Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Undaria pinnatifida
(Asian kelp)

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Datasheet

Undaria pinnatifida (Asian kelp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 February 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Undaria pinnatifida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian kelp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Phaeophyta
  •       Class: Phaeophyceae
  •         Order: Laminariales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • U. pinnatifida is an annual kelp native to northeast Asia and Russia. It is the basis of a large aquaculture industry in Japan, Korea and China. Beginning in the 1970s, Undaria expanded into non-native...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Close-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
TitleHabit
CaptionClose-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Close-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
HabitClose-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A young individual.  The Netherlands
TitleImmature specimen
CaptionA young individual. The Netherlands
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A young individual.  The Netherlands
Immature specimenA young individual. The Netherlands©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline.  The Netherlands
TitleMature specimen
CaptionA fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline. The Netherlands
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline.  The Netherlands
Mature specimenA fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline. The Netherlands©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
TitleBase of plant
CaptionThe basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The Netherlands
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
Base of plantThe basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The Netherlands©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
TitleBasal stem
CaptionThe basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The Netherlands
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
Basal stemThe basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The Netherlands©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, 1873

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian kelp

Other Scientific Names

  • Alaria pinnatifida Harvey, 1860
  • Ulopteryx pinnatifida (Harvey) Kjellman, 1885

International Common Names

  • English: kelp; precious sea grass; sea mustard
  • Chinese: chun dai cai; qun dai cai

Local Common Names

  • Japan: wakame
  • Korea, DPR: miyeouk; miyok

Summary of Invasiveness

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U. pinnatifida is an annual kelp native to northeast Asia and Russia. It is the basis of a large aquaculture industry in Japan, Korea and China. Beginning in the 1970s, Undaria expanded into non-native areas, and is now found in Europe, North America, South America and Australasia. It appears that Undaria was spread over long distances primarily by hitchhiking on other aquaculture species (e.g. oysters) or attached as microscopic stages to boat hulls. The ability of microscopic stages to go dormant at high temperatures may allow this species to persist during transport. No other kelp taxa have this trait and there are no other invasive kelps. The ecological impact of Undaria is equivocal since it can be negative in some regions and neutral/positive in others.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Phaeophyta
  •             Class: Phaeophyceae
  •                 Order: Laminariales
  •                     Family: Alariaceae
  •                         Genus: Undaria
  •                             Species: Undaria pinnatifida

Description

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Sporophytes consist of a pinnately-divided blade with midrib, compressed stipe and fibrous holdfast; the length of the frond is 1 to 2 metres. When mature, undulate and folded sporophylls form on both sides of stipe. There are two forms of the plant, i.e ‘southern’ and ‘northern’. Compared to the southern form the northern has a longer stipe with sporophylls arising from the lower regions with deeply divided blade (after Ohno and Masuoka, 1993). Numerous morphologies have been described throughout both the native and introduced ranges.

Plant Type

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Aquatic

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 14 Feb 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedTseng (1984)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka (1993)
-HonshuPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka (1993)
-KyushuPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka (1993)
North KoreaPresentIntroducedLee and Yoon (1998)
South KoreaPresentIntroducedLee and Yoon (1998)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedDIAS (2005)

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedLeliaert et al. (2000)
FrancePresentIntroducedKaas and Perez (1990); Castric-Fey et al. (1993); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentIntroducedSchiller et al. (2018)First record in the northern Wadden Sea in 2016, on the eastern side of the island of Syl
IrelandPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2016Kraan (2017)First recorded at Kilmore Quay in Co. Wexford in July 2016
ItalyPresentIntroducedCecere et al. (2000); Curiel et al. (2001)
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedGittenberger and Stegenga (2012)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedIntroducedVeiga et al. (2014)First reported in North Portugal between 1999 and 2007 but has not established widely. Most common in marinas
RussiaPresentSelivanova et al. (2007)
SpainPresentIntroducedDIAS (2005); Salinas et al. (1996)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedFletcher and Manfredi (1995)

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedAguilar-Rosas et al. (2004)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedThornber et al. (2003); Silva et al. (2002)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedSanderson (1990); Valentine and Johnson (2003); Valentine and Johnson (2004); DIAS (2005)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedWomersley (2003); DIAS (2005)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedHay and Luckens (1987); Stapleton (1988); Hay (1990); Hay and Villouta (1993); Brown and Lamare (1994)

