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Datasheet

Xiphophorus maculatus
(southern platyfish)

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Datasheet

Xiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xiphophorus maculatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern platyfish
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The southern platyfish X. maculatus is a small, popular ornamental freshwater fish that occurs as an introduced species in the aquatic habitats of at least 18 countries, principally because of human-mediated tran...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.
TitleAdult male
CaptionAdult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.
Copyright©Mark Maddern
Adult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.
Adult maleAdult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.©Mark Maddern
Adult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.
TitleAdult male
CaptionAdult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.
Copyright©Mark Maddern
Adult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length.
Adult maleAdult male X. maculatus, ca. 25mm total length. ©Mark Maddern
Adult female X. maculatus, ca. 35mm total length.
TitleAdult female
CaptionAdult female X. maculatus, ca. 35mm total length.
Copyright©Mark Maddern
Adult female X. maculatus, ca. 35mm total length.
Adult femaleAdult female X. maculatus, ca. 35mm total length. ©Mark Maddern

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xiphophorus maculatus Günther, 1866

Preferred Common Name

  • southern platyfish

Other Scientific Names

  • Platypoecilus aurata Stoye, 1935
  • Platypoecilus cyanellus Meinken, 1935
  • Platypoecilus maculatus Günther, 1866
  • Platypoecilus maculatus aurata Stoye, 1935
  • Platypoecilus maculatus cyanellus Meinken, 1935
  • Platypoecilus maculatus sanguinea Stoye, 1935
  • Platypoecilus nigra Brind, 1914
  • Platypoecilus pulchra Brind, 1914
  • Platypoecilus rubra Brind, 1914
  • Platypoecilus sanguinea Stoye, 1935
  • Poecilia maculata Günther, 1866
  • Poecilia maculatus Günther, 1866

Local Common Names

  • Australia: platy; southern platy
  • Belize: southern platyfish
  • Denmark: almindelig platy; platy
  • Finland: platy
  • Germany: Belize-Platy; Bunter Platy; Grauer Platy; Jamapa-Platy; Platy; Rotaugenplaty; Schwarzer Platy; Spiegelkärpfling
  • Mexico: espada sureña; southern platyfish
  • Poland: zmienniak plamisty
  • Puerto Rico: moon; plati; plati; platy; southern platyfish
  • Russian Federation: platipetsiliya
  • South Africa: platy
  • Sri Lanka: platy
  • Sweden: platy
  • USA: platy; southern platyfish
  • USA/Hawaii: moon fish; platy

Summary of Invasiveness

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The southern platyfish X. maculatus is a small, popular ornamental freshwater fish that occurs as an introduced species in the aquatic habitats of at least 18 countries, principally because of human-mediated translocation and release. X. maculatus has proven highly invasive because of wide environmental tolerances, the ability to colonise disturbed habitats, trophic opportunism, fast growth rates and the ability to give birth to live offspring. Little information is available on specific deleterious ecological impacts though X. maculatus and other poeciliids are considered responsible for the decline of indigenous aquatic invertebrates in Hawaii. Furthermore, research has suggested that impacts on aquatic ecosystems are increased when multiple poeciliid species are present. Ecological impacts may include resource competition and predation, and predation of aquatic invertebrate communities as a whole. Due to the popular ornamental status of X. maculatus, it is rarely considered a “pest” species, though it is listed on invasive species databases (e.g. ISSG).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cyprinodontiformes
  •                         Family: Poeciliidae
  •                             Genus: Xiphophorus
  •                                 Species: Xiphophorus maculatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Xiphophorus maculatus was described by Günther (1866). The genus Xiphophorus contains almost 30 species (Froese and Pauly, 2007) and members of this genus are known to commonly hybridise (Dawes, 1995; Bailey and Sandford, 1999; Balon, 2004). Thus, although this species exhibits a wide range of colour patterns (Dawes, 1995), commercially produced ornamental X. maculatus may contain many colours not observed in natural populations (Tamaru et al., 2001) and be the result of hybridisation between different Xiphophorus spp. Most ornamental varieties have resulted from hybridisation and artificial selection of three species; i.e. the platys X. maculatus and X. variatus and the swordtail X. hellerii (Dawes, 1995; Balon, 2004). The common name for X. maculatus (i.e. “platy”) is recognized worldwide.

Xiphophorus spp., including X. maculatus,may exhibit “tailspot polymorphisms” (i.e. dark melanic spots on the caudal peduncle) and Borowsky (1978; 1981) suggested that the expression of different tailspot polymorphisms in Xiphophorus spp. may be prompted by particular environmental conditions and confer physiological advantages, e.g. metabolic rate (Borowsky and Kallman, 1995; Meyer et al., 2006), under such conditions.

