Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis



infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis


  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis
  • Overview
  • Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is an economically important pathogen that causes shrimp diseases worldwide. IHHNV is highly contagious to several penaeid species, and it is usually fatal for Penaeus stylirostr...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis

International Common Names

  • English: infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis disease; infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis disease in penaeid shrimps; infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis; infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis disease; RDS of P. vannamei; runt-deformity syndrome; runt-deformity syndrome of P. vannamei

English acronym

  • RDS


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Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is an economically important pathogen that causes shrimp diseases worldwide. IHHNV is highly contagious to several penaeid species, and it is usually fatal for Penaeus stylirostris, causing significant losses for shrimp farmers (Vega-Heredia et al., 2012).

IHHNV causes the chronic disease runt-deformity syndrome (RDS) in P. vannamei, characterized by reduced, irregular growth and cuticular deformities (Kalagayan et al., 1991; Bray et al., 1994; Lightner, 1996). IHHNV infection in P. monodon is usually subclinical, but RDS, reduced growth rates and reduced culture performance have been reported in IHHNV-infected stocks (Primavera and Quinitio, 2000; Chayaburakul et al., 2004).

'Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis' is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website:

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Farfantepenaeus aztecus (northern brown shrimp)Experimental settings
Farfantepenaeus californiensis (yellowleg shrimp)Wild hostAquatic: All Stages
Farfantepenaeus duorarum (northern pink shrimp)
Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese fleshy prawn)Wild host
Litopenaeus occidentalis
Litopenaeus setiferus (northern white shrimp)Experimental settings
Litopenaeus stylirostris (western blue shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/Larval|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Domesticated hostAquatic: Adult|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp)Experimental settings
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)
Penaeus semisulcatus (green tiger prawn)


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IHHNV appears to have a worldwide distribution in both wild and cultured penaeid shrimp (Lightner, 1996; Lightner and Redman, 1998).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)


ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)


BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaPresent
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)
-GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)


AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)


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Bray WA; Lawrence AL; Leung-Trujillo JR, 1994. The effect of salinity on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei, with observations on the interaction of IHHN virus and salinity. Aquaculture, 122(2/3):133-146.

Chayaburakul K; Nash G; Pratanpipat P; Sriurairatana S; Withyachumnarnkul B, 2004. Multiple pathogens found in growth-retarded black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon cultivated in Thailand. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 60(2):89-96.

Kalagayan H; Godin D; Kanna R; Hagino G; Sweeney J; Wyban J, 1991. IHHN [infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis] virus as an etiological factor in runt-deformity syndrome (RDS) of juvenile Penaeus vannamei cultured in Hawaii. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 22(4):235-243.

Lightner DV, 1996. The Penaeid Shrimp Viruses IHHNV and TSV: Epizootiology, Production Impacts and Role of International Trade in their Distribution in the Americas. Revues Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties, 15(2):579-601.

Lightner DV; Redman RM, 1998. Shrimp diseases and current diagnostic methods. Aquaculture, 164(1/4):201-220.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

Primavera JH; Quinitio ET, 2000. Runt-Deformity Syndrome in cultured giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 20(4):796-802.

Vega-Heredia S; Mendoza-Cano F; Sánchez-Paz A, 2012. The infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus: a brief review of what we do and do not know. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 59(2):95-105.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

Distribution Maps

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