Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Annona reticulata
(bullock's heart)

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Datasheet

Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Annona reticulata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bullock's heart
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. reticulata is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree listed as an “agricultural weed, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (...

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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Annona reticulata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • bullock's heart

Other Scientific Names

  • Annona primigenia Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Annona reticulata var. primigenia (Standl. & Steyerm.) Lundell

International Common Names

  • English: bullock's-heart; custard apple; ox-heart; soursop; wild sweetsop
  • Spanish: anona; anona colorada; anona corazón; anonillo; corazon; corazón de buey; guanabano; mamán; suncuya (Mexico)
  • French: annone réticulée; anone coeur-de-boeuf; cachiman; coeur de boeuf; corossol reticulé; zannone
  • Chinese: niu xin fan li zhi

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: custard-apple
  • Brazil: biribá; coracao-de-boi; coração-de-boi; fruta-de-condessa; fruta-do-conde
  • Cambodia: mean bat; mo bat
  • Caroline Islands: anoonas
  • Cook Islands: naponapo papa‘la; tapotapo kirimoko; tapotapo papa‘a
  • Cuba: cherimoya; mamón
  • Dominican Republic: mamón de perro
  • Fiji: chotka sarifa; uto ni mbulumakau
  • French Polynesia: mafatu puakatoro; taptapu
  • Germany: Annone, Netz-; Annone, Ochsenherz-; Netzannone; Ochsenherz; Ochsenherzapfel
  • Haiti: cachimán; cachimán coeur de boeuf; coeur de feuf
  • India: ramfal
  • Indonesia: buah nona; serba rabsa
  • Indonesia/Java: kanowa
  • Italy: annona cuore di bue; annona reticolata
  • Laos: khan tua lot
  • Lesser Antilles: cachiman blanc; cachiman rouge
  • Malaysia: lonang; nona; nona kapri
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: mafatu puakatoro; tapu tapu; taputapu
  • Myanmar: thinbaw-awza
  • Nepal: shree ram phal
  • Niue: talapo; talapo elo; talapo fua kula; talapo fua pekepeke
  • Northern Mariana Islands: annonas; anonas
  • Pakistan: ramphal
  • Palau: ngel ra ngebard
  • Portugal: anoneira; graviola
  • Solomon Islands: beretetutu
  • Sweden: nätannona
  • Thailand: manong; noinang; noinang; noinong
  • Tonga: ‘apele haati; ‘apele papalangi
  • Vietnam: binh bat; mâng câu dai; qua na

EPPO code

  • ANURE (Annona reticulata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. reticulata is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree listed as an “agricultural weed, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and is considered an invasive species by CeNBIO. The species received a high risk score of 11 from a PIER risk assessment and is reported to be invasive in several places beyond its native range including Guam, Singapore, the Solomon Islands,  and French Polynesia (Gambier Is., Marquesas Is., Society Is., and Tuamotu Archipelago) (PIER, 2014). It is known to be weedy in parts of Australia, the Galapagos, and central Africa (Randall, 2012). It reproduces by seeds, but has also been cultivated using grafting (Mossler and Crane, 2009). Like several other members of the Annona genus, A. reticulata is cultivated pantropically for its edible fruits and has been involved in breeding propagation (Janick and Paull, 2008). Invasive traits include seeds viable for more than a year, resistance to cold, and repeated introductions and naturalization beyond its native American range (Orwa et al., 2009; PIER, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Annonales
  •                         Family: Annonaceae
  •                             Genus: Annona
  •                                 Species: Annona reticulata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Annona, commonly known as the custard-apple genus, consists of some 125 species with some species widely cultivated for their edible fruits and often becoming naturalized beyond their native range of tropical America and Africa (Wagner et al., 2014). The species A. reticulata shares the common name ‘custard apple’ and ‘chirimoya’ and ‘atimoya’ with several other Annona species, but is generally a larger tree and its fruit are not as sweet as, for example, A. squamosa, the most popular cultivated species of the genus. Some 10,000 interspecific crosses have been made between A. reticulata, A. cherimola, A. squamosa, and A. diversifolia due to breeding programs (Janick and Paull, 2008). A. reticulata is also found in the literature as Rolliniamucosa. Its common name, bullock-heart, refers to the fruit’s heart shape and its reddish brown colour when ripe. Many of the local names for the species reflect the skin colour, for example the Bolivian name, chirimoya roia, the Salvadoran anona rosada, and the Guatemalan anona roja or anona colorada (Morton, 1987).