Description

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X. maculatus is a small, laterally-compressed, deep-bodied fish with a maximum body depth of approximately half of the standard length. Like many poeciliids, X. maculatus is sexually dimorphic and males and females may reach 40 mm and 60 mm respectively, though are usually marginally smaller (average approximately 30-40 mm).

Colour is highly variable due to i) the large number and variability of natural habitats, and ii) the propensity for Xiphophorus spp. to hybridise. Fish from wild populations are less colourful than ornamental varieties and may be a pale olive-grey with or without melanic/speckled patches. However, captive-bred ornamental fish typically exhibit bright coloration including orange, red, brown, yellow and black pigmentation. A mid-lateral stripe is absent.

Males possess a modified anal fin called a gonopodium that is used to inseminate the female. The gonopodium does not extend to the caudal fin base and the third ray has a strong hook. Dorsal fin rays 7 to 11 (usually 8-10); lateral scales 22 to 25 (usually 23-24); vertebrae 26 to 28 (usually 27-28).

(General references used for morphology/description/colour/hybridisation: Rosen, 1979; Page and Burr, 1991; Dawes, 1995; Froese and Pauly, 2007; ACTFR, 2009).

Distribution

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X. maculatus is native to Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. It has been introduced into at least 18 countries and territories including Australia (Froese and Pauly, 2007). Some populations may be X. hellerii x X. maculatus hybrids; e.g. Florida (Courtenay et al., 1974) and Nevada (Nico and Fuller, 2009).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-KeralaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedRaghavan et al., 2008Collected at one location in Chalakudy River
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedGreen et al., 1978Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Lesser Sunda Islands, Lombok, Madura, W. Timor
JapanPresentIntroducedJapan Ministry of Environment, 2005
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2007Introduced from Central America
SingaporePresent1969IntroducedNg et al., 1993; FAO, 1997
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedPethiyagoda, 1991Recorded in Hatton, Kotagala and near Nelluwa

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedReinthal and Stiassny, 1991Found at 3 sites
MauritiusPresentIntroducedFricke, 1999
NigeriaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
RéunionPresentIntroducedFricke, 1999

North America

CanadaUnconfirmed recordIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2007
MexicoWidespreadNative Not invasive Page and Burr, 1991
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaLocalisedIntroducedCourtenay et al., 1984Found near Westminster
-ColoradoLocalisedIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2009Conejos County and the South Platte drainage
-FloridaLocalisedIntroducedCourtenay et al., 1974Several counties in Florida
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988; Englund, 1999Oahu Island, impacts on invertebrate fauna
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2009
-MontanaPresentIntroducedPage and Burr, 1991Beaverhead Rock Pond, Madison County
-NevadaPresentIntroducedCourtenay and Deacon, 1982Clark County
-TexasPresentIntroducedCourtenay et al., 1984

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasLocalisedIntroducedBarton and Wilmhoff, 1996Few localized populations
BelizeWidespreadNative Not invasive Wischnath, 1993
GuatemalaWidespreadNative Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
HondurasWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Keith et al., 2006
JamaicaPresentIntroducedLee et al., 1983
Puerto RicoPresent1935IntroducedWelcomme, 1988Accidental release from aquaria

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedMagalhaes et al., 2002
ColombiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988Established in Magdalena and Orinoco drainages.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryLocalisedIntroducedCorfield et al., 2007Found in Rapid Creek near Darwin
-QueenslandWidespread1960sIntroducedAllen et al., 2002; Houston and Duivenvoorden, 2002Common in creeks/rivers around Brisbane
PalauPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

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X. maculatus has been introduced to many countries though it has been best documented in the USA. X. maculatus was introduced to the USA around 1922 (FAO, 1997) and has been recorded in states including California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Montana, Nevada and Texas (Courtenay et al., 1984; Page and Burr, 1991; Nico and Fuller, 2009). Most of these introductions are small, localised populations. Populations appear larger at lower latitudes, e.g. Florida where X. maculatus has been found in fresh and brackish drainage channels in three counties (Courtenay et al., 1974). Like many small, introduced ornamental species it thrives in anthropogenically modified habitats and has been associated with introduced aquatic macrophytes in Queensland (Houston and Duivenvoorden, 2002).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1970s Yes No Corfield et al. (2007) Accidental introduction
Canada 1971 No No Froese and Pauly (2007) Accidental introduction, unreliable report
Hawaii 1922 Yes No Welcomme (1988) Accidental introduction
Puerto Rico Mexico 1935 Yes No Welcomme (1988) Accidentally released from aquaria
Singapore 1960-1969 Yes No FAO (1997) Accidental introduction
USA Mexico 1922 Yes No FAO (1997) Accidental introduction

