Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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infectious salmon anemia virus

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Datasheet

infectious salmon anemia virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • infectious salmon anemia virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Orthomyxoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Negative-stained micrograph of ISAV purified from medium of infected cell cultures (bar = 100 µm). (Photo: Ellen Namork, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.)
TitleMicrograph of ISAV purified from medium of infected cell cultures
CaptionNegative-stained micrograph of ISAV purified from medium of infected cell cultures (bar = 100 µm). (Photo: Ellen Namork, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.)
CopyrightB. H. Dannevig & K. E. Thorud
Negative-stained micrograph of ISAV purified from medium of infected cell cultures (bar = 100 µm). (Photo: Ellen Namork, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.)
Micrograph of ISAV purified from medium of infected cell culturesNegative-stained micrograph of ISAV purified from medium of infected cell cultures (bar = 100 µm). (Photo: Ellen Namork, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.)B. H. Dannevig & K. E. Thorud

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • infectious salmon anemia virus Hovland et al., 1994

International Common Names

  • English: infectious salmon anaemia virus; infectious salmon anemia virus; salmon anaemia agent

English acronym

  • ISAV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Orthomyxoviridae
  •                     Genus: Isavirus
  •                         Species: infectious salmon anemia virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GhanaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Guinea-BissauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MayotteAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsentJul-Dec-2018
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018

Asia

ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsPresentJan-Jun-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayPresentJul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
United StatesPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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ISAV is a pleiomorphic enveloped virus, 100-130 nm in diameter, with 10-12 nm surface projections exhibiting haemagglutination, receptor-destroying and fusion activity (Dannevig et al., 1995; Eliassen et al., 2000; Falk et al., 1997; Falk et al., 2004). Endothelial cells are the main target and the virus replicates by budding from the cell membrane (Dannevig et al., 1995; Hovland et al., 1994).

The genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments with negative polarity ranging in length from 1.0 to 2.4 kb and with a total size of approximately 14.3 kb (Clouthier et al., 2002; Mjaaland et al., 1997). The morphological, physiochemical and genetic properties of ISAV are consistent with those of the Orthomyxoviridae (Falk et al., 1997; Mjaaland et al., 1997; Rimstad and Mjaaland, 2002; Sandvik et al., 2000), and ISAV has recently been classified as the type species of the new genus Isavirus (ICTVdB Index of Viruses http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/Ictv/index.htm) within this virus family.

The nucleotide sequences of all eight genome segments have been described (Clouthier et al., 2002; Krossøy et al., 1999; Krossøy et al., 2001; Mjaaland et al., 1997; Rimstad et al., 2001; Ritchie et al., 2002; Snow and Cunningham, 2001). The viral genome encodes at least ten proteins. Four major structural proteins have been classified, including a 68 kDa nucleoprotein (segment 3; (Aspehaug et al., 2004; Falk et al., 2004; Snow and Cunningham, 2001), a 50 kDa surface glycoprotein with putative fusion activity (segment 5; (Falk et al., 2004); Mikalsen pers. communication), a 42 kDa haemaglutinin-esterase protein (segment 6; (Rimstad et al., 2001; Falk et al., 2004; Krossøy et al., 2001), and a 22 kDa matrix protein (segment 8; (Biering et al., 2002; Falk et al., 2004). Segments 1, 2 and 4 encode the viral polymerases (PB1: (Snow et al., 2003), PB2: (Krossøy et al., 1999), PA: (Clouthier et al., 2002)). The two smallest genomic segments have two open reading frames (ORF) each. The smaller ORF1 of segment 8 encodes a major component of the virus particle most likely representing the 22 kDa matrix protein (Biering et al., 2002; Falk et al., 2004), while the larger ORF2 encodes a structural protein of about 26 kDa with RNA binding properties (own results). Furthermore, preliminary results have revealed that two mRNAs are transcribed from the ISAV genomic segment 7; one is colinear with the viral RNA and the other is spliced (Biering et al., 2002). The large ORF1 of segment 7 encodes a non-structural protein, while the protein encoded by ORF2 has yet to be characterized. Both the small ORF2 protein encoded by segment 8 and the large ORF1 protein encoded by segment 7 exerts interferon type I antagonistic properties.