Description

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Tree up to 10 m tall, with a spreading crown and 10 to 14 in (25-35 cm) thick trunk. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, oblong or narrow-lanceolate with visible veins and have a bad smell. Flowers never fully open, appear in drooping clusters, and are fragrant and slender with 3 outer fleshy, narrow petals, light-green externally and pale-yellow with a dark-red or purple spot on the inside at the base. Compound fruit is 3 l/4 to 6 1/2 in (8-16 cm) in diameter and can be symmetrically heart-shaped, lopsided, irregular, nearly round, or oblate with a deep or shallow depression at the base. The skin of the fruit is thin but tough and can be yellow or brownish when ripe, with a pink, reddish or brownish-red blush. There is a thick, cream-white layer of custard like flesh beneath the skin surrounding the juicy segments. In each segment there is a single, hard, dark-brown or black, glossy seed, oblong and smooth, less than half an inch long. There are between 55 and 76 seeds in a fruit. The ripe fruit is sweet and pleasant in flavour. The unripe fruit is rich in tannin. (Taken from Morton, 1987).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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A. reticulata is native to Mexico, Central America, and South America (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) but is widely cultivated across the world, particularly in southeast Asia, for its edible fruits and in some places has naturalized (Jansen et al., 1991). Although A. reticulata is cultivated in the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012), it was not included in Broome et al.’s (2007) work on the Eastern Caribbean. PIER (2014) appears to erroneously report the species as native to the Keeling Islands off Australia, citing Orchard (1993) as the reference. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014‘widely cultivated’
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014‘widely cultivated’
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014‘widely cultivated’
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014‘widely cultivated’
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
Cocos IslandsPresentNativePIER, 2014Native status appears to be an error
IndiaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987; Hanelt et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2014
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
-JavaPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991
-SumatraPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991Aceh
LaosPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
MyanmarPresentIntroducedKress et al., 2003
NepalPresentIntroducedNepal Checklist, 2014
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2014
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedMerrill, 1923; Jansen et al., 1991; Pelser et al., 2014; PIER, 2014
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009; PIER, 2014'casual'
TaiwanPresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
ThailandPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
VietnamPresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
RéunionPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
RwandaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012'weed'
SeychellesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014

North America

BermudaPresentMorton, 1987‘occasional’
MexicoPresentIntroduced Natural Morton, 1987; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014Introduced centuries ago; has been cultivated for a long time
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentMorton, 1987; Liogier and Martorell, 2000
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Antigua
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentRandall, 2012; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola.
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Including Marie-Galante Island. ‘
GuatemalaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
JamaicaPresentNativeHarris, 1912; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012‘native to the West Indies’
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Saba, St. Eustatius
NicaraguaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014
PanamaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Panama Checklist, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeBolivia Checklist, 2014; Madidi Checklist, 2014Beni, Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987; Hanelt et al., 2001
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedMaas et al., 2014
ColombiaPresentNativeVascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014Santa Fé de Antioquia
EcuadorPresentRandall, 2012; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014Esmeraldas, Guayas, Manabí
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
ParaguayPresentParaguay Checklist, 2014Paraguarí
PeruPresentPeru Checklist, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Margarita