Risk of Introduction

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Introduced species may be spread through natural dispersal, though the range expansion of small, ornamental fishes is most often facilitated by human-mediated translocation (Lintermans, 2004) and the likelihood of translocation and release is influenced strongly by a species’ popularity and abundance. X. maculatus is a very popular ornamental species worldwide (Nico and Fuller, 2009) and was the third most imported ornamental species (i.e. 5.4%) into the USA (Chapman et al., 1997). It is considered of “high” importance as an ornamental fish in Australia (Corfield et al., 2007). Thus, there is a greater probability of popular species, such as X. maculatus, being released into aquatic environments. Corfield et al. (2007) assessed the likelihood of further range expansions in tropical and subtropical Australia as high, based on considerations such as anthropogenic factors (popularity among aquarists, risk of release), physiological tolerances and invasive success in other countries. Furthermore, “invasiveness” of X. maculatus has been rated as very high by both Arthington et al. (1999) and Bomford and Glover (2004). Non-indigenous populations occur in many countries (Froese and Pauly 2007), and within Australia the species has become common in coastal drainages of southeastern and central Queensland (Corfield et al., 2007).

Habitat

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In its native range, and as an introduced species, X. maculatus inhabits slow-flowing lotic systems, i.e. upland and coastal reaches of rivers, and lentic systems. Within these habitats it prefers structure, i.e. aquatic or emergent vegetation (Page and Burr, 1991; Barton and Wilmhoff, 1996; Allen et al., 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2007). In the USA, X. maculatus occurs in warm springs, weedy canals and ponds (Page and Burr, 1991). X. maculatus thrives in anthropogenically-modified habitats and in urban creeks in Brisbane it was often associated with introduced emergent vegetation (Houston and Duivenvoorden, 2002).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Lakes Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Ponds Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The diploid/haploid chromosome numbers of X. maculatus are 48-48/24 (Froese and Pauly, 2007). Xiphophorus spp. commonly hybridise (Dawes, 1995; Bailey and Sandford, 1999; Balon, 2004), and most ornamental varieties have resulted from hybridisation and artificial selection of three species; i.e. X. hellerii, X. maculatus and X. variatus (Dawes, 1995; Balon, 2004). The complete transcriptome of X. maculatus has recently been published by Zhang et al. (2011).

Reproductive Biology

X. maculatus is ovoviviparous (i.e. livebearing), with insemination occurring by the males’ gonopodium. Like many poeciliids, X. maculatus has fairly large brood sizes, short gestation periods and multiple broods per year (Milton and Arthington, 1983). Males do not perform a courtship display (Farr, 1989) though complex male dominance hierarchies are established (Sontirat, 1984). Little peer-reviewed research has been conducted on the reproductive biology of X. maculatus. X. maculatus can reach maturity at approximately 20 mm (Kallman and Borowski, 1978; Milton and Arthington, 1983), and 8-10 weeks of age (Travolga and Rugh, 1947). The gestation period may be between 26-90 days (Travolga, 1949). Large females in southern Queensland exhibited a maximum fecundity of approximately 90 offspring (Milton and Arthington, 1983). Favourable water temperatures in subtropical and tropical areas lead to almost continuous reproduction (Travolga and Rugh, 1947; Milton and Arthington, 1983).

 
Physiology and Phenology
 
The adaptability of poeciliid life history in response to environmental stimuli has been well studied and is one of the main reasons these fishes are successful as introduced species in variable environments (Meffe and Snelson, 1989). However, although X. maculatus is a popular ornamental fish and is common as an introduced species in many countries little research has been conducted into its biology and life history variation; particularly in comparison with other poeciliids such as Gambusia spp. No data is available detailing the biology of X. maculatus as an indigenous species in Central America. Milton and Arthington (1983) noted that reproduction was influenced by temperature and occurred between approximately15°C and 30°C, though no published data of the species within its native range is available for comparison.
 
Nutrition
 
X. maculatus is omnivorous and the diet of introduced populations in Queensland included plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects and Crustacea (atyid and caridian shrimps) (Arthington, 1989). The diet in an Indonesian lake was predominantly detritus and lesser quantities of chironomid larvae and cyclopoid copepods (Green et al., 1978).
 
