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white spot disease

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white spot disease

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • white spot disease
  • Overview
  • White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the aetiological agent of white spot disease (WSD), is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of shrimp culture worldwide (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
TitleWSSV in Asia
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
Copyright©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
WSSV in AsiaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
TitleWSSV in Asia
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
Copyright©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
WSSV in AsiaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.©Peter Walker

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • white spot disease

International Common Names

  • English: China virus disease; red disease (white spot disease); rod-shaped nuclear virus of Penaeus japonicus (RV-PJ) infection; SEMBV infection; shrimp explosive epidermal disease; white spot baculovirus infection; white spot disease of penaeid shrimp; white spot syndrome; white spot syndrome baculovirus complex of penaeid shrimp; whitespot disease

English acronym

  • SEED
  • systemic ectodermal and mesodermal baculovirus infection
  • WSD

Overview

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the aetiological agent of white spot disease (WSD), is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of shrimp culture worldwide (Escobedo-Bonilla et al., 2008; Lightner 2011). The virus was first reported in Taiwan in 1992 (Chou et al. 1995) and rapidly spread around the world (Zwart et al. 2010). WSSV is one of the most damaging shrimp pathogens to date, inflicting loss of production of approximately 300,000 tons of shrimp or about 1 billion US$ annually (Stentiford et al. 2012).

Gross clinical signs of WSD are the appearance of white spots at the cephalothorax region of the shrimp cuticle due to abnormal deposition of calcium salts, rapid reduction in food consumption, lethargy, and reddening of appendages. In the field, WSSV-infected shrimp gather near the pond edge and display clinical signs 1 or 2 days before the first mortalities occur. Cumulative mortality may reach 100% within 10 days after the onset of disease (Chou et al., 1995; Karunasagar et al. 1997).

WSSV is highly pathogenic and very infectious to decapods; however, variation in pathogenicity among isolates from different geographical regions (Laramore & Scarpa 2009; Zwart et al. 2010) and cross-species passaging (Gusheinzed Waikhom et al. 2006) have been reported. The virus initially replicates in the nucleus of epithelium cells lining the stomach wall (Durand et al. 1997), gills (Rahman et al. 2008) and later spreads via the haemolymph causing WSSV pathology in tissues that are of ectodermal and mesodermal origin (Chang et al. 1996). Transmission of WSSV from one shrimp species to another occurs by feeding on infected animals, direct contact with WSSV-contaminated water or cohabitation with infected animals (Rajan et al. 2000). Although mortality may reach 100%, under favourable culture conditions, shrimp can harbour WSSV for a long period without showing clinical signs (Tsai et al. 1999).

White spot disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Acetes japonicus (akiami paste shrimp)Aquatic|Adult
Farfantepenaeus duorarum (northern pink shrimp)Aquatic|Larval
Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese fleshy prawn)Enclosed systems/Ponds
Fenneropenaeus indicus (Indian white shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|BroodstockEnclosed systems/Ponds
Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (banana shrimp)Aquatic|All StagesEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Tanks
Fenneropenaeus penicillatus (redtail shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus schmitti (southern white shrimp)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Litopenaeus setiferus (northern white shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems; Enclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus stylirostris (western blue shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Domesticated hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|FryEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds
Macrobrachium idella (slender river prawn)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp)Domesticated host; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Egg; Aquatic|FryEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds; Enclosed systems/Tanks
Metapenaeus dobsoni (kadal shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems; Enclosed systems/Ponds
Metapenaeus monoceros (brown shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems; Enclosed systems/Ponds
Palaemon adspersus (Baltic prawn)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Panulirus penicillatus (pronghorn spiny lobster)
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)
Penaeus semisulcatus (green tiger prawn)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems; Enclosed systems/Ponds

Hosts/Species Affected

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WSSV has an extremely wide host range. The virus can infect a wide range of aquatic crustaceans especially decapod, including marine, brackish and freshwater prawns, crabs, crayfish and lobsters (reviewed by Escobedo-Bonilla et al., 2008).

