Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis

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Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis
  • Overview
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and equids. VEEV has caused periodic outbreaks of febrile and neurological diseas...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis

International Common Names

  • English: Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis

Overview

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and equids. VEEV has caused periodic outbreaks of febrile and neurological disease, primarily in Latin America since the 1930s. Many outbreaks have involved tens to hundreds of thousands of equine and human cases, have spread over large geographical regions, and have lasted up to several years (Weaver et al., 2004). VEEV is also a highly developed biological weapon amenable to use in warfare or terrorism (Hawley and Eitzen, 2001; Reichert et al., 2009).

Venezuelan equine encephalitis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. For more information, see the website: www.oie.int.

Hosts/Species Affected

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VEEV causes disease in horses, donkeys, mules and man.

Distribution

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VEE complex viruses are endemic to South and Central America, Mexico, and Florida (Weaver et al., 2004).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IranDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IraqDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JapanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JordanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LaosDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NepalNo information availableOIE, 2009
OmanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PakistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
QatarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SyriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ThailandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2009
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiNo information availableOIE, 2009
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EritreaNo information availableOIE, 2009
EthiopiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LesothoDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalawiNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MozambiqueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE, 2009
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SudanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TogoNo information availableOIE, 2009
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UgandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZambiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
USADisease not reportedOIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE, 2009
CubaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
El SalvadorDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HondurasDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MartiniqueDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PanamaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported1944OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ChileDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ColombiaPresentOIE, 2009
EcuadorDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
VenezuelaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FranceDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MontenegroDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PolandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PortugalDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SerbiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SpainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UKDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

References

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Hawley RJ; Eitzen EM Jr, 2001. Biological weapons - a primer for microbiologists. Annual Review of Microbiology, 55:235-253.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Reichert E; Clase A; Bacetty A; Larsen J, 2009. Alphavirus antiviral drug development: scientific gap analysis and prospective research areas. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science, 7(4):413-427. http://www.liebertonline.com/bsp

Weaver SC; Ferro C; Barrera R; Boshell J; Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annual Review of Entomology, 49:141-174.

Distribution Maps

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