Associations
 
X. maculatus often inhabits anthropogenically-modified habitats, and in these areas it may co-occur with other introduced poeciliids including Gambusia spp. (i.e. G. holbrooki and G. affinis), other Xiphophorus spp. (X. variatus or X. hellerii) and/or Poecilia reticulata (Milton and Arthington, 1983; Barton and Wilmhoff, 1996).
 
Environmental Requirements
 
X. maculatus has fairly broad environmental tolerances and, as it is common as an introduced species in many countries, occurs in many different habitats. The species has a “native” latitude of 17-23°N though has exists outside of this range as an introduced species in some states of USA. Based on this data and the fact that other introduced X. maculatus populations occur only in tropical/subtropical locales it appears that the species tolerance of low water temperatures is less than that of the closely related Xiphophorus hellerii. X. maculatus has been observed to survive winter in outdoor ponds at a latitude of 32°S, in Perth, Western Australia (M Maddern, University of Western Australia, personal communication, 2010).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
34 29

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) Optimum > or equal to 3 tolerated (Englund, 2002)
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 40-50 Optimum Frose and Pauly (2007), Tamaru et al. (2001)
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum <3 (Englund, 2002)
Water pH (pH) 7-8 Optimum Frose and Pauly (2007)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18-25 Optimum Frose and Pauly (2007); Prodocimo and Freire (2001). Critical thermal maximum of 41.5 when acclimated to 30, critical thermal minimum of 9.6 when acclimated to 15

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Further spread of X. maculatus by natural dispersal may occur (e.g. flooding), though is most likely in areas with substantial populations, i.e. Queensland, Australia.
 
Intentional Introduction
 
X. maculatus may be intentionally introduced to aquatic habitats as unwanted ornamental fishes, and possibly as mosquito biocontrol agents.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Intentional releaseAustralia Yes Yes
Pet tradeAustralia Yes Yes Lintermans, 2004

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Pets and aquarium speciesPopular ornamental species Yes Yes Corfield et al., 2007
WaterDispersal by flooding Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

There is little information available on the ecological impacts of introduced X. maculatus populations. Englund (1999, 2002) reports X. maculatus and other poeciliids are most likely responsible for the decline of native damselflies in Hawaii. X. maculatus also is a vector for potential pathogens (Pate et al., 2005).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Erinna newcombi (Newcomb's snail)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Megalagrion xanthomelas (orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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X. maculatus is a very popular ornamental species worldwide (Froese and Pauly, 2007), and accounts for 5.4% of the total number of ornamental fish imported into the USA (Chapman et al., 1997). It is considered of “high” importance as an ornamental fish in Australia (Corfield et al., 2007).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Biological control

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Research model

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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X. maculatus is similar to X. variatus and other Xiphophorus spp., though may be distinguished from X. variatus as it usually has 23-24 lateral scales (X. variatus usually has 24-25), and 9-10 dorsal rays (X. variatus usually has 10-12). It may be distinguished from X. hellerii by the absence of the sword appendage of the lower rays of the caudal fin. For a more detailed description of X. maculatus and Xiphophorus spp. consult a specialized text such as Rosen (1979).

Prevention and Control

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Even though X. maculatus is a very popular ornamental species and there are non-indigenous populations in many countries, there is no data available about the management of these populations.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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X. maculatus is a very popular ornamental species with non-indigenous populations occurring in many countries yet little research has been conducted on the species biology and ecological impacts upon introduction. The specific mechanisms and/or ecological impacts need to be more closely examined.

References

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ACTFR, 2009. Pest fish profiles - Xiphophorus maculatus. Pest fish profiles - Xiphophorus maculatus. Townsville, Australia: Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, unpaginated. http://www.actfr.jcu.edu.au/Projects/Pestfish/Profiles/Platy.htm

Allen GR, Midgley SH, Allen M, 2002. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Australia. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Australia, xiv + 394 pp.

Arthington AH, 1989. Diet of Gambusia affinis holbrooki, Xiphophorus helleri, X. maculatus and Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in streams of southeastern Queensland, Australia. Asian Fisheries Science, 2:193-212.

Arthington AH, Kailola PJ, Woodland DJ, Zalucki JM, 1999. Baseline Environmental Data Relevant to an Evaluation of Quarantine Risk Potentially Associated with the Importation to Australia of Ornamental Finfish. Report to the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, ACT. http://www.aqis.gov.au/docs/qdu/Environmental-report.pdf

Bailey M, Sandford G, 1999. Aquarium Fish: A Comprehensive and Authoritative Guide to Tropical Freshwater, Brackish, and Marine Fishes. Oxford, UK: Sebastian Kelly.