There is a low amino acid identity between the ISAV proteins and those of other orthomyxoviruses (13 - 25%: (Kibenge et al., 2001b; Krossøy et al., 1999; Ritchie et al., 2002; Snow and Cunningham, 2001), and the order of the genome segments encoding the proteins in ISAV appears to differ from those of influenza viruses. For transcription and expression of ISAV proteins, 8-18 nucleotide 5'-cap structures are cleaved from cellular heteronuclear RNAs (cap-stealing), and the mRNA is polyadenylated from a signal 13-14 nucleotides downstream of the 5'-end terminus of the vRNA (Sandvik et al., 2000). The buoyant density of the complete virus particles in sucrose and cesium chloride is 1.18 g/ml (Falk et al., 1997). The virus is stable between pH 5.7-9.0 (Falk et al., 1997), and the virus has a 3-log10 reduction in titre after 4 months when maintained in sterile sea water at 4°C (Rimstad and Mjaaland, 2002). The optimum temperature for replication in susceptible fish cell lines is 10-15°C. There is no replication in SHK-1 cells at 25°C or higher, and even at 20°C the yield of virus in SHK-1 cells is only 1% of the yield at 15°C (Falk et al., 1997).

The pathogenicity of ISAV varies, observed as differences in disease development and clinical signs. In determining the virulence of the virus, the genes encoding the surface molecules are of particular importance. ISAV has two main surface glycoproteins: the haemagglutinin-esterase encoded by genomic segment 6 responsible for the receptor-binding and receptor-destroying enzyme activity (Falk et al., 2004), while the fusion activity is most likely exerted by the 50 kDa protein encoded by genomic segment 5.

The ISAV molecule with the highest variability is the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE, segment 6). The overall nucleotide and amino acid sequence variability in HE is low (94-97% as compared to the Norwegian reference strain, Glesvaer/2/90. In contrast to influenza A haemagglutinin (HA), where most of the variability is located in distal parts of the molecule, most of the variability within ISAV HE is concentrated in a region predicted to lie immediately outside the viral envelope (Devold et al., 2001; Krossøy et al., 2001; Mjaaland et al., 2002a; Rimstad et al., 2001). This region is characterized by the presence of gaps, rather than single-nucleotide substitutions (Mjaaland et al., 2002a). The variability has been suggested to be generated through differential deletions as a consequence of strong functional selection, possibly related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier (Mjaaland et al., 2002a). All the European ISAV isolates can be genotyped according to deletion patterns in this highly polymorphic region (HPR). Most viruses belonging to a given HPR group derive from outbreaks with similar disease development, and cell culture replication and cytopathic effects vary between viruses from different HPR groups (Mjaaland et al., 2002a). Whether there is a link between the variation in HPR and a virulence pattern is not known. Although most of the variability between virus isolates lies in this region, other genes are most certainly of importance for virulence, as differences in mortality were found among fish experimentally infected with virus isolates with identical HRP genotype (Mjaaland et al., 2005) One candidate gene is the segment 5 encoding for the fusion protein (A. Mikalsen, pers. comm.). However other genes, such as the IFN-antagonistic gene products from segment 7 and 8 are other candidates.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod)Wild host
Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon)Experimental settings
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon)
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)Experimental settings; Subclinical
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)Experimental settings
Pollachius virensWild host
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Subclinical; Wild hostAquatic|AdultEnclosed systems/Cages
Salmo trutta (sea trout)Experimental settings; Subclinical
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)Experimental settings; Subclinical

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Lepeophtheirus salmonisCrustacean

References

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Aspehaug V; Falk K; Krossoy B; Thevarajan J; Sanders L; Moore L; Endresen C; Biering E, 2004. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genomic segment 3 encodes the viral nucleoprotein (NP), an RNA-binding protein with two monopartite nuclear localization signals (NLS). Virus Research, 106:51-60.

