Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Annona cherimola
(cherimoya)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Annona cherimola (cherimoya)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Annona cherimola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cherimoya
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. cherimola is a tree of American origin that has been cultivated in tropical and temperate regions around the world for its edible fruit. It is listed as a “cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); flowers are fragrant, extra-axillary, often opposite a leaf at the base of a branchlet, usually solitary but sometimes two or three grouped together on short nodding tomentose peduncles.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); flowers are fragrant, extra-axillary, often opposite a leaf at the base of a branchlet, usually solitary but sometimes two or three grouped together on short nodding tomentose peduncles.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); flowers are fragrant, extra-axillary, often opposite a leaf at the base of a branchlet, usually solitary but sometimes two or three grouped together on short nodding tomentose peduncles.
FlowersAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); flowers are fragrant, extra-axillary, often opposite a leaf at the base of a branchlet, usually solitary but sometimes two or three grouped together on short nodding tomentose peduncles.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits on tree. The fruit is a syncarp or pseudocarp formed by the fusion of the carpels and the receptacle into a fleshy mass.
TitleFruits
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits on tree. The fruit is a syncarp or pseudocarp formed by the fusion of the carpels and the receptacle into a fleshy mass.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits on tree. The fruit is a syncarp or pseudocarp formed by the fusion of the carpels and the receptacle into a fleshy mass.
FruitsAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits on tree. The fruit is a syncarp or pseudocarp formed by the fusion of the carpels and the receptacle into a fleshy mass.©Xavier Scheldeman
A natural stand of cherimoya trees.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionA natural stand of cherimoya trees.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
A natural stand of cherimoya trees.
Natural standA natural stand of cherimoya trees.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); cutting.
TitleCutting
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); cutting.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); cutting.
CuttingAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); cutting.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); graft.
TitleGraft
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); graft.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); graft.
GraftAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); graft.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits vary in shape and appearance. The skin may be smooth with fingerprint-like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances.
TitleFruits
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits vary in shape and appearance. The skin may be smooth with fingerprint-like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits vary in shape and appearance. The skin may be smooth with fingerprint-like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances.
FruitsAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); fruits vary in shape and appearance. The skin may be smooth with fingerprint-like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances. ©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); the fruit is easily broken or cut open, exposing the white, edible pulp, which is easily separated from the seeds. The juicy flesh has a pleasing aroma and a delicious, subacid flavour. The fruit contains numerous hard, brown or black, bean-like, glossy seeds, 1.25-2 cm long.
TitleFruit
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); the fruit is easily broken or cut open, exposing the white, edible pulp, which is easily separated from the seeds. The juicy flesh has a pleasing aroma and a delicious, subacid flavour. The fruit contains numerous hard, brown or black, bean-like, glossy seeds, 1.25-2 cm long.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); the fruit is easily broken or cut open, exposing the white, edible pulp, which is easily separated from the seeds. The juicy flesh has a pleasing aroma and a delicious, subacid flavour. The fruit contains numerous hard, brown or black, bean-like, glossy seeds, 1.25-2 cm long.
FruitAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); the fruit is easily broken or cut open, exposing the white, edible pulp, which is easily separated from the seeds. The juicy flesh has a pleasing aroma and a delicious, subacid flavour. The fruit contains numerous hard, brown or black, bean-like, glossy seeds, 1.25-2 cm long.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); damage caused by fruit flies.
TitlePest damage
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); damage caused by fruit flies.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); damage caused by fruit flies.
Pest damageAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); damage caused by fruit flies.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); infected fruit.
TitleDisease damage
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); infected fruit.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); infected fruit.
Disease damageAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); infected fruit.©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); mining on cherimoya leaf.
TitlePest damage
CaptionAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); mining on cherimoya leaf.
Copyright©Xavier Scheldeman
Annona cherimola (cherimoya); mining on cherimoya leaf.
Pest damageAnnona cherimola (cherimoya); mining on cherimoya leaf.©Xavier Scheldeman

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Annona cherimola Mill.

Preferred Common Name

  • cherimoya

International Common Names

  • English: custard apple; custard apple tree
  • Spanish: cherimoya; chirimoyo
  • French: cherimole; chérimolier
  • Chinese: mao ye fan li zhi

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: chirimoya
  • Brazil: atemoia
  • Dominican Republic: chermoya; chirimolia
  • Germany: Zuckerapfel
  • Haiti: cachimán; cachiman de la china; cachimán de la chine
  • Italy: cerimoya
  • Myanmar: cherimoyer; thinbaw-awza
  • Sweden: kirimoja
  • USA/Hawaii: kelemoio; momona

EPPO code

  • ANUCH (Annona cherimola)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. cherimola is a tree of American origin that has been cultivated in tropical and temperate regions around the world for its edible fruit. It is listed as a “cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and is known to be invasive in places both within and beyond its native range including Easter Island, the Galapagos, Hawaii, and New Zealand (PIER, 2014). A risk assessment gave the species a low invasive risk score of -4, but excluded several invasive traits in this score such as its known status as a garden/agricultural/environmental weed and naturalization beyond its native range (PIER, 2014). The species reproduces by seeds but can be propagated by grafting (Janick and Paull, 2008). 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Annonales
  •                         Family: Annonaceae
  •                             Genus: Annona
  •                                 Species: Annona cherimola

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Annona, commonly known as the custard-apple genus, consists of some 125 species with some species widely cultivated for their edible fruits and often becoming naturalized beyond their native range of tropical America and Africa (Wagner et al., 2014). The species A. cherimola is named ‘chirimuya’ or a variation thereof in several languages including Spanish, and derives from the Incan (Queuchua) name for the species meaning ‘cold seeds’, referring to the high altitudes in which the plant grows and seeds germinate (Encyclopedia of Life, 2015).

