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Datasheet

West Nile virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • West Nile virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm.
TitleVirions
CaptionElectron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm.
CopyrightDiagnostic Virology Laboratory of the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, VS, APHIS, USDA.
Electron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm.
VirionsElectron micrograph of West Nile virions. Original magnification was approx. 50,000X. Scale bar in photo represents 300 nm. Diagnostic Virology Laboratory of the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, VS, APHIS, USDA.
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.
TitleEggs
CaptionCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - Original photograph by Harry Weinburgh
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.
EggsCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito); egg raft. USA.Public Domain/released by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - Original photograph by Harry Weinburgh
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
TitleFemale Aedes mosquito
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
Female Aedes mosquitoAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
TitleMated pair
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
Mated pairAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • West Nile virus Heinz et al., 2000

Other Scientific Names

  • West Nile-like virus

International Common Names

  • English: WN virus

English acronym

  • WNLV
  • WNV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Flavivirus
  •                         Species: West Nile virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NepalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
OmanLast reported2003OIE, 2003
PakistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Central African RepublicPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MadagascarPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MoroccoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NamibiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NigeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RéunionPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SeychellesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
South AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SudanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

North America

USAPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ConnecticutPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New YorkPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BelizeOIE, 2003
CubaLast reported2005OIE, 2005

Europe

Czech RepublicPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FrancePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ItalyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PolandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RomaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Russian FederationPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SpainPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UkrainePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Pathogen Characteristics

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WNV virions are approximately 40 nm in diameter, spherical and contain a lipid envelope. The positive-sense single stranded RNA genome is 11.3 kb in size and contains three structural and seven non-structural proteins. The structural proteins comprise a capsid protein (C), the major envelope protein (E) and either a prM (immature virion) or M (mature virion). WNV is stable at an alkaline pH of 8.0 but is readily inactivated by acidic pH, temperatures above 40°C, organic solvents, detergents, UV-light and gamma-irradiation.

Two genetic lineages have been described (Berthet et al., 1997). Lineage 1 includes isolates from Europe, the Middle East, Africa, India, Australia (KUNV) and from North America (Lanciotti et al., 1999). Lineage 2 includes isolates from West, Central and East Africa and Madagascar which have not been associated with disease outbreaks. Scherret et al. (2001) suggested on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses that WN viruses should be subdivided into at least 6 subtypes.

The close antigenic relationship of WNV to other flaviviruses is demonstrated in binding assays such as ELISA and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Neutralising assays are more discriminating, with the envelope glycoprotein E the main target for neutralising antibody. The E protein is also responsible for inducing protective immunity.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Accipiter cooperiiWild host
Alcedo atthisWild host
Anas platyrhynchosWild host
Anser (geese)Domesticated host, Wild host
Anser anser (geese)Domesticated host
Apodemus flavicollisWild host
Apodemus sylvaticus (long-tailed field mouse)Wild host
ArdeidaeWild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Bubulcus ibis (cattle egret)Wild host
Buteo jamaicensisWild host
Buteo platypterusWild host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host, Wild host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capreolus capreolusWild host
Cercopithicus aethiopsWild host
Cercopithicus ascaniusWild host
Cercopithicus monaWild host
Cercopithicus neglectusWild host
Cercopithicus nictitansWild host
Cervus damaDomesticated host, Wild host
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Domesticated host, Wild host
Clethrionomys glareolusWild host
Coccyzus americanus (yellow-billed cuckoo)Wild host
Columba livia (pigeons)Domesticated host, Wild host
Coracopsis vasaWild host
Corvus brachyrhynchosWild host
Corvus frugilegus (rook)Wild host
Corvus ossifragusWild host
Cyanocitta cristataWild host
Delichon urbicaWild host
Egretta garzettaWild host
Equus
Equus asinus (donkeys)Domesticated host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Erithacus rubeculaWild host
Erythrocebus patasWild host
Felis catus (cat)Domesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Grus canadensisWild host
Haliaeetus leucocephalusWild host
Hirundo rustica (barn swallow (USA))Wild host
Larus atricillaWild host
Larus delawarensisWild host
LemuridaeWild host
Lepus (hare)Wild host
Macaca radiataExperimental settings
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Experimental settings
Mephitis mephitisWild host
MicrochiropteraWild host
Microtus agrestisWild host
mini-livestockWild host
mulesDomesticated host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings, Wild host
Nycticorax nycticoraxWild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host, Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)Wild host
Papio cynocephalusWild host
Passer domesticus (house sparrow)Wild host
PavoDomesticated host, Wild host
Phalacrocorax carboWild host
Pica pica (black-billed magpie)Wild host
Procyon lotor (raccoon)Wild host
Pteropus rufusWild host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
Riparia ripariaWild host
Sorex araneusWild host
Streptopelia turturWild host
SturnidaeWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host
Turdus migratoriusWild host
Ursus arctosWild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsectMiddle East
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albocephalusInsectMiddle East
Aedes albopictusInsect
Aedes ambreensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caspiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes durbanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes japonicusInsect
AmblyommaTick
Anopheles annularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles culicifacies culicifaciesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles fluviatilisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles mascarensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles merusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles nigerrimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles pulcherrimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles punctipennisInsect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles subpictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles tenebrosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
ArgasTickEgypt
Argas hermanniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Argas reflexusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Coquillettidia richiardiiInsect
Culex annulirostrisInsectAustralia
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex decensInsectMiddle East
Culex fuscocephalaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex modestusInsect
Culex neaveiInsectMiddle East
Culex perexiguusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiensInsect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex poicilipesInsectMiddle East
Culex pseudovishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusInsect
Culex restuansInsect
Culex salinariusInsect
Culex thalassiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex theileriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusInsect
Culex univittatusInsectSouth Africa|Asia/Middle East
Culex vishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culiseta melanuraInsect
DermacentorTick
Eretmapodites quinquevittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
HaemaphysalisTick
HyalommaTick
Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Mansonia africanaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
MimomyiaInsectMiddle East
RhipicephalusTick

References

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Berthet FX; Zeller HG; Drouet MT; Rauzier J; Digoutte JP; Deubel V, 1997. Extensive nucleotide changes and deletions within the envelope glycoprotein gene of Euro-African West Nile viruses. Journal of General Virology, 78(9):2293-2297; 22 ref.

Lanciotti RS; Roehrig JT; Deubel V; Smith J; Parker M; Steele K; Crise B; Volpe KE; Crabtree MB; Schereet JH, 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science, 286(5448):2333-2337.

OIE, 2003. West Nile fever in Oman. Disease Information, 16(48).

OIE, 2004. West Nile fever in Belize in october 2003. Disease Information, 17(10).

OIE, 2005. West Nile fever in Cuba. Virus detection in equids. Disease Information, 18(7).

Scherret JH; Poidinger M; Mackenzie JS; Broom AK; Deubel V; Lipkin WI; Briese T; Gould EA; Hall RA, 2001. The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(4):697-705.

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