Sea Areas

Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroducedBoudouresque et al. (1985)
Pacific - NortheastPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka (1993)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedPereyra et al. (2015); Casas and Piriz (1996); Casas et al. (2004)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since 1971, U. pinnatifida has been found along the coasts of France (Castric-Fey et al., 1993), United Kingdom (Fletcher and Manfredi, 1995), New Zealand (Hay, 1990), Italy (Curiel et al., 2001), Spain (Salinas et al., 1996), Australia (Valentine and Johnson, 2004), California (Silva et al., 2002), and Mexico (Aguilar-Rosas et al., 2004); long-distance introductions were likely due to importation of aquaculture oysters from Japan (Ohno and Matsuoka, 1993); local spread of populations post-introduction occurs primarily by fouling of small boat hulls. The most recent discovery of a new introduced population was in Argentina (Casas et al., 2004)

Invasions of U. pinnatifida in California, USA have been studied to better predict when and where it may continue its invasion along the west coast of North America (Thornber et al., 2003). Recruitment of the macroscopic stage occurs following rapid drops in water temperature, although high sporophyte mortality may occur due to grazing. It was also observed that Undaria sporophytes may synchronously release zoospores when disturbed, although it is unknown whether this factor enhances its invasiveness.  The dispersal of sporophytes by coastal shipping has been reported in New Zealand (Hay, 1990). Natural dispersal mechanisms have been discussed by Forrest et al. (2000), as well as the genetic signature of the dispersal mechanisms (Voisin et al., 2005).

Habitat

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In its natural range, Undaria grows on rocks from the lowest inter-tidal to sub-tidal zones, to a maximum of 8-10 m depth. The alga is an annual (Saitoh et al., 1999; Yoshikawa et al., 2001; Skriptsova et al., 2004). Young fronds of Undaria appear in late October to early November, they grow rapidly from winter until early spring on the coast of Japan. Their growth is best when the seawater temperature is between 5 and 13°C. Special reproductive blades called sporophylls form at the base of the stipes in late spring or early summer. The discharge of zoospores begins from the sporangia formed on the sporophylls. Zoospores are 9 µm in length, biflagellate and motile. Zoospores germinate on the substratum and grow into dioecious gametophyte generations. Individual gametophytes are either male or female, microscopic, filamentous thalli which grow until the summer water temperature rises to about 25°C. After this, growth stops (dormancy) and does not resume until water temperatures fall below 25°C in the autumn. Gametogenesis occurs and, after fertilization, zygotes develop into the small plumules of the juvenile sporophyte; the plant then matures into the characteristic adult form (after Ohno and Masuoka, 1993). In all known populations, the macroscopic sporophyte phase lasts less than 12 months and is considered to be a true annual, and the macroscopic form disappears every summer to for a population discontinuous in time.

In its introduced range, the ecology of Undaria is similar, and in some regions summer temperatures exceed 25°C as in the native range and result in discontinuous populations (Hay and Villouta, 1993; Castric-Fey et al., 1999a, b; Stuart et al., 1999; Curiel et al., 2004). In cooler regions, however, summer water temperatures are never high enough to induce dormancy of the gametophyte phase and therefore populations have overlapping generations and are continuous in time, although individual sporophytes are still annuals and die within 12 months of recruitment.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Marine
 
Inshore marine Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The recent genetic studies of Voisin et al. (2005) indicate different genetic structure of Undaria in its native range vs. its introduced range, which may be due to the different mechanisms of introduction: aquaculture and maritime traffic.