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Northern
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘naturalised’, ‘weed’
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘agricultural weed, naturalised’
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘environmental weed, garden thug’
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘weed’
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014; Wagner and Lorence, 2014
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014‘possibly growing spontaneously’
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
NiuePresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014‘Occasional in villages’
VanuatuPresentPIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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The species originates from the Americas. It is thought to be native to the West Indies, but spread long ago from there across Central America and southern Mexico to as far south as Peru and Brazil, and has been cultivated across the Americas for centuries (Morton, 1987; UK Natural History Museum, 2014). Sir Hans Sloane observed it growing in Jamaica during his 1686-1688 voyage, wherein he noted its edible fruit was not as popular as that of other Annona species but was useful in folkloric medicine (UK Natural History Museum, 2014). The species is reported to have been introduced to Africa in the early 17th century (Morton, 1987; Hanelt et al., 2001). In India the species has escaped cultivation into the wild in many areas, especially around Calcutta, and is also subspontaneous from the coast of Malaysia to the Philippines and Polynesia (Morton, 1987).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for A. reticulata is extremely high based on a PIER risk assessment, which gave the species a score of 11. It is widely cultivated for its edible fruit, and is known to have escaped from cultivation in many parts of India (Morton, 1987). It is known to be invasive beyond its native range (PIER, 2014), and produces seeds that remain viable for more than a year (Orwa et al., 2009).

Habitat

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A. reticulata is cultivated around the world for its edible fruits. It has also been reported to occur in lowland rainforests (Bolivia Checklist, 2014), in humid premontane forests (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), and along coastal areas (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). In Guam and Paraguay, it is reportedly often a component of scrub forests (Paraguay Checklist, 2014; PIER, 2014). In Puerto Rico it has been reported growing on roadsides, in woods, hillsides, and pasture lands (Liogier and Martorell, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome count for A. reticulata is 2n=14 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

A. reticulata reproduces by seeds but has also been regenerated by inarching, or by budding or grafting (Morton, 1987; Mossler and Crane, 2009).

Environmental Requirements

A. reticulata needs a tropical climate, although it can survive light night frosts to -2(-3)°C; it is less drought-tolerant than the sugar apple and prefers a humid atmosphere (Jansen et al., 1991). The species grows on many soil types with pH from 5 to 8, but thrives best in low-lying, deep, rich soil with ample moisture and good drainage, as it cannot tolerate waterlogging (Lim, 2012). Young trees need partial shade (FAO EcoCrop, 2014).

The species reportedly grows at elevations of 0-1300 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). In the lowlands and upper Amazon basin of Bolivia and coastal Ecuador it has only been reported at 0-500 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014; Madidi Checklist, 2014; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), and between 500 and 1000 m in Colombia (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). In Panama A. reticulata has been reported growing at 0-1000 m (Panama Checklist, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The seeds of A. reticulata may be dispersed by fruit bats (Stone, 1970; PIER, 2014). It is unlikely to be spread by water, as it is known to be intolerant of waterlogging (Lim, 2012). It has been intentionally dispersed across the globe by humans from its American origin for cultivation.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationHas been subject of much propagation breeding Yes Yes Janick and Paull, 2008
Crop productionIntentionally dispersed across the globe by humans from its American origin for cultivation. Yes Yes FAO EcoCrop, 2014; Jansen et al., 1991; Orwa et al., 2009
Escape from confinement or garden escapeKnown to have escaped from cultivation in India and into the wild Yes Yes Morton, 1987
Medicinal usePlant parts known to have folkloric medicinal uses Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Jansen et al., 1991; UK Natural History Museum, 2014
ResearchHas been subject of much propagation breeding Yes Yes Janick and Paull, 2008

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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A. reticulata received a high risk score of 11 in a risk assessment of its invasive potential (PIER, 2014), indicating its negative impact on its environment, and is known to be an agricultural, environmental, and garden weed (Randall, 2012). 