Description

Top of page

Cherimoyas are erect trees, 3-10 m tall, often low-branched and somewhat shrubby or spreading. The briefly deciduous to semi-deciduous (just before spring flowering) leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or elliptical, 12-20 cm x 8 cm, persistently brownish velvety-tomentose beneath. They are alternate, 2-ranked, with minutely hairy petioles, slightly hairy on the upper surface, velvety on the underside. Flowers are fragrant, extra-axillary, often opposite a leaf at the base of a branchlet, usually solitary but sometimes two or three grouped together on short nodding tomentose peduncles; outer three tepals oblong-linear, up to 3 cm long, greenish to pale yellow, marked with a purple spot at the base within; inner three tepals very small, reddish to purplish; androecium consisting of numerous free fleshy stamens, spirally arranged on the basal part of a conical receptacle; gynoecium comprising numerous free pistils on the upper part of the receptacle. Fruit is a syncarp or pseudocarp formed by the fusion of the carpels and the receptacle into a fleshy mass, variable in shape and appearance, from heart-shaped with surface bearing protuberances to spheroid or ovoid with the surface covered with 'U'-shaped areoles or rather smooth, 10-20 cm long and up to 10 cm in width, weighing on average 150-500 g, but extra large specimens of 2.7 kg or more have been reported; pulp white, edible, easily separable from the seeds. The skin may be smooth with fingerprint-like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances. The fruit is easily broken or cut open, exposing the snow-white, juicy flesh of pleasing aroma and delicious, subacid flavour. It contains numerous hard, brown or black, bean-like, glossy seeds, 1.25-2 cm long. The fruit is composed of an exocarp (fruit skin), occupying between 15 and 25% on a weight basis, an edible mesocarp (pulp and thalamus), varying between 65 and 80%, and seeds, ranging from 3 to 10%. Seeds usually obovate, obliquely truncate, somewhat compressed, with a thin, membranous, brown, wrinkled testa.
 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

A. cherimola is considered to have originated in South America (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) and was perhaps native to Ecuador, but is now widely found in Central and South America and is a common cultivation across both regions (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). Loja province, and Vilcabamba in particular (south Ecuador), is considered by some authors to be its centre of origin. This area is characterized by temperate, dry inter-Andean valleys. Mesoamerica (Mexico) is considered a second centre of origin. It also now commonly occurs in the West Indies and Caribbean and is cultivated around the world, including Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico, Spain, USA (California) and New Zealand. Spain is the most important producer worldwide with approximately 3300 ha [in 1999] concentrated in the Almuñecar and Motril valleys (southern Spain, Andalusia). The crop has also been introduced in South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Venezuela and a number of other Latin American countries for commercial growth purposes.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014Widely cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
IsraelPresentGazit et al., 1982; Orwa et al., 2009
MyanmarPresentKress et al., 2003
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPelser et al., 2014; PIER, 2014
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014Widely cultivated

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
EritreaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
GabonPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
LibyaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
SomaliaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
South AfricaPresentdu Preez, 1996b
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987

North America

BermudaPresentBritton, 1918
MexicoPresentMorton, 1987; Agustín, 1999; Randall, 2012
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentMorton, 1987; Grossberger, 1999
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014Naturalized

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014Cultivation escape: naturalized
CubaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
GuatemalaPresentMorton, 1987; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014Present before 1629
HaitiPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012From Jamaica, after 1785
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1785Harris, 1912; Morton, 1987; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Randall, 2012Cultivation escape
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
PanamaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
BoliviaPresentMorton, 1987; Gardiazabal Rosenberg, 1993; Orwa et al., 2009; Bolivia Checklist, 2014
BrazilPresentMorton, 1987; Bonaventure, 1999
ChilePresentMorton, 1987; Gardiazabal Cano, 1999; PIER, 2014
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
ColombiaPresentNativeMorton, 1987; Bircher and Bircher, 2000; Orwa et al., 2009; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014
EcuadorPresent Natural Otero Canelos, 1991; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008; PIER, 2014
PeruPresent Natural Morton, 1987; Franciosi Tijero, 1992; Peru Checklist, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ItalyPresentContinella et al., 1996; DAISIE, 2014
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentde Freitas Nunes, 1997
SpainPresentMorton, 1987; Guirardo et al., 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentGeorge et al., 1987; Randall, 2012
Caroline IslandsPresentWagner et al., 2014
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner and Lorence, 2014Ua Huka island
Marshall IslandsPresentWagner et al., 2014Ralik Chain (Jaluit)
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; PIER, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
New ZealandPresentAnderson Richardson, 1990
-Kermadec IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

