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white spot disease

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white spot disease

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • white spot disease
  • Overview
  • White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the aetiological agent of white spot disease (WSD), is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of shrimp culture worldwide (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
TitleWSSV in Asia
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
Copyright©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
WSSV in AsiaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
TitleWSSV in Asia
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
Copyright©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
WSSV in AsiaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.©Peter Walker

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • white spot disease

International Common Names

  • English: China virus disease; red disease (white spot disease); rod-shaped nuclear virus of Penaeus japonicus (RV-PJ) infection; SEMBV infection; shrimp explosive epidermal disease; white spot baculovirus infection; white spot disease of penaeid shrimp; white spot syndrome; white spot syndrome baculovirus complex of penaeid shrimp; whitespot disease

English acronym

  • SEED
  • systemic ectodermal and mesodermal baculovirus infection
  • WSD

Overview

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the aetiological agent of white spot disease (WSD), is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of shrimp culture worldwide (Escobedo-Bonilla et al., 2008; Lightner 2011). The virus was first reported in Taiwan in 1992 (Chou et al. 1995) and rapidly spread around the world (Zwart et al. 2010). WSSV is one of the most damaging shrimp pathogens to date, inflicting loss of production of approximately 300,000 tons of shrimp or about 1 billion US$ annually (Stentiford et al. 2012).

Gross clinical signs of WSD are the appearance of white spots at the cephalothorax region of the shrimp cuticle due to abnormal deposition of calcium salts, rapid reduction in food consumption, lethargy, and reddening of appendages. In the field, WSSV-infected shrimp gather near the pond edge and display clinical signs 1 or 2 days before the first mortalities occur. Cumulative mortality may reach 100% within 10 days after the onset of disease (Chou et al., 1995; Karunasagar et al. 1997).

WSSV is highly pathogenic and very infectious to decapods; however, variation in pathogenicity among isolates from different geographical regions (Laramore & Scarpa 2009; Zwart et al. 2010) and cross-species passaging (Gusheinzed Waikhom et al. 2006) have been reported. The virus initially replicates in the nucleus of epithelium cells lining the stomach wall (Durand et al. 1997), gills (Rahman et al. 2008) and later spreads via the haemolymph causing WSSV pathology in tissues that are of ectodermal and mesodermal origin (Chang et al. 1996). Transmission of WSSV from one shrimp species to another occurs by feeding on infected animals, direct contact with WSSV-contaminated water or cohabitation with infected animals (Rajan et al. 2000). Although mortality may reach 100%, under favourable culture conditions, shrimp can harbour WSSV for a long period without showing clinical signs (Tsai et al. 1999).

White spot disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Acetes japonicus (akiami paste shrimp)Aquatic: Adult
Farfantepenaeus duorarum (northern pink shrimp)Aquatic: Larval
Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese fleshy prawn)Enclosed systems/Ponds
Fenneropenaeus indicus (Indian white shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/BroodstockEnclosed systems/Ponds
Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (banana shrimp)Aquatic: All StagesEnclosed systems/Ponds|Enclosed systems/Tanks
Fenneropenaeus penicillatus (redtail shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/Larval|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus schmitti (southern white shrimp)Experimental settingsAquatic: Adult
Litopenaeus setiferus (northern white shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems|Enclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus stylirostris (western blue shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/Larval|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Domesticated hostAquatic: Adult|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Ponds|Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds
Macrobrachium idella (slender river prawn)Experimental settingsAquatic: Adult
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp)Domesticated host, Wild hostAquatic: Adult|Aquatic/Egg|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Ponds|Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds|Enclosed systems/Tanks
Metapenaeus dobsoni (kadal shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/Larval|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems|Enclosed systems/Ponds
Metapenaeus monoceros (brown shrimp)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems|Enclosed systems/Ponds
Palaemon adspersus (Baltic prawn)Experimental settingsAquatic: Adult
Panulirus penicillatus (pronghorn spiny lobster)
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)
Penaeus semisulcatus (green tiger prawn)Aquatic: Adult|Aquatic/Larval|Aquatic/FryEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems|Enclosed systems/Ponds

Hosts/Species Affected

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WSSV has an extremely wide host range. The virus can infect a wide range of aquatic crustaceans especially decapod, including marine, brackish and freshwater prawns, crabs, crayfish and lobsters (reviewed by Escobedo-Bonilla et al., 2008).

