Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Undaria pinnatifida
(Asian kelp)

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Datasheet

Undaria pinnatifida (Asian kelp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Undaria pinnatifida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian kelp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Phaeophyta
  •       Class: Phaeophyceae
  •         Order: Laminariales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • U. pinnatifida is an annual kelp native to northeast Asia and Russia. It is the basis of a large aquaculture industry in Japan, Korea and China. Beginning in the 1970s, Undaria expanded into non-native...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida can be spread by hull fouling as shown here. The fully grown specimens are attached to the underside of a pleasure craft in a Dutch harbour.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Close-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
TitleHabit
CaptionClose-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Close-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
HabitClose-up; Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
TitleHabit
CaptionUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Undaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus.  The Netherlands.
HabitUndaria pinnatifida specimens can be ecological engineers, i.e. creating a habitat that is suitable for other invasive species to settle. The individual shown is overgrown by the colourful colonies of Botrylloides violaceus. The Netherlands.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A young individual.  The Netherlands
TitleImmature specimen
CaptionA young individual. The Netherlands
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A young individual.  The Netherlands
Immature specimenA young individual. The NetherlandsAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline.  The Netherlands
TitleMature specimen
CaptionA fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline. The Netherlands
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
A fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline.  The Netherlands
Mature specimenA fully grown specimen of Undaria pinnatifida has a very irregular outline. The NetherlandsAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
TitleBase of plant
CaptionThe basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The Netherlands
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
Base of plantThe basis of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The NetherlandsAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
TitleBasal stem
CaptionThe basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The Netherlands
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
The basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species.  The Netherlands
Basal stemThe basal stem of an Undaria pinnatifida plant is very typical for the species. The NetherlandsAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, 1873

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian kelp

Other Scientific Names

  • Alaria pinnatifida Harvey, 1860
  • Ulopteryx pinnatifida (Harvey) Kjellman, 1885

International Common Names

  • English: kelp; precious sea grass; sea mustard
  • Chinese: chun dai cai; qun dai cai

Local Common Names

  • Japan: wakame
  • Korea, DPR: miyeouk; miyok

Summary of Invasiveness

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U. pinnatifida is an annual kelp native to northeast Asia and Russia. It is the basis of a large aquaculture industry in Japan, Korea and China. Beginning in the 1970s, Undaria expanded into non-native areas, and is now found in Europe, North America, South America and Australasia. It appears that Undaria was spread over long distances primarily by hitchhiking on other aquaculture species (e.g. oysters) or attached as microscopic stages to boat hulls. The ability of microscopic stages to go dormant at high temperatures may allow this species to persist during transport. No other kelp taxa have this trait and there are no other invasive kelps. The ecological impact of Undaria is equivocal since it can be negative in some regions and neutral/positive in others.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Phaeophyta
  •             Class: Phaeophyceae
  •                 Order: Laminariales
  •                     Family: Alariaceae
  •                         Genus: Undaria
  •                             Species: Undaria pinnatifida

Description

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Sporophytes consist of a pinnately-divided blade with midrib, compressed stipe and fibrous holdfast; the length of the frond is 1 to 2 metres. When mature, undulate and folded sporophylls form on both sides of stipe. There are two forms of the plant, i.e ‘southern’ and ‘northern’. Compared to the southern form the northern has a longer stipe with sporophylls arising from the lower regions with deeply divided blade (after Ohno and Masuoka, 1993). Numerous morphologies have been described throughout both the native and introduced ranges.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroducedBoudouresque et al., 1985
Pacific, NortheastPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka, 1993

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedTseng, 1984
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka, 1993
-HonshuPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka, 1993
-KyushuPresentNativeOhno and Matsuoka, 1993
Korea, DPRPresentIntroducedLee and Yoon, 1998
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedLee and Yoon, 1998
TaiwanPresentIntroducedDIAS, 2005

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedAguilar-Rosas et al., 2004
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedSilva et al., 2002; Thornber et al., 2003

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedCasas and Piriz, 1996; Casas et al., 2004; Pereyra et al., 2015

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedLeliaert et al., 2000
FrancePresentIntroducedKaas and Perez, 1990; Floc'h et al., 1991; Castric-Fey et al., 1993
ItalyPresentIntroducedCecere et al., 2000; Curiel et al., 2001
Russian FederationPresentSelivanova et al., 2007
SpainPresentIntroducedSalinas et al., 1996; DIAS, 2005
UKPresentIntroducedFletcher and Manfredi, 1995

