weeds in Korea. In: Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka [Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka.], [ed. by Marambe B, Sangakkara U R, Costa W A J M de, Abeysekara A S K]. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society. 608-613.

Ostrauskas H, 2003. Moths caught in pheromone traps for southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cr.), fall armyworm (S. frugiperda Sm.), and Egyptian cotton leafworm (S. littoralis Bsd.) (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) during 1999-2001 in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica. 13 (4), 411-424. DOI:10.1080/13921657.2003.10512314

Park C Y, Lee M A, Nam M, Park E H, Bae Y S, Lee S H, Kim J S, Won D Y, 2014. First report of Clover yellow vein virus on white clover (Trifolium repens) in South Korea. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1450. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0540-PDN

Park C Y, Lee S H, Lim S, Moon J S, Kim B S, 2017. First report of White clover mosaic virus on white clover (Trifolium repens) in Korea. Plant Disease. 101 (8), 1559. DOI:10.1094/pdis-02-17-0256-pdn

Rohan T C, Aalders L T, Bell N L, Shah F A, 2016. First report of Melodogyne fallax hosted by Trifolium repens (white clover): implications for pasture and crop rotations in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 11 (1), 14.

Shah G M, Khan M A, 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 12 (3), 213-219.

Shah S M, Asad Ullah, Fazal Hadi, 2014. Ecological characteristics of weed flora in the wheat crop of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 479-487.

Stobbs L W, Greig N, Weaver S, Shipp L, Ferguson G, 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 254-261.

Suter M, Siegrist-Maag S, Connolly J, Lüscher A, 2007. Senecio jacobaea and management practice: what are the links? In: Permanent and temporary grassland: plant, environment and economy. Proceedings of the 14th Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Ghent, Belgium, 3-5 September 2007. [ed. by Vliegher A de, Carlier L]. Merlbeke, Belgium: Belgian Society for Grassland and Forage Crops. 421-424.

Svoboda J, Polák J, 2002. Distribution, variability and overwintering of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science. 38 (4), 125-130.

Swapna Vijayan, Joy C M, 2016. Current distribution of invasive alien flora of Arookkutty Panchayath, Kerala, India. Indian Journal of Ecology. 43 (1), 305-307.

Takada H, 2002. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; Aphelinidae) of four principal pest aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse vegetable crops in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 37 (2), 237-249. DOI:10.1303/aez.2002.237

Toda S, Murai T, 2007. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences in Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in relation to reproductive forms and geographic distribution. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 42 (2), 309-316. DOI:10.1303/aez.2007.309

Tsuchida T, Koga R, Shibao H, Matsumoto T, Fukatsu T, 2002. Diversity and geographic distribution of secondary endosymbiotic bacteria in natural populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Molecular Ecology. 11 (10), 2123-2135. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01606.x

Ünal F, Tülek S, Bingöl M Ü, Öztürk Ö, Eğerci Y, Kurbetli İ, Canpolat S, Sarpkaya K, Ünlü A, Dolar F S, 2020. Identification and pathogenicity studies of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) fungi on turfgrass areas in Turkey. Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 60 (1), 63-69. DOI:10.16955/bitkorb.574000

Vafaei S H, Mahmoodi M, 2017. Presence of recombinant strain of Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus in Iran. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 15 (4), 289-295. DOI:10.15171/ijb.1541

Victoria A A D, Furtado B E, Holz M T, Romero-Arenas O, Dallagnol L J, 2020. First report of Leptosphaerulina leaf spot caused by Leptosphaerulina trifolii on Trifolium repens in Brazil. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 972-972. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2151-PDN

Xue L H, Li C J, Duan T Y, Nan Z B, 2018. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum destructivum on Trifolium repens in China. Plant Disease. 102 (1), 249-250. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1040-PDN

Xue L H, Liu Y, Li C J, 2017. First report of Botrytis cinerea causing soft rots in Trifolium repens in China. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1050. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-16-1710-PDN

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