Associations
 
The clubbed tunicate Styela clava may be contributing to the establishment of U. pinnatifida by facilitating settlement in San Antonio Bay, northern Patagonia, Argentina (Pereyra et al., 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4 5 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 20 34 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 8 9 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 4 20 Optimum Adult

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture
Flooding and other natural disastersFound attached to Japanese dock debris washed ashore in Oregon, USA after Tohoku tsunami in 2011 Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Forrest et al., 2000; Voisin et al., 2005

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockAttached to oysters as microscopic gametophytes/sporophytes Yes Forrest et al., 2000; Voisin et al., 2005
Floating vegetation and debrisFound attached to Japanese dock debris washed ashore in Oregon, USA after Tohoku tsunami in 2011 Yes
Ship hull foulingMicroscopic gametophytes Yes Forrest et al., 2000; Voisin et al., 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative

Environmental Impact

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The ecological impact of invasive Undaria is spatially variable, in some locations the introduction of Undaria decreases native species diversity through competition (Valentine and Johnson, 2003, 2004; Hewitt et al., 2005; Farrell and Fletcher, 2006), in other cases Undaria has no impact (likely due to high native diversity), and in a few cases Undaria facilitates native species. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

There is no general consensus on how to manage U. pinnatifida and targeted actions have had limited success (Epstein and Smale, 2017). 

References

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Agatsuma Y, Yamada Y, Taniguchi K, 2002. Dietary effect of the boiled stipe of brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on the growth and gonadal enhancement of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Fisheries Science, 68(6):1274-1281

Aguilar-Rosas R, Aguilar-Rosas LE, Avila-Serrano G, Marcos-Ramirez R, 2004. First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Botanica Marina, 47:255-258

Akiyama K, Kurogi M, 1982. Cultivation of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, the decrease in crops from natural plants following crop increase from cultivation. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 44:91-100

Boudouresque C-F, Gerbal M, Knoepffler-Peguy M, 1985. L’algue japonnaise Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) en Méditerranée. Phycologia, 24:364-366

Brown MT, Lamare MD, 1994. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringer within Timaru Harbour, New Zealand. Japanese Journal of Phycology, 42:63-70

Campbell SJ, Bité JS, Burridge TR, 1999. Seasonal patterns in the photosynthetic capacity, tissue pigment and nutrient content of different development stages of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in Port Phillip Bay, South-Eastern Australia. Botanica Marina, 42:231-242

Campbell SJ, Burridge TR, 1998. Occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 49:379-381

Casas G, Scrosati R, Piriz ML, 2004. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) reduces native seaweed diversity in Nuevo Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina). Biological Invasions, 6:411-416

Casas GN, Piriz ML, 1996. Surveys of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Hydrobiologia, 327:213-215

Castric-Fey A, Beaupoil C, Bouchain J, Pradier E, L'Hardy-Halos MT, 1999. The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St Malo area: growth rate and longevity of the sporophyte. Botanica Marina, 42:83-96

Castric-Fey A, Beaupoil C, Bouchain J, Pradier E, L'Hardy-Halos MT, 1999. The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St Malo area: morphology and growth of the sporophyte. Botanica Marina, 42:71-82

Castric-Fey A, Girard A, L'Hardy-Halos MT, 1993. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the Coast of St Malo (Brittany, France). Botanica Marina, 36:351-358

Cecere E, Petrocelli A, Saracino OD, 2000. Undaria pinnatifida (Fucophyceae, Laminariales) spread in the central Mediterranean: its occurrence in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy). Cryptogamie, Algologie, 21:305-309

Curiel D, Bellemo G, Marzocchi M, Scattolin M, Parisi G, 1998. Distribution of introduced Japanese macroalgae Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyta) and Antithamnion pectinatum (Rhodophyta) in the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia, 385:17-22

Curiel D, Guidetti P, Bellemo G, Scattolin M, Marzochi M, 2001. The introduction alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia, 477:209-219

Curiel D, Scattolin M, Miotti C, Zuliani A, Marzocchi M, 2004. Dynamics of development of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar in the City of Venice (lagoon of Venice). (Dinamiche di sviluppo di Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar nel Centro Storico di Venezia (Laguna di Venezia).) Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia, 55:3-16

DIAS, 2005. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. Online at www.fao.org/figis/. Accessed 6 April 2005

Epstein, G., Smale, D. A., 2017. Undaria pinnatifida: a case study to highlight challenges in marine invasion ecology and management. Ecology and Evolution, 7(20), 8624-8642. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3430

Farrell P, Fletcher RL, 2006. An investigation of dispersal of the introduced brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and its competition with some species on the man-made structures of Torquay Marina (Devon, UK). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 334(2):236-243. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981

Fletcher RL, Manfredi C, 1995. The occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminarales) on the south coast of England. Botanica Marina, 38:355-358