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedSanderson, 1990; Valentine and Johnson, 2003; Valentine and Johnson, 2004; DIAS, 2005
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedWomersley, 2003; DIAS, 2005
New ZealandPresentIntroducedHay and Luckens, 1987; Stapleton, 1988; Hay, 1990; Hay and Villouta, 1993; Brown and Lamare, 1994

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since 1971, U. pinnatifida has been found along the coasts of France (Castric-Fey et al., 1993), United Kingdom (Fletcher and Manfredi, 1995), New Zealand (Hay, 1990), Italy (Curiel et al., 2001), Spain (Salinas et al., 1996), Australia (Valentine and Johnson, 2004), California (Silva et al., 2002), and Mexico (Aguilar-Rosas et al., 2004); long-distance introductions were likely due to importation of aquaculture oysters from Japan (Ohno and Matsuoka, 1993); local spread of populations post-introduction occurs primarily by fouling of small boat hulls. The most recent discovery of a new introduced population was in Argentina (Casas et al., 2004)

Invasions of U. pinnatifida in California, USA have been studied to better predict when and where it may continue its invasion along the west coast of North America (Thornber et al., 2003). Recruitment of the macroscopic stage occurs following rapid drops in water temperature, although high sporophyte mortality may occur due to grazing. It was also observed that Undaria sporophytes may synchronously release zoospores when disturbed, although it is unknown whether this factor enhances its invasiveness.  The dispersal of sporophytes by coastal shipping has been reported in New Zealand (Hay, 1990). Natural dispersal mechanisms have been discussed by Forrest et al. (2000), as well as the genetic signature of the dispersal mechanisms (Voisin et al., 2005).

Habitat

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In its natural range, Undaria grows on rocks from the lowest inter-tidal to sub-tidal zones, to a maximum of 8-10 m depth. The alga is an annual (Saitoh et al., 1999; Yoshikawa et al., 2001; Skriptsova et al., 2004). Young fronds of Undaria appear in late October to early November, they grow rapidly from winter until early spring on the coast of Japan. Their growth is best when the seawater temperature is between 5 and 13°C. Special reproductive blades called sporophylls form at the base of the stipes in late spring or early summer. The discharge of zoospores begins from the sporangia formed on the sporophylls. Zoospores are 9 µm in length, biflagellate and motile. Zoospores germinate on the substratum and grow into dioecious gametophyte generations. Individual gametophytes are either male or female, microscopic, filamentous thalli which grow until the summer water temperature rises to about 25°C. After this, growth stops (dormancy) and does not resume until water temperatures fall below 25°C in the autumn. Gametogenesis occurs and, after fertilization, zygotes develop into the small plumules of the juvenile sporophyte; the plant then matures into the characteristic adult form (after Ohno and Masuoka, 1993). In all known populations, the macroscopic sporophyte phase lasts less than 12 months and is considered to be a true annual, and the macroscopic form disappears every summer to for a population discontinuous in time.

In its introduced range, the ecology of Undaria is similar, and in some regions summer temperatures exceed 25°C as in the native range and result in discontinuous populations (Hay and Villouta, 1993; Castric-Fey et al., 1999a, b; Stuart et al., 1999; Curiel et al., 2004). In cooler regions, however, summer water temperatures are never high enough to induce dormancy of the gametophyte phase and therefore populations have overlapping generations and are continuous in time, although individual sporophytes are still annuals and die within 12 months of recruitment.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Marine
 
Inshore marine Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The recent genetic studies of Voisin et al. (2005) indicate different genetic structure of Undaria in its native range vs. its introduced range, which may be due to the different mechanisms of introduction: aquaculture and maritime traffic.

Associations
 
The clubbed tunicate Styela clava may be contributing to the establishment of U. pinnatifida by facilitating settlement in San Antonio Bay, northern Patagonia, Argentina (Pereyra et al., 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative

Environmental Impact

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The ecological impact of invasive Undaria is spatially variable, in some locations the introduction of Undaria decreases native species diversity through competition (Valentine and Johnson, 2003, 2004; Hewitt et al., 2005; Farrell and Fletcher, 2006), in other cases Undaria has no impact (likely due to high native diversity), and in a few cases Undaria facilitates native species.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Agatsuma Y; Yamada Y; Taniguchi K, 2002. Dietary effect of the boiled stipe of brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on the growth and gonadal enhancement of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Fisheries Science, 68(6):1274-1281.

Aguilar-Rosas R; Aguilar-Rosas LE; Avila-Serrano G; Marcos-Ramirez R, 2004. First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Botanica Marina, 47:255-258.

Akiyama K; Kurogi M, 1982. Cultivation of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, the decrease in crops from natural plants following crop increase from cultivation. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 44:91-100.