Distribution

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WSSV is the most devastating viral pathogen of shrimp culture worldwide (Alvarez-Ruiz et al., 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GhanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Guinea-BissauAbsentJan-Jun-2018
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsentJul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MayotteAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BangladeshAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BruneiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Hong KongAbsentJan-Jun-2020
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2018
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IranAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PakistanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
PhilippinesPresentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South KoreaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamPresentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
-GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJan-Jun-2020
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

References

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Alvarez-Ruiz P; Luna-González A; Escamilla-Montes R; Mejía-Ruiz CH; Magallón-Barajas FJ; Llera-Herrera R; Galván-Alvarez DA, 2015. Long-lasting effect against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp broodstock, Litopenaeus vannamei, by LvRab7 silencing. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 46(6):571-582. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1749-7345

Chang PohShing; Lo ChuFang; Wang YuChi; Kou GuangHsiung, 1996. Identification of white spot syndrome associated baculovirus (WSBV) target organs in the shrimp Penaeus monodon by in situ hybridization. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 27(2):131-139.

Chou HsinYiu; Huang ChangYi; Wang ChungHsiung; Chiang HsienChoung; Lo ChuFang, 1995. Pathogenicity of a baculovirus infection causing white spot syndrome in cultured penaeid shrimp in Taiwan. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 23(3):165-173.

Durand S; Lightner DV; Redman RM; Bonami JR, 1997. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of White Spot Syndrome Baculovirus (WSSV). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 29(3):205-211.

Escobedo-Bonilla CM; Alday-Sanz V; Wille M; Sorgeloos P; Pensaert MB; Nauwynck HJ, 2008. A review on the morphology, molecular characterization, morphogenesis and pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus. Journal of Fish Diseases, 31(1):1-18. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2007.00877.x

Gusheinzed Waikhom; John KR; George MR; Jeyaseelan MJP, 2006. Differential host passaging alters pathogenicity and induces genomic variation in white spot syndrome virus. Aquaculture, 261(1):54-63. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486

Karunasagar I; Otta SK; Karunasagar I, 1997. Histopathological and bacteriological study of white spot syndrome of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India. Aquaculture, 153(1/2):9-13.

Laramore SE; Scarpa J; Laramore CR; Lin J, 2009. Virulence variation of white spot syndrome virus in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 21(2):82-90. http://afsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1577/H08-012.1

Lightner DV, 2011. Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 106(1):110-130. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJV-51W6NYJ-C&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2011&_rdoc=12&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236888%232011%23998939998%232846757%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6888&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=15&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f2aa7e0630b64e23a3130a3be65a3bf8&searchtype=a

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Rahman MM; Corteel M; Escobedo-Bonilla CM; Wille M; Alday-Sanz V; Pensaert MB; Sorgeloos P; Nauwynck HJ, 2007. Virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates may be correlated with the degree of replication in gills of Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 79(3):191-198.

Rajan PR; Ramasamy P; Purushothaman V; Brennan GP, 2000. White spot baculovirus syndrome in the Indian shrimp Penaeus monodon and P. indicus. Aquaculture, 184(1/2):31-44.

Stentiford GD; Neil DM; Peeler EJ; Shields JD; Small HJ; Flegel TW; Vlak JM; Jones B; Morado F; Moss S; Lotz J; Bartholomay L; Behringer DC; Hauton C; Lightner DV, 2012. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2):141-157. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000729

Tsai MengFeng; Kou GuangHsiung; Liu HweiChung; Liu KuanFu; Chang ChenFang; Peng ShaoEn; Hsu HuiChen; Wang ChungHsiung; Lo ChuFang, 1999. Long-term presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a cultivated shrimp population without disease outbreaks. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 38(2):107-114.

Zwart MP; Bui Thi Minh Dieu; Hemerik L; Vlak JM, 2010. Evolutionary trajectory of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome shrinkage during spread in Asia. PLoS ONE, No.October:e13400. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0013400

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

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