Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus



epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Iridoviridae
  •         Genus: Ranavirus
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus

International Common Names

  • English: epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus

English acronym

  • EHNV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Iridoviridae
  •                 Genus: Ranavirus
  •                     Species: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 14 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019


ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ChinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019


AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019


Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Fish ranaviruses are distinct agents, although they have similar hexagonal morphology and size (slightly over 130-140 nm), number and weight of structural polypeptides and common antigens (Hedrick et al., 1992). They replicate in cytoplasm and induce inclusion bodies as centres of virus production. The cytopathic effect in cell cultures is characterized by focal rounding up of cells from substrate and cell lysis, expansion of these changes and destruction of the cell monolayer. According to Essani and Granoff (1989), the pattern and number of polypeptides in ranaviruses differ from those in lymphocystis virus and in two goldfish iridoviruses isolated by Berry et al. (1983). The PCR with primer sets for EHNV amplified a genomic DNA segment from IOTF (Hedrick and McDowell, 1995).

Iridoviruses are presumably internalized by the cell during a receptormediated endocytosis. Budding and envelopment at the plasma membrane secure the exit of mature IW (Granzow et al., 1997).

Epizootic haemopoietic necrosis virus replicates in BB, BF-2, FHM, RTG-2 and several other cells. Langdon and Humphrey (1987) and Langdon et al. (1988) obtained highest virus yields in FHM cells. Bluegill fry cells kept at 20-22°C are recommended in the OIE Manual (1995b) for the isolation of EHNV. Sheatfish iridovirus is readily isolated in BF-2 and FHM cells at 20-30°C. Black bullhead iridovirus grows in EPC, CCO and BF-2 cells, with optimum plaque development in the latter. Iridovirus of ornamental tropical fish replicates in the same cell lines. Largemouth bass virus was isolated in FHM cells. Perch and trout isolates of EHNV differ in the molecular weights of some structural proteins (Hengstberger et al., 1993).

The range of cells susceptible to Bohle iridovirus and EHNV is very similar. The two viruses exhibit a high degree of cross-reactivity in ELISA tests, have very similar morphology and structure but differ in size, cytopathic effect on host cells, molecular weights of proteins, polypeptide profiles, Western blots and site of virus release from cells (Speare and Smith, 1992; Hengstberger et al., 1993).

The persistence of EHNV in water and cell-culture medium at optimum temperature for EHN outbreaks in redfin perch is important in epizootiology.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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Larus novaehollandiaeOther
Phalacrocorax carboOther


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Berry ES; Shea TB; Gabliks J, 1983. Two iridovirus isolates from Carassius auratus (L.). Journal of Fish Diseases, 6(6):501-510.

Essani K; Granoff A, 1989. Properties of amphibian and piscine iridoviruses: a comparison. In: Ahne W, Kurstak E, eds. Viruses of Lower Vertebrates. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 79-85.

Granzow H; Wieland F; Fichtner; D; Enzmann PJ, 1997. Studies on the ultrastructure and morphogenesis of fish pathogenic viruses grown in cell culture. Journal of Fish Diseases, 20:1-10.

Hedrick RP; McDowell TS, 1995. Properties of iridoviruses from ornamental fish. Veterinary Research, 26(5/6):423-427.

Hedrick RP; McDowell TS; Ahne W; Torhy C; Kinkelin Pde, 1992. Properties of three iridovirus-like agents associated with systemic infections of fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 13(3):203-209.

Hengstberger SG; Hyatt AD; Speare R; Coupar BEH, 1993. Comparison of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis and Bohle iridoviruses, recently isolated Australian iridoviruses. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 15(2):93-107.

Langdon JS; Humphrey JD, 1987. Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis, a new viral disease in redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., in Australia. Journal of Fish Diseases, 10(4):289-297.

Langdon JS; Humphrey JD; Williams LM, 1988. Outbreaks of an EHNV-like iridovirus in cultured rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, in Australia. Journal of Fish Diseases, 11(1):93-96.

Office International des Épizooties, 1995. Diagnostic manual for aquatic animal diseases. Diagnostic manual for aquatic animal diseases., Ed. 1:xiv + 195 pp.

Speare R; Smith JR, 1992. An iridovirus-like agent from the ornate burrowing frog Limnodynastes ornatus in northern Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 14:51-57.

Distribution References

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.