A. cherimola is native to South America. It is believed to be indigenous to the Andean valleys of Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia and to have been spread in ancient times as a cultivated crop to Chile and Brazil, where it has been present for a long time (Morton, 1987). Peru is often included in the native range of A. cherimola, although it has also been argued that P. Bernabe Cobo introduced seeds of the species to both Peru and Mexico from Guatemala in 1629, as Morton (1987) asserts that “the often-cited representations of the cherimoya on ancient Peruvian pottery are actually images of the soursop, A. muricata L”. In 1785, the species reached Jamaica and from thence to Haiti; it then presumably spread to other parts of the West Indies and Caribbean (Harris, 1912; Morton, 1987). It was not listed in Bello’s (1881, 1883) works on Puerto Rico but it was included in Britton’s 1918 work on Bermuda. 

In 1790, A. cherimola was introduced into Hawaii by Don Francisco de Paulo Marin, but seeds were only brought from Mexico into California about a century later in 1871 for cultivation (Morton, 1987).

A. cherimola was introduced to Europe in the mid-eighteenth century. The species was reportedly brought to Spain in 1757, and according to Miller’s original species description, it was growing in England by 1768, as it was “cultivated in Peru for the fruit, and from thence the seeds have been brought to England, and many plants have been raised” (Miller, 1768). The species was apparently introduced to Italy in 1797 and was cultivated extensively in Reggio Calabria (Morton, 1987).

The species was apparently cultivated in Asia and Africa in the late nineteenth century. Morton (1987) reports that it was introduced into India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1880 and in Madeira in 1897, then planted in the Canary Islands, Algiers, Egypt and - perhaps via Italy - in Libya, Eritrea and Somalia. The species was present in New Zealand’s Rauol Island by 1887, when it was observed growing there by Cheeseman (West, 1996).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Risk of introduction for A. cherimola is considered low based on a risk assessment prepared by PIER which gave it a low score of -4, but this score excluded several invasive traits such as its known status as “cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012), naturalization beyond its native range, repeated introductions and escape from cultivation (PIER, 2014). Considering the high invasive potential of some other Annona species such as A. reticulata, and given that A. cherimola is already known to be invasive in places beyond its native range including Easter Island, the Galapagos, Hawaii, and New Zealand (PIER, 2014), risk of introduction is therefore higher than previously reported and a re-assessment is necessary.

Habitat

Top of page

A. cherimola generally favours mid elevations in temperate and subtropical regions. It occurs in the Andean valleys and hillsides of its native Andean range in Ecuador, Colombia, and Bolivia (Morton, 1987; Orwa et al., 2009; Bolivia Checklist, 2014), and premontane humid forest in Antioquia, Colombia (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). It has also been reported growing in the highlands of Chile and Brazil, the hillsides of Jamaica, upland forests of Hawaii, the mountain provinces of the Philippines, and in the mountains of Puerto Rico (Harris, 1912; Morton, 1987; Liogier and Martorell, 2000).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The diploid chromosome number of A. cherimola is 2n=14 although 2n=16, has also been reported (Pascual et al., 1993). Interspecific crossing between several Annona species including A. cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. diversifolia is possible, but little effort has been exerted to select more desirable Annona types (Morton, 1987; George and Nissin, 1991).

Physiology and Phenology

A. cherimola is semi-deciduous. In the subtropics, trees shed their leaves in spring. Flowering coincides with the resumption of extension growth. Usually a second flush of shoot growth, and sometimes a third, occurs during the growing season, bringing out further flowers, but these are unlikely to set fruit. In fact, in the cultivated plant flowering can be brought about at almost any time of the year by pruning and defoliation to force a new flush. The main flush and flowering may be advanced by removing the leaves 1-2 months before they would normally be shed. Flowering is best on spurs and short shoots and fails completely on very vigorous shoots, which are common in young cherimoya trees.

Poor fruit set is the main factor limiting yield of the plant in cultivation; it affects both the number of fruits, and fruit shape and size. Stigmas are receptive for only a few hours, a day before the anthers of that flower dehisce. At that time, flowers are just beginning to open and are not very accessible to visiting insects. Only small beetles of the Nitidulidae have been shown to be effective pollinators; two or three visits are needed to pollinate an adequate number of stigmas for full fruit development. Pollen germination is very poor. Varying degrees of compatibility exist between cultivars. Hand pollination greatly improves fruit set. It takes about 30 days for an emerging flower bud to reach full bloom; fruit ripens 4-5 months later, but maturation is greatly delayed at low temperatures. In the subtropics, the harvest continues from late autumn to early spring. Wild animals like birds, rodents, wild boars or straying livestock help in spreading the fruits, and thus seeds.

Seeds, if kept dry, will remain viable for several years. However, vegetative propagation is a common practice when cultivated, as seedlings have a reported tendency to produce inferior fruits (Morton, 1987; Orwa et al., 2009).