Biering E; Falk K; Hoel E; Thevarajan J; Joerink M; Nylund A; Endresen C; Krossøy B, 2002. Segment 8 encodes a structural protein of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV); the co-linear transcript from segment 7 probably encodes a non-structural or minor structural protein. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 49:117-122.

Clouthier SC; Rector T; Brown NEC; Anderson ED, 2002. Genomic organization of infectious salmon anaemia virus. Journal of General Virology, 83(2):421-428.

Dannevig BH; Falk K; Namork E, 1995. Isolation of the causal virus of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in a long-term cell line from Atlantic salmon head kidney. Journal of General Virology, 76(6):1353-1359.

Devold M; Falk K; Dale OB; Krossy B; Biering E; Aspehaug V; Nilsen F; Nylund A, 2001. Strain variation, based on the hemagglutinin gene, in Norwegian ISA virus isolates collected from 1987 to 2001: indications of recombination. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 47(2):119-128.

Eliassen TM; Frystad MK; Dannevig BH; Jankowska M; Brech A; Falk K; Romren K; Gjen T, 2000. Initial events in infectious salmon anemia virus infection: evidence for the requirement of a low-pH step. Journal of Virology, 74(1):218-227.

Falk K; Aspehaug V; Vlasak R; Endresen C, 2004. Identification and characterization of viral structural proteins of infectious salmon anemia virus. Journal of Virology, 78:3063-3071.

Falk K; Namork E; Rimstad E; Mjaaland S; Dannevig BH, 1997. Characterization of infectious salmon anemia virus, an orthomyxo-like virus isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Journal of Virology, 71(12):9016-9023.

Gustafson LL; Ellis SK; Bartlett CA, 2005. Using expert opinion to identify risk factors important to infectious salmon-anemia (ISA) outbreaks on slamon farms in Maine, USA and New Brunswick, Canada. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 70:17-28.

Hovland T; Nylund A; Watanabe K; Endresen C, 1994. Observation of infectious salmon anaemia virus in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 17(3):291-296; 9 ref.

ICTVdB Index of Viruses, 2005. Online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/Ictv/index.htm.

Kibenge FSB; Kibenge MJT; Joseph T; McDougal J, 2003. The development of infectious salmon anemia virus vaccines in Canada. In: Miller O, Cipriano RC, eds. Technical Bulletin 1902, International Response to Infectious Salmon Anemia: Prevention, Control and Eradication. Proceedings of a Symposium 3-4 September 2002, New Orleans, LA, 39-49.

Kibenge FSB; Kibenge MJT; McKenna PK; Stothard P; Marshall R; Cusack RR; McGeachy S, 2001. Antigenic variation among isolates of infectious salmon anaemia virus correlates with genetic variation of the viral haemagglutinin gene. Journal of General Virology, 82(12):2869-2879.

Krossy B; Devold M; Sanders L; Knappskog PM; Aspehaug V; Falk K; Nylund A; Koumans S; Endresen C; Biering E, 2001. Cloning and identification of the infectious salmon anaemia virus haemagglutinin. Journal of General Virology, 82(7):1757-1765.

Krossy B; Hordvik I; Nilsen F; Nylund A; Endresen C, 1999. The putative polymerase sequence of infectious salmon anemia virus suggests a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae. Journal of Virology, 73(3):2136-2142.

MacLean SA; Bouchard DA; Ellis SK, 2003. Survey of non-salmonid marine fishes for destection of infectious salmon anaemia virus and other salmonid pathogens. In: Miller O, Cipriano RC, eds. Technical Bulletin 1902, International Response to Infectious Salmon Anemia: Prevention, Control and Eradication. Proceedings of a Symposium 3-4 September 2002 New Orleans LA,135-143.

Melville KJ; Griffiths SG, 1999. Absence of vertical transmission of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) from individually infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 38(3):231-234.