Distribution

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WSSV is the most devastating viral pathogen of shrimp culture worldwide (Alvarez-Ruiz et al., 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

Asia

ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BangladeshPresentOIE (2009)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongPresentOIE (2009)
IndonesiaPresentOIE (2009)
IranPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
JapanPresentOIE (2009)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MalaysiaPresentOIE (2009)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
South KoreaPresentOIE (2009)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaPresentOIE (2009)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
-GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

References

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Alvarez-Ruiz P; Luna-González A; Escamilla-Montes R; Mejía-Ruiz CH; Magallón-Barajas FJ; Llera-Herrera R; Galván-Alvarez DA, 2015. Long-lasting effect against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp broodstock, Litopenaeus vannamei, by LvRab7 silencing. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 46(6):571-582. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1749-7345

Chang PohShing; Lo ChuFang; Wang YuChi; Kou GuangHsiung, 1996. Identification of white spot syndrome associated baculovirus (WSBV) target organs in the shrimp Penaeus monodon by in situ hybridization. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 27(2):131-139.

Chou HsinYiu; Huang ChangYi; Wang ChungHsiung; Chiang HsienChoung; Lo ChuFang, 1995. Pathogenicity of a baculovirus infection causing white spot syndrome in cultured penaeid shrimp in Taiwan. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 23(3):165-173.

Durand S; Lightner DV; Redman RM; Bonami JR, 1997. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of White Spot Syndrome Baculovirus (WSSV). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 29(3):205-211.

Escobedo-Bonilla CM; Alday-Sanz V; Wille M; Sorgeloos P; Pensaert MB; Nauwynck HJ, 2008. A review on the morphology, molecular characterization, morphogenesis and pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus. Journal of Fish Diseases, 31(1):1-18. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2007.00877.x

Gusheinzed Waikhom; John KR; George MR; Jeyaseelan MJP, 2006. Differential host passaging alters pathogenicity and induces genomic variation in white spot syndrome virus. Aquaculture, 261(1):54-63. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486

Karunasagar I; Otta SK; Karunasagar I, 1997. Histopathological and bacteriological study of white spot syndrome of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India. Aquaculture, 153(1/2):9-13.

Laramore SE; Scarpa J; Laramore CR; Lin J, 2009. Virulence variation of white spot syndrome virus in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 21(2):82-90. http://afsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1577/H08-012.1

Lightner DV, 2011. Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 106(1):110-130. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJV-51W6NYJ-C&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2011&_rdoc=12&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236888%232011%23998939998%232846757%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6888&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=15&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f2aa7e0630b64e23a3130a3be65a3bf8&searchtype=a

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Rahman MM; Corteel M; Escobedo-Bonilla CM; Wille M; Alday-Sanz V; Pensaert MB; Sorgeloos P; Nauwynck HJ, 2007. Virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates may be correlated with the degree of replication in gills of Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 79(3):191-198.

Rajan PR; Ramasamy P; Purushothaman V; Brennan GP, 2000. White spot baculovirus syndrome in the Indian shrimp Penaeus monodon and P. indicus. Aquaculture, 184(1/2):31-44.

Stentiford GD; Neil DM; Peeler EJ; Shields JD; Small HJ; Flegel TW; Vlak JM; Jones B; Morado F; Moss S; Lotz J; Bartholomay L; Behringer DC; Hauton C; Lightner DV, 2012. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2):141-157. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000729

Tsai MengFeng; Kou GuangHsiung; Liu HweiChung; Liu KuanFu; Chang ChenFang; Peng ShaoEn; Hsu HuiChen; Wang ChungHsiung; Lo ChuFang, 1999. Long-term presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a cultivated shrimp population without disease outbreaks. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 38(2):107-114.

Zwart MP; Bui Thi Minh Dieu; Hemerik L; Vlak JM, 2010. Evolutionary trajectory of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome shrinkage during spread in Asia. PLoS ONE, No.October:e13400. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0013400

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

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