Environmental Requirements

A. cherimola is generally tolerant of a wide range of soil types from light to heavy, thriving best on a medium, moderately fertile soil with pH range of 6.5-7.6 and organic content between 1.7 and 2.7%. It has reportedly grown well on rock-strewn, loose, sandy loam 2 to 3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) above a gravel subsoil (Morton, 1987). Cherimoya is generally shallow-rooted: 98% of roots are situated in the upper 40 cm, with considerable lateral root development. It can grow well in shallow and poor soils, although as a crop higher and more consistent yields are obtained from trees grown on sand or sandy loam soils. Moreover, vegetative growth can also be controlled more easily through irrigation and fertilization. On heavier and more poorly drained soil types, waterlogging is a major cause of floral abscission and reduced fruit set. On shallow soils, mounding improves soil depth and drainage, and mulching encourages the development of surface feeding roots.

George and Nissin (1991) argue against A. cherimola’s “reputation of being hardy and drought-resistant”, instead asserting that “although the rest period and leaf fall enable the tree to bridge a severe dry season, it requires adequate moisture during the growing season, responding very well to supplementary irrigation. The importance of moisture is borne out by the fact that in India as well as South-East Asia fruit set is largely limited to the onset of the rains, notwithstanding the prolonged flowering season.”

An annual precipitation of more than 600 mm, and preferably over 1000 mm, is necessary for wild plants, i.e. without irrigation. Annual precipitation should not exceed 1700 mm due to the phytopathological problems that may arise at high air humidity. Rainfall is essential during flowering and early fruit set but waterlogging results in flower and fruit drop. Relative humidity is an important factor for flowering, 70% being the lower boundary to prevent flower abscission and stigma desiccation and 95% being the upper boundary where stigma sugar secretion gets too diluted.

Temperature seems to be a determining factor. Wild cherimoyas show a very small temperature range combined with little seasonal temperature fluctuations. Mean optimal annual temperature should vary between 17 and 22°C. Nevertheless, in Spain, the most important cherimoya cultivating country, mean monthly temperatures oscillate between 25°C in summer and 13°C in winter, proving that, especially during flowering, temperature is important and should be between 16 and 20°C. Minimum temperature limitations are 13°C for optimal fruit quality and 1°C for tree development, whereas maximum temperature is limited to 30°C because of pollination problems at higher temperatures and limited photosynthetic ability. Temperature limitations can vary depending on the cultivar, but only light frosts are tolerated. Excessively high temperatures may cause premature ripening and fermentation of the fruit.

According to Morton (1987), A. cherimola is “subtropical or mild-temperate and does not succeed in the lowland tropics. It requires long days. In Colombia and Ecuador, it grows naturally where the temperature ranges between 62.6° and 68°F (17°-20°C). In Peru, the ideal climate for the cherimoya is said to lie between 64.5° and 77°F (18°-25°C) in the summer and 64.5° and 41°F (18°-5°C) in winter. The tree cannot survive the cold in the Valle de Mexico at 7200 ft (2195 m). In Argentina, young trees are wrapped with dry grass or burlap during the winter. The cherimoya can tolerate light frosts. Young trees can withstand a temperature of 26°F (-3.33°C), but a few degrees lower will severely injure or kill mature trees. The tree prefers a rather dry environment as in southern Guatemala where the rainfall is 50 in (127 cm) and there is a long dry season. It is not adaptable to northern Guatemala where the 100 inch (254 cm) rainfall is spread throughout the year.”

The species is grown at medium elevations in Central and South America, with a range of around 0-3000 m. In Ecuador the species has been reported growing in Galapagos and Andean regions between elevations of 0-3000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), while in Antioquia, Colombia, the species has been reported growing in humid pre-montane forests between 1500-2000 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), and in the Andes region of Bolivia between 2000-3000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Nicaragua, the species reportedly grows at elevations between 650-1480 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). In China and Taiwan the species is reportedly commonly cultivated between 100 and 300 m (PIER, 2014). Altitude would not seem to be the limiting factor for cherimoya occurrence, but rather altitude-related temperature and water availability. Relatively dry and cool areas without large temperature variations are optimal for cherimoya.

During commercial cultivation, cultural methods which raise humidity in the orchard include close tree spacing, windbreaks and overhead misting. Windbreaks are needed to prevent damage to trees swaying in the wind, most cultivars being shallow-rooted. Such damage appears to be at least partially responsible for the incidence of collar rot.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6001700mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

The species does not have any self-propelling mechanisms for seed dispersal, and fruit is generally too large to be dispersed by water. Furthermore, the species requires lengthy dry periods, so water is an unlikely vector.

Vector Transmission

The fruits of A.cherimola are edible and have a sweet flavour, are odoured and green-coloured, which may suggest bat and other mammal dispersal, but this has not been confirmed (PIER, 2014).

Accidental Introduction

The species is known to have escaped from cultivation in Jamaica and Costa Rica, and has naturalised (Morton, 1987; Randall, 2012).