Mjaaland S; Hungnes O; Teig A; Dannevig BH; Thorud K; Rimstad E, 2002. Polymorphism in the infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin gene: importance and possible implications for evolution and ecology of infectious salmon anemia disease. Virology, 304(2):379-391.

Mjaaland S; Rimstad E; Falk K; Dannevig BH, 1997. Genomic characterization of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost. Journal of Virology, 71(10):7681-7686.

Murray AG, 2003. The epidemiology of infectious salmon anaemia in Scotland. In: Miller O, Cipriano RC, eds. Technical Bulletin 1902, International Response to Infectious Salmon Anemia: Prevention, Control and Eradication. Proceedings of a Symposium 3-4 September 2002, New Orleans, LA, pp 55-62.

Nylund A; Alexandersen S; Rolland JB; Jakobsen P, 1995. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in brown trout. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 7(3):236-240.

Nylund A; Devold M; Mullins J; Plarre H, 2002. Herring (Clupea harengus): a host for infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 22(5):311-318.

Nylund A; Devold M; Plarre H; Isdal E; Aarseth M, 2003. Emergence and maintenance of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Europe: a new hypothesis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 56(1):11-24.

Nylund A; Hovland T; Hodneland K; Nilsen F; Lvik P, 1994. Mechanisms for transmission of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 19(2):95-100.

Nylund A; Wallace C; Hovland T, 1993. The possible role of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kryer) in the transmission of infectious salmon anaemia. In: Boxshall GA, Defaye D, eds. Pathogens of wild and farmed fish: sea lice. London, UK: Ellis Horwood Ltd, 367-373.

Office International des Epizooties, 2003. Manual of Diagnostic Test for Aquatic Animals. Online at www.oie.int/eng/normes/fmanual/A_00026.htm. Accessed 21 October 2004.

Rimstad E; Mjaaland S, 2002. Infectious salmon anaemia virus. An orthomyxovirus causing an emerging infection in Atlantic salmon. APMIS, Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 110(4):273-282.

Rimstad E; Mjaaland S; Snow M; Mikalsen AB; Cunningham CO, 2001. Characterization of the infectious salmon anemia virus genomic segment that encodes the putative hemagglutinin. Journal of Virology, 75(11):5352-5356.

Ritchie RJ; Bardiot A; Melville K; Griffiths S; Cunningham CO; Snow M, 2002. Identification and characterisation of the genomic segment 7 of the infectious salmon anaemia virus genome. Virus Research 84:161-170.

Rolland JB; Bouchard DA; Winton JR, 2003. Improved diagnosis of infectious salmon anaemia virus by use of a new cell line derived from Atlantic salmon kidney tissue. In: Miller O, Cipriano RC, eds. Technical Bulletin 1902, International Response to Infectious Salmon Anemia: Prevention, Control and Eradication. Proceedings of a Symposium 3-4 September 2002, New Orleans, LA, pp 63-68.

Sandvik T; Rimstad E; Mjaaland S, 2000. The viral RNA 3’- and 5’-end structure and mRNA transcription of infectious salmon anaemia virus resemble those of influenza viruses. Archives of Virology, 145:1659-1669.

Snow M; Cunningham CO, 2001. Characterisation of the putative nucleoprotein gene of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Virus Research, 74(1/2):111-118.

Snow M; Ritchie R; Arnaud O; Villoing S; Aspehaug V; Cunningham CO, 2003. Isolation and characterisation of segment 1 of the infectious salmon anaemia virus genome. Virus Research, 92:99-105.

Thorud KE; Håstein T, 2003. Experiences with regulatory responses to infectious salmon anemia in Norway. In: Miller O, Cipriano RC, eds. Technical Bulletin 1902, International Response to Infectious Salmon Anemia: Prevention, Control and Eradication. Proceedings of a Symposium 3-4 September 2002, New Orleans, LA. pp 155-159.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
ICTV virus database on-linehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTV virus database hosted by Colombia University, New York, USA.

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