Boudouresque C-F; Gerbal M; Knoepffler-Peguy M, 1985. L’algue japonnaise Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) en Méditerranée. Phycologia, 24:364-366.

Brown MT; Lamare MD, 1994. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringer within Timaru Harbour, New Zealand. Japanese Journal of Phycology, 42:63-70.

Campbell SJ; Bité JS; Burridge TR, 1999. Seasonal patterns in the photosynthetic capacity, tissue pigment and nutrient content of different development stages of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in Port Phillip Bay, South-Eastern Australia. Botanica Marina, 42:231-242.

Campbell SJ; Burridge TR, 1998. Occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 49:379-381.

Casas G; Scrosati R; Piriz ML, 2004. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) reduces native seaweed diversity in Nuevo Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina). Biological Invasions, 6:411-416.

Casas GN; Piriz ML, 1996. Surveys of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Hydrobiologia, 327:213-215.

Castric-Fey A; Beaupoil C; Bouchain J; Pradier E; L'Hardy-Halos MT, 1999. The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St Malo area: growth rate and longevity of the sporophyte. Botanica Marina, 42:83-96.

Castric-Fey A; Beaupoil C; Bouchain J; Pradier E; L'Hardy-Halos MT, 1999. The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St Malo area: morphology and growth of the sporophyte. Botanica Marina, 42:71-82.

Castric-Fey A; Girard A; L'Hardy-Halos MT, 1993. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the Coast of St Malo (Brittany, France). Botanica Marina, 36:351-358.

Cecere E; Petrocelli A; Saracino OD, 2000. Undaria pinnatifida (Fucophyceae, Laminariales) spread in the central Mediterranean: its occurrence in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy). Cryptogamie, Algologie, 21:305-309.

Curiel D; Bellemo G; Marzocchi M; Scattolin M; Parisi G, 1998. Distribution of introduced Japanese macroalgae Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyta) and Antithamnion pectinatum (Rhodophyta) in the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia, 385:17-22.

Curiel D; Guidetti P; Bellemo G; Scattolin M; Marzochi M, 2001. The introduction alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia, 477:209-219.

Curiel D; Scattolin M; Miotti C; Zuliani A; Marzocchi M, 2004. Dynamics of development of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar in the City of Venice (lagoon of Venice). (Dinamiche di sviluppo di Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar nel Centro Storico di Venezia (Laguna di Venezia).) Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia, 55:3-16.

DIAS, 2005. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. Online at www.fao.org/figis/. Accessed 6 April 2005.

Farrell P; Fletcher RL, 2006. An investigation of dispersal of the introduced brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and its competition with some species on the man-made structures of Torquay Marina (Devon, UK). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 334(2):236-243. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981

Fletcher RL; Manfredi C, 1995. The occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminarales) on the south coast of England. Botanica Marina, 38:355-358.

Floc’h JY; Pagot R; Wallentinus I, 1991. The Japanese brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on the coast of France and its possible establishment in European waters. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 47:379-390.

Forrest BM; Brown SN; Taylor MD; Hurd CL; Hay CH, 2000. The role of natural dispersal mechanisms in the spread of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia, 39: 547-553.

Hay CH, 1990. The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in New Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. British Phycological Journal, 25:301-313.

Hay CH; Luckens PA, 1987. The Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) found in a New Zealand harbour. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25:329-332.

Hay CH; Villouta E, 1993. Seasonality of the adventive Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in New Zealand. Botanica Marina, 36:461-476.

Hewitt CL; Campbell ML; McEnnulty F; Moore KM; Murfet NB; Robertson B; Schaffelke B, 2005. Efficacy of physical removal of a marine pest: the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida in a Tasmanian Marine Reserve. Biological Invasions, 7(2):251-263. http://www.springerlink.com/(i520oo3mxsdbnf55glw0hn55)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,9,16;journal,4,26;linkingpublicationresults,1:103794,1

Hudson JB; Kim JH; Lee MK; DeWreede RE; Hong YK, 1998. Antiviral compounds in extracts of Korean seaweeds: evidence for multiple activities. Journal of Applied Phycology, 10(5):427-434; 15 ref.

Ikenoue H, 1983. Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida). In: Kafuku T, Ikenoue H, eds. Modern Methods of Aquaculture in Japan. Elsevier, 201-208.

Jurkovic N; Kolb N; Colic I, 1995. Nutritive value of marine algae Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. Nahrung, 39(1):63-66; 16 ref.

Kaas R; Perez R, 1990. Study of intensive culture of Undarai on the coast of Brittany. FAO Ras/90/002, 47-50.

Kimura T; Ezura Y; Tajima K, 1976. Microbiological study of a disease of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and of the marine environments of wakame culture sites in Kesennuma Bay. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 36:57-65.