Intentional Introduction

A. cherimola has been widely spread beyond its native American range by humans primarily for cultivation purposes.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUsed as a food crop Yes Yes FAO EcoCrop, 2014; George and Nissen, 1991; Morton, 1987
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation in Jamaica and Costa Rica Yes Yes Morton, 1987; Randall, 2012
Garden waste disposal Yes Yes Morton, 1987; Randall, 2012
Medicinal use Yes Yes FAO EcoCrop, 2014; Morton, 1987

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Little is currently known on the environmental impact that an invasion of A. cherimola may have on non-native environments, and more research in this area is needed, especially considering that it is already known to be invasive to some places.

Social Impact

Top of page

The edible fruit of A. cherimola is the most favoured of the Annona species, which has resulted in its cultivation and introduction around the world. However the species has a limited climatic range and its fruits a limited shelf life. Although it has a range of medicinal uses, the introduction, naturalization, and potential invasiveness of the species is also known to have a negative health impact, as its seeds and bark contain several toxic alkaloids and physical contact with seed juices can result in blindness.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

The fruit of A. cherimola is known to be eaten as food and used in folkloric medicine (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is an agricultural crop and is grown commercially in Chile, Bolivia, Spain, United States and New Zealand; due to limited shelf life and its susceptibility to mechanical injury, its fruits are not an economically important crop on the global scale, and sales mostly remain at the local level. According to the FAO, Chile exports 1000 t of cherimoya annually and the fruit has been shipped from Madeira to London for many years; outdated statistics from the 1980s report annual production in Spain of 15,000 t, Bolivia 6000 t, Chile 2300 t and Peru 400 t (FAO EcoCrop, 2014).The nutritional composition of cherimoya fruits is that of a typical sweet fruit but with a high content of carbohydrates and low content of acids. Its vitamin A content is modest, but it is a good source of the vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron, calcium and phosphorous.

A. cherimola is essentially a dessert fruit that is eaten fresh. It can also be used for making ice cream, milk shakes or sorbets and is processed into yoghurt, flan fruit juice and wine.

Due to its enzymatic characteristics, cherimoya fruits cannot be submitted to thermal processes and its processing should utilise refrigerating or freezing, with the addition of antioxidants to avoid enzymatic oxidation and subsequent colouring. In Chile, freezing of cherimoya is common, especially for unsaleable, low quality fruit. Frozen cherimoya pulp can be conserved for 120 days at -18°C, can easily be shipped, and is used to prepare juices, ice creams, yoghurt, etc.

Other processing possibilities include preserving at high sugar concentrations and bottling in modified atmosphere.

Traditionally, cherimoya seeds are crushed and used as an insecticide, mostly to kill lice and to cure parasitic skin disorders. Human ingestion of resin isolated from the seeds produces symptoms resembling the effects of atropine, although small doses are used as a potent emetic and cathartic. The leaves and stem barks of Annona senegalensis are used as antidiarrheal drugs, whereas the roots and leaves are used in respiratory complaints.

Biochemically, cherimoya seeds are an important source of acetogenins, a type of alkaloid, all of which show antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities that are useful in pharmaceutical sciences. The annonaceous acetogenins are a new group of powerful bioactive agents and more than 300 of these compounds have been found to date. Properties attributed have been antimicrobial, anti-tumour, cardiotonic and insecticidal. Some important acetogenins reported in methanolic extracts of cherimoya seeds are annonacin, cherimolin, almenequin and squamocin. Studies of these acetogenins form a promising tool in the development of a future generation of anti-tumour medicines.

In local Mexican medicine, the seeds are toasted, peeled and pulverized, then can be drunk with water or milk as a potent emetic and cathartic, or mixed with grease and applied topically for parasitic skin disorders. A decoction of the fruit skin is taken to relieve pneumonia (Morton, 1987; Orwa et al., 2009).

A. cherimola is also used in graft stocking, as seedlings often produce plants with commercially inferior fruits (Morton, 1987).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Graft stock

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

There is a lack of available data on methods of prevention and control for A. cherimola, probably due to its perceived low risk of introduction. However, considering its demonstrated invasiveness, its intentional introduction to non-native environments for cultivation, and that it is known to have escaped from cultivation and to thrive and naturalise in the wild, areas of recommended research include extent of its invasiveness, methods of prevention and control, and negative environmental impact.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Agustín JA, 1997. El cultivo de la chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) en el estado de Michoacán, México. Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture, 41:152-161.

Agustín JA, 1999. Advances in research on genetic resources of cherimoya (Annona cherimola) in Michoacán state, Mexico. Acta Horticulturae, 497:189-193.

Alique R, Zamorano JP, Calvo ML, Merodio C, De la Plaza JL, 1994. Tolerance of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) to cold storage. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119(3):524-528.

Allen BM, 1967. Malayan fruits. An introduction to the cultivated species. Singapore: Donald Moor Press Ltd.

Altieri MA, Merrick LC, 1987. In situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems. Economic Botany, 41(1):86-96.

Anderson PA, Richardson AC, 1990. Which cherimoya cultivar is best? The Orchardist of New Zealand, 63(12):17-19.

APG, 1998. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 85(4):531-553.