Floc’h JY, Pagot R, Wallentinus I, 1991. The Japanese brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on the coast of France and its possible establishment in European waters. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 47:379-390

Forrest BM, Brown SN, Taylor MD, Hurd CL, Hay CH, 2000. The role of natural dispersal mechanisms in the spread of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia, 39: 547-553

Hay CH, 1990. The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in New Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. British Phycological Journal, 25:301-313

Hay CH, Luckens PA, 1987. The Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) found in a New Zealand harbour. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25:329-332

Hay CH, Villouta E, 1993. Seasonality of the adventive Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in New Zealand. Botanica Marina, 36:461-476

Hewitt CL, Campbell ML, McEnnulty F, Moore KM, Murfet NB, Robertson B, Schaffelke B, 2005. Efficacy of physical removal of a marine pest: the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida in a Tasmanian Marine Reserve. Biological Invasions, 7(2):251-263. http://www.springerlink.com/(i520oo3mxsdbnf55glw0hn55)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,9,16;journal,4,26;linkingpublicationresults,1:103794,1

Hudson JB, Kim JH, Lee MK, DeWreede RE, Hong YK, 1998. Antiviral compounds in extracts of Korean seaweeds: evidence for multiple activities. Journal of Applied Phycology, 10(5):427-434; 15 ref

Ikenoue H, 1983. Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida). In: Kafuku T, Ikenoue H, eds. Modern Methods of Aquaculture in Japan. Elsevier, 201-208

Jurkovic N, Kolb N, Colic I, 1995. Nutritive value of marine algae Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. Nahrung, 39(1):63-66; 16 ref

Kaas R, Perez R, 1990. Study of intensive culture of Undarai on the coast of Brittany. FAO Ras/90/002, 47-50

Kimura T, Ezura Y, Tajima K, 1976. Microbiological study of a disease of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and of the marine environments of wakame culture sites in Kesennuma Bay. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 36:57-65

Kito H, Akiyama K, Sasaki M, 1976. Electron microscopic observations on the diseased thalli of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, caused by parasitic bacteria. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Lab., 36:67-73

Kolb N, Vallorani L, Milanovic N, Stocchi V, 2004. Evaluation of marine algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica) as food supplements. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 42(1):57-61

Lee KY, Sohn CH, 1993. Morphological characteristics and growth of two forms of sea mustard, Undaria pinnatifida f. distans and U. pinnatifida f. typica. J. Aquaculture, 6:71-87

Lee Y-P, Yoon JT, 1998. Taxonomy and morphology of Undaria (Alariaceae, Phaeophyta) in Korea. Algae (The Korean Journal of Phycology), 13:427-446

Leliaert F, Kerckhof F, Coppejans E, 2000. Eerste waarnemingen van Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) en de epifyt Pterothamnion plumula (Ellis) Nägeli (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in Noord Frankrijk en België. Dumortiera, 75:5-10

Murata M, Nakazoe J, 2001. Production and use of marine algae in Japan. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 35(4):281-290

Nishizawa K, Noda H, Kikuchi R, Watanabe T, 1987. The main seaweed foods in Japan. Hydrobiologia, 151/152:5-29

Oh S-H, Koh, C-H, 1996. Growth and photosynthesis of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on a cultivation ground in Korea. Botanica Marina, 39:389-393

Ohigashi H, Sakai Y, Yamaguchi K, Umezaki I, Koshimizu K, 1992. Possible anti-tumor promoting properties of marine algae and in vivo activity of Wakame seaweed extract. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 56(6):994-995

Ohno M, 1987. Wakame. In: Tokuda H, ed. The Resources and Cultivation of Seaweeds. Japan: Midori Shobo, 133-144

Ohno M, Matsuoka M, 1993. Undaria cultivation “Wakame”. In: Ohno M, Critchley AT, eds. Seaweed Cultivation and Marine Ranching. Yokosuka, Japan: Japan International Cooperation Agency, 41-50

Pereyra PJ, Narvarte M, Tatián M, González R, 2015. The simultaneous introduction of the tunicate Styela clava (Herdman, 1881) and the macroalga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, 1873, in northern Patagonia. BioInvasions Records, 4(3):179-184. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2015/3/BIR_2015_Pereyra_etal.pdf