Balon EK, 2004. About the oldest domesticates among fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 65(Suppl. 1):1-27.

Barton M, Wilmhoff C, 1996. Inland fishes of the Bahamas - new distribution records for exotic and native species from New Providence Island. Bahamas Journal of Science, 3(2):7-11.

Bomford M, Glover J, 2004. Risk assessment model for the import and keeping of exotic freshwater and estuarine finfish. Report produced for The Department of Environment and Heritage. Risk assessment model for the import and keeping of exotic freshwater and estuarine finfish. Report produced for The Department of Environment and Heritage. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Bureau of Rural Sciences, unpaginated.

Borowsky R, 1978. The Tailspot Polymorphism of Xiphophorus (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Evolution, 32:886-893.

Borowsky R, 1981. Tailspots of Xiphophorus and the evolution of Conspicuous Polymorphism. Evolution, 35:345-358.

Borowsky R, Kallman K, 1995. Energy storage and pigmentation: Polymorphism in Xiphophorus variatus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae). Physiological Zoology, 68:772-782.

Chapman FA, Fitz-Coy SA, Thunberg EM, Adams CM, 1997. United States of America trade in ornamental fish. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 28(1):1-10.

Corfield J, Diggles B, Jubb C, McDowall RM, Moore A, Richards A, Rowe DK, 2007. .

Courtenay Jr WR, Hensley DA, Taylor JN, McCann JA, 1984. Distribution of Exotic Fishes in the Continental United States. In: Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes [ed. by Courtney Jr WR, Stauffer Jr JR] Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 41-77.

Courtenay WR Jr, Sahlman HF, Miley WM, 1974. Exotic Fishes in Fresh and Brackish Waters of Florida. Biological Conservation, 6:292-302.

Courtenay WR, Deacon JE, 1982. Status of introduced fishes in certain spring systems in southern Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist, 42(3):361-366.

Dawes JA, 1995. Livebearing Fishes: a guide to their aquarium care, biology and classification. London, UK: Blandford.

Englund RA, 1999. The impacts of introduced poeciliid fish and Odonata on the endemic Megalagrion (Odonata) damselflies of Oahu Island, Hawaii. Journal of Insect Conservation, 3(3):225-243.

Englund RE, 2002. The loss of native biodiversity and continuing nonindigenous species introductions in freshwater estuarine, and wetland communities of Pearl Harbour, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Estuaries, 25((3)):418-430.

FAO, 1997. FAO database on introduced aquatic species. FAO database on introduced aquatic species. Rome, Italy: FAO, unpaginated. http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias

Farr JA, 1989. Sexual selection and secondary sexual differentiation in poeciliids: determinants of male mating success and the evolution of female mating choice. In: Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes [ed. by Meffe, G. K.\Snelson, F. F., Jr]. NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, unpaginated.

Fricke R, 1999. Fishes of the Mascarene islands (réunion, mauritius, rodriguez): an annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species. Theses Zoologicae, 31. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books, 759 p.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2007. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Green J, Corbet SA, Watts E, Lan OB, 1978. Ecological studies in Indonesian lakes: the Montne Lake of Bali. Journal of Zoology, 186:15-38.

Houston WA, Duivenvoorden LJ, 2002. Replacement of littoral native vegetation with the ponded pasture grass Hymenachne amplexicaulis: effects on plant, macroinvertebrate and fish biodiversity of backwaters in the Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 53(8):1235-1244.

Japan Ministry of Environment, 2005. List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild., Japan: Japanese Ministry of the Environment, unpaginated. http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/as/041110.pdf

Kallman KD, Borowski R, 1978. A sex-linked gene controlling the onset of sexual maturity in female and male platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus), fecundity in females and adult size in males. Genetics, 89:79-119.

Keith P, Marquet G, Valade P, Bosc P, Vigneux E, 2006. Atlas des poissons et des crustacés d'eau douce des Comores, Mascareignes et Seychelles ([English title not available]). Paris, France: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 250 pp. [Patrimoines naturels 65.]

Keith P, Vigneux E, Bosc P, 1999. [English title not available]. (Atlas des poissons et des crustacés d'eau douce de La Réunion.) Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. Patrimoines Naturels, 39:136.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
ACTFR Pest fish in NE Queenslandhttp://www.actfr.jcu.edu.au/Projects/Pestfish/Index.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
NAS - Species Factsheethttp://nas.er.usgs.gov

Contributors

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19/10/09 Original text by:

Mark Maddern, University of Western Australia, Australia

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