Batten DJ, 1990. Effect of temperature on ripening and postharvest life of fruit of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. × A. squamosa L.) cv. ‘African Pride’. Scientia Horticulturae, 45:129-136.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bircher AG, Bircher WH, 2000. Encyclopedia of fruit trees and edible flowering plants in Egypt and the subtropics. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press, 596 pp.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Bonaventure L, 1999. A cultura da cherimóia e de seu híbrido a atemóia. São Paulo, Brazil: Livraria Nobel.

Bories C, Loiseau P, Cortes D, Myint SH, Hocquemiller R, Gayral P, Cavé A, Laurens A, 1991. Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia [A. cherimola] seeds. Planta Medica, 57(5):434-436; 17 ref.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Broughton WJ, Guat T, 1979. Storage conditions and ripening of the custard apple Annona squamosa L. Scientia Horticulturae, 10:73-82.

Bydekerke L, Van Ranst E, Vanmechelen L, Groenemans R, 1998. Land suitability assessment for cherimoya in southern Ecuador using expert knowledge and GIS. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 69:89-98.

Calatrava J, 1998. El mercado español de la chirimoya: situación actual y perspectivas. In: V Jornadas Andaluzas de Frutos Tropicales, Congresos y Jornadas, DGIFA 47/98, Granada, Spain, 79-106.

Calzada Benza J, 1993. 143 frutales nativos. Ediciones Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru.

Campbell CW, 1979. Effect of gibberellin treatment and hand pollination on fruit-set of atemoya (Annona hybrid). Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science - Tropical Region, 23:122-124.

Campbell CW, Popenoe J, 1968. Effect of gibberellic acid on seed dormancy of Annona diversifolia Saff. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science - Tropical Region, 11:33-36.

Campbell JA, 1992. Custard apple export market development and quality management. Maroochy Horticultural Research Station Report, 6:43-44.

Campbell RJ, 1996. South American fruits deserving further attention. Progress in new crops: Proceedings of the Third National Symposium, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 22-25 October, 1996. 29 ref.

Castillo RO, 1995. Plant genetic resources in the Andes: impact, conservation, and management. Crop Science, 35:355-360.

Cautín Morales RC, Fassio C, Ovalle A, 1999. Productive behaviour of fruiting wood in three systems of trellis systems in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.). Acta Horticulturae, 497:315-321.

Chandler WH, 1962. Frutales de hoja perenne. Mexico City, Mexico: Unión Tipográfica Editorial Hispano-Americana.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Chatrou L, 1999. The Annonaceae and the Annonaceae project: a brief overview of the state of affairs. Acta Horticulturae, 497:43-49.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cockshutt N, 1990. Annona problems and prospects in South Florida. Tropical Fruit World (Fairchild Tropical Garden), 1(4):123-125.

Continella G, Longo S, Zappia R, Palmeri V, 1996. Fruit and flower biology of some cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) clones. Italus Hortus, 3(6):32-38; 17 ref.

Cortès D, 1999. New bioactive compounds from Annonaceae. In: Memorias del II Congreso Internacional de Anonáceas, Chiapas, Mexico, 64-65.

Cortès D, Myint SH, Dupont B, Davoust D, 1993. Bioactive acetogenins from seeds of Annona cherimolia. Phytochemistry, 32(6):1475-1482.

CTIFL, 1992. Nuevas especies frutales. Madrid, Spain: Ediciones Mundi-Prensa.

Cueva E, 1999. Recolección, clasificación y estudio etnobotánico de los recursos fitogenéticos arbóreos y arbustivos nativos, productores de frutos comestibles, de la provincia de Loja. MSc Thesis. Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Nacional de Loja.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

De Freitas Nunes RE, 1997. The actual status of cherimoya cultivation in Madeira Island. In: Memorias del I Congreso Internacional de Anonáceas, Chapingo, Mexico, 56-67.

De la Rocha G, 1965. Cultivo de la chirimoya y resultados experimentales alcanzados. Lima, Peru: Ministerio de Agricultura, Boletín Tecnico No. 59.

Du Preez RJ, 1996. Annonas - fruit with commercial potential. Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse Information Bulletin, 17(10):10-16.

Du Preez RJ, 1996. Pollination of cherimoya (Annona cherimola) and atemoya (A. cherimola × A. squamosa). Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse Information Bulletin, 17(8):12-16.

Ellstrand NC, 1997. Cherimoya cultivars. In: Cherimoya Handbook. California Growers Association.

Ellstrand NC, Lee JM, 1987. Cultivar identification of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) using isozyme markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 32:25-31.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2015. Encyclopedia of Life. www.eol.org

Estrella E, 1988. El Pan de América. Etnohistoria de los alimentos aborígenes en el Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

Fairchild D, 1990. Who knows the Annonas. Tropical Fruit World (Fairchild Tropical Garden), 1(4):99-109.

FAO EcoCrop, 2014. Annona cherimola, Eco-Crop Online Database. Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO). http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=2194&entityType=PLCR**&entityDisplayCategory=full

FAO, 1992. Cultivos marginados. Otra perspectiva de 1492. Colección FAO. Rome, Italy: FAO, Producción y protección vegetal, No. 26.