Social Impact

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A. reticulata has a demonstrated negative impact on human health. The seed kernels of A. reticulata are toxic and the seeds, leaves and young fruits have insecticidal effects. Sap from cut branches is acrid and irritant and can severely injure the eyes. The bark contains 0.12% anonaine, and injection of an extract from the bark reportedly caused paralysis in a rear limb of an experimental toad (Morton, 1987; NTBG, 2014). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The sweet fruits are eaten raw or used in desserts. They don't have the distinct aroma of the cherimoya or the sugar apple. Unripe fruits and the bark are used in folk medicine. In Pakistan, A. reticulata is occasionally cultivated in Sind, and although the fruit is inferior in taste as compared to A. squamosa, its unripe fruit is considered anthelmintic, and its seeds and leaves have insecticidal properties (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). When fully ripe the fruit is soft to the touch and the stem and attached core can be easily pulled out, and the flesh may be scooped from the skin and eaten as it is or served with light cream and sugar (Morton, 1987). The nutritional content of the fruit is reported as nearly 17% sugar, 1.6% protein, and 0.26% fat (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Trees usually bear about 20-40 fruits per year, each about 300 g in weight but may produce up to 45 kg per year (FAO EcoCrop, 2014).

Several folkloric medicinal uses have been reported. Crushed leaves or a paste of the plant are used as a poultice on boils, abscesses and ulcers- a use known today which was also recorded by Sir Hans Sloane during his 17th century voyage to Jamaica. Fragments of the root bark are packed around the gums to relieve toothache. A decoction of the root is taken to bring down fevers. Dried and powdered unripe fruit, apparently rich in tannins, and a drink made from the bark are used in folkloric medicine against diarrhoea and worms; in severe cases, leaves, bark and green fruits are all boiled together in water to make a very potent brew (Jansen et al., 1991; UK Natural History Museum, 2014).

It is also used for materials. Young twigs provide good fibre, while the wood is soft, fibrous but durable, and used to make utensils (Jansen et al., 1991). The young shoots and the leaves are used in tanning and dyeing black leather and cloth (Hanelt et al., 2001).

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre
  • Pesticide
  • Tanstuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. reticulata can be distinguished from other Annona species such as A. glabra by its taller height (up to 10 m), larger and darker leaves, and heart-shaped, light green fruit (Stone, 1970; Jansen et al., 1991).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Recommended areas for further research include a review of the species’ invasiveness and potential negative impact on the environment, particularly in countries where it has already been identified as naturalized and weedy, and methods of detection, diagnosis and control.

Bibliography

Top of page Morton JF, 1987. Fruits of warm climates. Winterville, North Carolina, USA: Creative Resource Systems Inc.

Ochse JJ, Soule MJ, Dijkman MJ, Wehlburg C, 1961. Tropical and subtropical agriculture. 2 Volumes. New York: Macmillan.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

FAO EcoCrop, 2014. Annona reticulata, Eco-Crop Online Database. Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO). ttp://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=412

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Harris W, 1912. Notes on Fruits in Jamaica. Bulletin of the Jamaica Department of Agriculture, 2(6):159-179. http://books.google.com/books?id=REESAQAAMAAJ&dq=hans+sloane+jamaica+annona+reticulata&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Janick J; Paull RE, 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts [ed. by Janick, J.\Paull, R. E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, xviii + 954 pp.

Jansen PCM; Jukema J; Oyen LPA; Lingen TGvan, 1991. Annona reticulata L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts [ed. by Verheij, E. W. M. \Coronel, R.]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Pudoc, 316. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=1573

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Lim TK, 2012. Edible Medicinal and NonMedicinal Plants. Volume 1, Fruits. New York, USA: Springer.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Maas P; Lobão A; Rainer H, 2014. Annonaceae. (Annonaceae.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB110761

Madidi Checklist, 2014. List of the Flora of Madidi National Park, Bolivia (Listado de la Flora del Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia). St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/MDICHK

Merrill ED, 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants [reprint]. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing. http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/Botanical_Publications_of_E_D_Merrill_1000888541

Morton JF, 1987. Custard Apple. In: Fruits of warm climates [ed. by Morton, J. F.]. Miami, USA: Julia F. Morton, 80-83. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/custard_apple.html

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of Micronesiahttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos websitehttp://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
Flora of the Marquesas Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/query.cfm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR)http://www.hear.org/
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier

Contributors

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18/12/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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