Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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West Nile virus

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Datasheet

West Nile virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • West Nile virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm.
TitleVirions
CaptionElectron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm.
CopyrightDiagnostic Virology Laboratory of the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, VS, APHIS, USDA.
Electron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm.
VirionsElectron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm. Diagnostic Virology Laboratory of the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, VS, APHIS, USDA.
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.
TitleEggs
CaptionCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - Original photographer Harry Weinburgh
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.
EggsCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.Public Domain/released by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - Original photographer Harry Weinburgh
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
TitleFemale Aedes mosquito
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
Female Aedes mosquitoAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
TitleMated pair
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
Mated pairAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • West Nile virus Heinz et al., 2000

Other Scientific Names

  • West Nile-like virus

International Common Names

  • English: WN virus

English acronym

  • WNLV
  • WNV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Flavivirus
  •                         Species: West Nile virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BeninAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJan-Jun-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SenegalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaPresentJul-Dec-2020
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
CroatiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechoslovakiaPresent
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2020
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2020
GreecePresentJul-Dec-2020
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandPresent
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2020
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresent
San MarinoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SerbiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Dominican RepublicAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiPresentJul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019
-ConnecticutPresent
-New YorkPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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WNV virions are approximately 40 nm in diameter, spherical and contain a lipid envelope. The positive-sense single stranded RNA genome is 11.3 kb in size and contains three structural and seven non-structural proteins. The structural proteins comprise a capsid protein (C), the major envelope protein (E) and either a prM (immature virion) or M (mature virion). WNV is stable at an alkaline pH of 8.0 but is readily inactivated by acidic pH, temperatures above 40°C, organic solvents, detergents, UV-light and gamma-irradiation.

Two genetic lineages have been described (Berthet et al., 1997). Lineage 1 includes isolates from Europe, the Middle East, Africa, India, Australia (KUNV) and from North America (Lanciotti et al., 1999). Lineage 2 includes isolates from West, Central and East Africa and Madagascar which have not been associated with disease outbreaks. Scherret et al. (2001) suggested on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses that WN viruses should be subdivided into at least 6 subtypes.

The close antigenic relationship of WNV to other flaviviruses is demonstrated in binding assays such as ELISA and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Neutralising assays are more discriminating, with the envelope glycoprotein E the main target for neutralising antibody. The E protein is also responsible for inducing protective immunity.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Accipiter cooperiiWild host
Alcedo atthisWild host
Anas platyrhynchosWild host
Anser (geese)Domesticated host; Wild host
Anser anser (geese)Domesticated host
Apodemus flavicollisWild host
Apodemus sylvaticus (long-tailed field mouse)Wild host
ArdeidaeWild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Bubulcus ibis (cattle egret)Wild host
Buteo jamaicensisWild host
Buteo platypterusWild host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host; Wild host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capreolus capreolusWild host
Cercopithicus aethiopsWild host
Cercopithicus ascaniusWild host
Cercopithicus monaWild host
Cercopithicus neglectusWild host
Cercopithicus nictitansWild host
Cervus damaDomesticated host; Wild host
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Domesticated host; Wild host
Clethrionomys glareolusWild host
Coccyzus americanus (yellow-billed cuckoo)Wild host
Columba livia (pigeons)Domesticated host; Wild host
Coracopsis vasaWild host
Corvus brachyrhynchosWild host
Corvus frugilegus (rook)Wild host
Corvus ossifragusWild host
Cyanocitta cristataWild host
Delichon urbicaWild host
Egretta garzettaWild host
Equus
Equus asinus (donkeys)Domesticated host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Erithacus rubeculaWild host
Erythrocebus patasWild host
Felis catus (cat)Domesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Grus canadensisWild host
Haliaeetus leucocephalusWild host
Hirundo rustica (barn swallow (USA))Wild host
Larus atricillaWild host
Larus delawarensisWild host
LemuridaeWild host
Lepus (hare)Wild host
Macaca radiataExperimental settings
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Experimental settings
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)Wild host
MicrochiropteraWild host
Microtus agrestisWild host
mini-livestockWild host
mulesDomesticated host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings; Wild host
Nycticorax nycticoraxWild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host; Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)Wild host
Papio cynocephalusWild host
Passer domesticus (house sparrow)Wild host
PavoDomesticated host; Wild host
Phalacrocorax carboWild host
Pica pica (black-billed magpie)Wild host
Procyon lotor (raccoon)Wild host
Pteropus rufusWild host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
Riparia ripariaWild host
Sorex araneusWild host
Streptopelia turturWild host
SturnidaeWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild host
Turdus migratoriusWild host
Ursus arctosWild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsectAfrica; Middle East
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albocephalusInsectAfrica; Middle East
Aedes albopictusInsect
Aedes ambreensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caspiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes durbanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes japonicusInsectNorth America
AmblyommaTickAfrica; Asia
Anopheles annularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles culicifacies culicifaciesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles fluviatilisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles mascarensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles merusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles nigerrimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles pulcherrimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles punctipennisInsect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles subpictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles tenebrosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
ArgasTickEgypt
Argas hermanniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Argas reflexusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Coquillettidia richiardiiInsectEurope
Culex annulirostrisInsectAustralia
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex decensInsectAfrica; Middle East
Culex fuscocephalaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex modestusInsectEurope
Culex neaveiInsectAfrica; Middle East
Culex perexiguusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiensInsectEurope; North America
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex poicilipesInsectAfrica; Middle East
Culex pseudovishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusInsectAsia
Culex restuansInsectNorth America
Culex salinariusInsectNorth America
Culex thalassiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex theileriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusInsectEurope
Culex univittatusInsectAfrica; South Africa; Middle East
Culex vishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culiseta melanuraInsect
DermacentorTickAfrica; Asia
Eretmapodites quinquevittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
HaemaphysalisTickAfrica; Asia
HyalommaTickAfrica; Asia
Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Mansonia africanaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
MimomyiaInsectAfrica; Middle East
RhipicephalusTickAfrica; Asia

References

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Berthet FX; Zeller HG; Drouet MT; Rauzier J; Digoutte JP; Deubel V, 1997. Extensive nucleotide changes and deletions within the envelope glycoprotein gene of Euro-African West Nile viruses. Journal of General Virology, 78(9):2293-2297; 22 ref.

Lanciotti RS; Roehrig JT; Deubel V; Smith J; Parker M; Steele K; Crise B; Volpe KE; Crabtree MB; Schereet JH, 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science, 286(5448):2333-2337.

OIE, 2003. West Nile fever in Oman. Disease Information, 16(48).

OIE, 2004. West Nile fever in Belize in october 2003. Disease Information, 17(10).

OIE, 2005. West Nile fever in Cuba. Virus detection in equids. Disease Information, 18(7).

Scherret JH; Poidinger M; Mackenzie JS; Broom AK; Deubel V; Lipkin WI; Briese T; Gould EA; Hall RA, 2001. The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(4):697-705.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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