FAO, 2002. Statistical databases of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://apps.fao.org.

Farré Massip JM, 1999. Informe del viaje a Ecuador y Perú entre el 13 de marzo y el 2 de abril de 1999. Estación Experimental La Mayora, Malaga, Spain.

Farré Massip JM, Hermoso González JM, 1985. Informe del viaje de exploración sobre la chirimoya realizado al Perú entre el 22 de abril y 1 de junio de 1985. Estación Experimental La Mayora, Malaga, Spain.

Farré Massip JM, Hermoso González JM, 1987. Informe del viaje de exploración sobre la chirimoya realizado a Ecuador y Perú entre el 1 de abril y el 15 de mayo de 1987. Estación Experimental La Mayora, Malaga, Spain.

Farré Massip JM, Hermoso González JM, 1995. Informe del viaje de exploración sobre la chirimoya realizado a Bolivia y Perú entre el 15 de abril y el 18 de mayo de 1995. Estación Experimental La Mayora, Malaga, Spain.

Farré Massip JM, Hermoso González JM, 1997. El chirimoyo en España. In: São José AR, Souza IVB, Morais IVB, Rebouças TNH, eds. Anonáceas, Produção e Mercado. Bahia, Brasil, 84-87.

Farré Massip JM, Hermoso Gonzaléz JM, Guirado E, García-Tapia J, 1999. Técnicas de cultivo del chirimoyo en España. Acta Horticulturae, 497:91-103.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Franciosi Tijero RF, 1992. El cultivo del chirimoyo en el Perú. Ediciones Fundeagro, Lima, Peru.

Garcia del Corral F, 1989. Polinización natural y artificial del chirimoyo. Estudio de polen y de la receptividad de la flor. MSc Thesis. Sevilla, Spain: Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica Agrícola.

Gardiazabal F, Cano G, 1999. Characterisation of 10 cherimoya cultivars (Annona cherimola) and their response to artificial pollination in Quillota, Chile. Acta Horticulturae, 497:225-237.

Gardiazabal F, Rosenberg G, 1993. El cultivo del chirimoyo. Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Facultad de Agronomía, Valparaíso, Chile.

Garwood NC, 1995. Studies in Annonaceae. XX. Morphology and ecology of seedlings, fruits and seeds of selected Panamian species. Botanischer Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzegeographie, 117(1-2):1-152.

Gazit S, Galon I, Podoler H, 1982. The role of Nitidulid beetles in natural pollination of Annona in Israel. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 107:849-852.

George AP, Broadley RH, Nissen RJ, Hamill SD, Topp BL, 1999. Breeding strategies for atemoya and cherimoya. Acta Horticulturae, 497:255-260.

George AP, Nissen RJ, 1987. Propagation of Annona species: A review. Scientia Horticulturae, 33:75-85.

George AP, Nissen RJ, 1991. Annona cherimola Miller. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts [ed. by Verheij, E. W. M. \Coronel, R.]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc, 71-75. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=1471

George AP, Nissen RJ, Brown BI, 1987. The custard apple. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 113(5):287-297

George AP, Nissen RJ, Campbell JA, 1992. Pollination in Annona species (cherimoya, atemoya and sugar apple). Acta Horticulturae, 321:178-183.

George AP, Nissen RJ, Ironside DA, Anderson P, 1989. Effects of nitidulid beetles on pollination and fruit set of Annona spp. hybrids. Scientia Horticulturae, 39(4):289-299

González Lituma H, González Lituma L, 1980. Colección y estudio de algunas características botánicas y agronómicas de la chirimoya (Annona cherymolia, Mill.) en la provincia de Loja. MSc Thesis. Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Nacional de Loja.

Grossberger D, 1999. The California cherimoya industry. Acta Horticulturae, 497:119-130.

Guirardo Sánchez E, Hermoso González JM, Pérez de Oteyza MA, García-Tapia Bello J, Farré Massip JM, 2001. Polinización del chirimoyo. Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca, Sevilla, Spain.

Gutiérrez M, Lahoz JM, Sola MM, Pascual L, Vargas AM, 1994. Postharvest changes in total soluble solids and pH of cherimoya fruit stored at chilling and non-chilling temperatures. Journal of Horticultural Science, 69(3):459-463.

Guzman VL, 1951. Informe del viaje de exploración sobre la chirimoya y otros frutales tropicales. Ministerio de Agricultura, Centro Nacional de Investigación y Experimentación Agrícola La Molina, Lima, Perú.

Harlan JR, 1971. Agricultural origins: centres and non-centres. Science, 174:468-471.

Harris W, 1912. Notes on Fruits in Jamaica. Bulletin of the Jamaica Department of Agriculture, 2(6):159-179. http://books.google.com/books?id=REESAQAAMAAJ&dq=hans+sloane+jamaica+annona+reticulata&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Hayat MA, 1963. Morphology of seed germination and seedling in Annona squamosa. Botanical Gazette, 124:360-362.