Rupérez P, 2002. Mineral content of edible marine seaweeds. Food Chemistry, 79(1):23-26

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Sanderson JC, 1990. A preliminary survey of the distribution of the introduced macroalga, Undaria pinnatifida(Harvey) Suringar on the East Coast of Tasmania, Australia. Botanica Marina, 33:153-157

Selivanova ON, Zhigadlova GG, Hansen GI, 2007. Revision of the systematics of algae in the order Laminariales (Phaeophyta) from the Far-Eastern Seas of Russia on the basis of molecular-phylogenetic data. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33:278-289

Silva PC, Woodfield RA, Cohen AN, Harris LH, Goddard JHR, 2002. First report of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Biological Invasions, 4:333-338

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Valentine JP, Johnson CR, 2004. Establishment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida following dieback of the native macroalga Phyllospora comosa in Tasmania, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 55(3):223-230

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Zhang ZeYu, 1999. Polyploidy breeding of Undaria pinnatifida using the vegetative cells of its young sporophytes. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 6(3):45-47

Distribution References

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Pereyra P J, Narvarte M, Tatián M, González R, 2015. The simultaneous introduction of the tunicate Styela clava (Herdman, 1881) and the macroalga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, 1873, in northern Patagonia. BioInvasions Records. 4 (3), 179-184. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2015/3/BIR_2015_Pereyra_etal.pdf DOI:10.3391/bir.2015.4.3.04

Salinas JM, Llera EM, Fuertes C, 1996. Note on the presence of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Austrias (Bay of Biscay). In: Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr, 12 77-79.

Sanderson JC, 1990. A preliminary survey of the distribution of the introduced macroalga, Undaria pinnatifida(Harvey) Suringar on the East Coast of Tasmania, Australia. In: Botanica Marina, 33 153-157.

Schiller J, Lackschewitz D, Buschbaum C, Reise K, Pang S, Bischof K, 2018. Heading northward to Scandinavia: Undaria pinnatifida in the northern Wadden Sea. Botanica Marina. 61 (4), 365-371. DOI:DOI: 10.1515/bot-2017-0128.

Selivanova ON, Zhigadlova GG, Hansen GI, 2007. Revision of the systematics of algae in the order Laminariales (Phaeophyta) from the Far-Eastern Seas of Russia on the basis of molecular-phylogenetic data. In: Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33 278-289.

Silva PC, Woodfield RA, Cohen AN, Harris LH, Goddard JHR, 2002. First report of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In: Biological Invasions, 4 333-338.

Stapleton JC, 1988. Occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar in New Zealand. In: Japanese Journal of Phycology, 36 178-179.

Thornber C S, Kinlan B P, Graham M H, Stachowicz J J, 2003. Population ecology of the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida in California: environmental and biological controls on demography. Marine Ecology, Progress Series. 69-80. DOI:10.3354/meps268069

Tseng C K, 1984. Common Seaweeds of China. Beijing, China: Science Press.

Valentine J P, Johnson C R, 2003. Establishment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida in Tasmania depends on disturbance to native algal assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 295 (1), 63-90. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8F-49621PJ-1&_user=10&_handle=W-WA-A-A-D-MsSAYVA-UUW-AUZYCDYBVB-EUUVYZUY-D-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=10%2F28%2F2003&_rdoc=4&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%235085%232003%23997049998%23448062!&_cdi=5085&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8ec565817e22a07aace1e4a76a7cafe9 DOI:10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00272-7

Valentine J P, Johnson C R, 2004. Establishment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida following dieback of the native macroalga Phyllospora comosa in Tasmania, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research. 55 (3), 223-230. DOI:10.1071/MF03048

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Womersley H B S, 2003. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part IIID: Ceramiales - Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. [ed. by Womersley H B S]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study. 533 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
AlgaeBasehttp://www.algaebase.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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31/03/05 Original text by:

Masao Ohno, Usa Marine Biological Institute, Kochi University, Japan

13/10/11 Reviewed by:

Michael Graham, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, California, USA

Main Author
Masao Ohno
Usa Marine Biological Institute, Kochi University, Usa-cho, Tosa, Kochi 781-1164, Japan

Joint Author
Hiroyuki Mizuta

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