Kito H; Akiyama K; Sasaki M, 1976. Electron microscopic observations on the diseased thalli of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, caused by parasitic bacteria. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Lab., 36:67-73.

Kolb N; Vallorani L; Milanovic N; Stocchi V, 2004. Evaluation of marine algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica) as food supplements. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 42(1):57-61.

Lee KY; Sohn CH, 1993. Morphological characteristics and growth of two forms of sea mustard, Undaria pinnatifida f. distans and U. pinnatifida f. typica. J. Aquaculture, 6:71-87.

Lee Y-P; Yoon JT, 1998. Taxonomy and morphology of Undaria (Alariaceae, Phaeophyta) in Korea. Algae (The Korean Journal of Phycology), 13:427-446.

Leliaert F; Kerckhof F; Coppejans E, 2000. Eerste waarnemingen van Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) en de epifyt Pterothamnion plumula (Ellis) Nägeli (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in Noord Frankrijk en België. Dumortiera, 75:5-10.

Murata M; Nakazoe J, 2001. Production and use of marine algae in Japan. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 35(4):281-290.

Nishizawa K; Noda H; Kikuchi R; Watanabe T, 1987. The main seaweed foods in Japan. Hydrobiologia, 151/152:5-29.

Oh S-H; Koh; C-H, 1996. Growth and photosynthesis of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on a cultivation ground in Korea. Botanica Marina, 39:389-393.

Ohigashi H; Sakai Y; Yamaguchi K; Umezaki I; Koshimizu K, 1992. Possible anti-tumor promoting properties of marine algae and in vivo activity of Wakame seaweed extract. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 56(6):994-995.

Ohno M, 1987. Wakame. In: Tokuda H, ed. The Resources and Cultivation of Seaweeds. Japan: Midori Shobo, 133-144.

Ohno M; Matsuoka M, 1993. Undaria cultivation “Wakame”. In: Ohno M, Critchley AT, eds. Seaweed Cultivation and Marine Ranching. Yokosuka, Japan: Japan International Cooperation Agency, 41-50.

Pereyra PJ; Narvarte M; Tatián M; González R, 2015. The simultaneous introduction of the tunicate Styela clava (Herdman, 1881) and the macroalga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, 1873, in northern Patagonia. BioInvasions Records, 4(3):179-184. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2015/3/BIR_2015_Pereyra_etal.pdf

Rupérez P, 2002. Mineral content of edible marine seaweeds. Food Chemistry, 79(1):23-26.

Saito Y, 1975. Undaria. In: Tokida J, Hirose T, eds. Advances of phycology in Japan. The Hague: DW Junk Publishers, 304-321.

Saitoh M; Takeuchi I; Otobe H, 1999. Growth of Cultivated Undaria pinnatifida blades in Otsuchi Bay, Iwate, Prefecture. Japanese Journal of Phycology, 47:113-117.

Salinas JM; Llera EM; Fuertes C, 1996. Note on the presence of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Austrias (Bay of Biscay). Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr, 12:77-79.

Sánchez-Machado DI; López-Cervantes J; López-Hernández J; Paseiro-Losada P, 2004. Fatty acids, total lipid, protein and ash contents of processed edible seaweeds. Food Chemistry, 85(3):439-444.

Sanderson JC, 1990. A preliminary survey of the distribution of the introduced macroalga, Undaria pinnatifida(Harvey) Suringar on the East Coast of Tasmania, Australia. Botanica Marina, 33:153-157.

Selivanova ON; Zhigadlova GG; Hansen GI, 2007. Revision of the systematics of algae in the order Laminariales (Phaeophyta) from the Far-Eastern Seas of Russia on the basis of molecular-phylogenetic data. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33:278-289.

Silva PC; Woodfield RA; Cohen AN; Harris LH; Goddard JHR, 2002. First report of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Biological Invasions, 4:333-338.

Skriptsova A; Khomenko V; Isakov V, 2004. Seasonal changes in growth rate, morphology and alginate content in Undaria pinnatifida at the northern limit in the Sea of Japan (Russia). Journal of Applied Phycology, 16(1):17-21.

Stapleton JC, 1988. Occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar in New Zealand. Japanese Journal of Phycology, 36:178-179.

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Contributors

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31/03/05 Original text by:

Masao Ohno, Usa Marine Biological Institute, Kochi University, Japan

13/10/11 Reviewed by:

Michael Graham, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, California, USA

Main Author
Masao Ohno
Usa Marine Biological Institute, Kochi University, Usa-cho, Tosa, Kochi 781-1164, Japan

Joint Author
Hiroyuki Mizuta

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