Hermoso González JM, Pérez de Oteyza MA, Ruiz Nieto A, Farré Massip JM, 1999. The Spanish germplasm bank of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.). Acta Horticulturae, 497:201-212.

Hermoso González JM, Ruiz Nieto A, Farré Massip JM, 1997. El banco Español de germoplasma de chirimoya. In: Memorias del Congreso Internacional de Anonaceas, Chapingo, Mexico, 157-168.

Hewett EW, 1993. New horticultural crops in New Zealand. In: Janick J, Simon JE, eds. New Crops. New York, USA: Wiley, 57-64.

Heywood VH, 1985. Flowering plants of the world. London, UK & Sydney, Australia: Croom Helm.

Heywood VH, 1999. Trends in agricultural biodiversity. In: Janick J, ed. Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. Alexandria, USA: ASHS Press, 2-14.

Higuchi H, Utsunomiya N, 1999. Floral differentiation and development in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) under warm (30/25 °C) and cool (20/15 °C) day/night temperatures. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 68(4):707-716.

Hofmann C, Hofmann J, 1987. The land of cherimoya. The Fruit Gardener, 19(1):9.

Hutton DG, Sanewski GM, 1992. Fruit and leaf spot in custard apples. Maroochy Horticultural Research Station Report, 6:42-43.

Ibar Albiñana L, 1986. El Chirimoyo. In: Cultivo del aguacate, chirimoyo mango y papaya. Editorial Aedos, Barcelona, Spain, 123-147.

INIA, 1997. El cultivo del chirimoyo. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agraria, Boletín Técnico N° 11, Lima, Peru.

Izquierdo J, Roca W, 1998. Under-utilized Andean food crops: status and prospects of plant biotechnology for the conservation and sustainable agricultural use of genetic resources. Acta Horticulturae, 475:157-172.

Janick J, Paull RE, 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts [ed. by Janick, J.\Paull, R. E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, xviii + 954 pp.

Jordán M, Obando M, Iturriaga L, Goreux A, Velozo J, 1993. Organogenesis and regeneration of some Andean fruit species. Acta Horticulturae, 336:279-283.

Jørgensen PM, Leon-Yanez S, 1999. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Kessler PJA, 1993. Annonaceae. In: Kubitzi K, Rohwer JG, Brittrich V, eds. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Vol. II. Flowering Dicotyledons. Berlin, Germany: Spinger-Verlag, 93-104.

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Le=n Fuentes J, 1999. Production of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) in Ecuador. Acta Horticulturae, No. 497:59-69; 4 ref.

León J, 1987. Botánica de los cultivos tropicales. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura, San José, Costa Rica.

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

López Encina C, Padilla IMG, Cazorla JM, Caro E, 1999. Tissue culture in cherimoya. Acta Horticulturae, 497:289-294.

López-Cózar Martínez FJ, 1987. Polinización artificial del chirimoyo. Junta de Andalucía, Colección Divulgación HD 2/87. Sevilla, Spain.

Mabberley DJ, 1990. The Plant Book: a Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mahdeem H, 1990. Best of the Annonas. Tropical Fruit World (Fairchild Tropical Garden), 1(4):110-114.

Marissens M, 1998. Estudio de las preferencias del consumidor Lojano para ajustar parámetros de selección en chirimoya. In: Informe anual del proyecto Vl.I.R. ‘Conocimientos y Prácticas Culturales sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos Nativos en el Austro Ecuatoriano’. CATER, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador.

Martínez Quésada F, 1987. Plan de actuación sobre el cultivo de chirimoyo en la comarca de Guajar (Granada). MSc Thesis. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos y de Montes, Córdoba, Spain.

Miller P, 1768. Gardeners dictionary, 8th ed.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Morales LM, 1993. Descripción pomológica y análisis de componentes del fruto en una colección de cultivares de chirimoya. MSc Thesis. Sevilla, Spain: Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica Agrícola.

Morton JF, 1987. Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami, USA: J.F. Morton, 517 pp.

Nadel H, Pena JE, 1994. Identity, behavior, and efficacy of nitidulid beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) pollinating commercial Annona species in Florida. Environmental Entomology, 23(4):878-886

National Research Council, 1989. Lost crops of the Incas: little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press.

Nissen RJ, George AP, 1992. Custard apple improvement by breeding and selection. Maroochy Horticultural Research Station Report, 6:46-47.

Ochse JJ, Soule Jr, MJ, Dijkman MJ, Wehlburg C, 1991. Annonas. In: Cultivo y mejoramiento de plantas tropicales y subtropicales. Editorial Limusa, Mexico City, Mexico, 616-634.

Oleata JA, Undurraga PM, 1996. Incidencia del grado de ablandamiento de la materia prima y tipo de trozado sobre la calidad de pulpa congelada de chirimoya (Annona chirimola Mill.) cv. Bronceada. Alimentos, 21(3-4):1-9.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Otero Canelos R, 1991. Estudio pomológico y selección de 31 ecotipos de chirimoya (Annona chirimola M). en la provincia de Pichincha. MSc Thesis. Quito, Ecuador: Universidad Central del Ecuador.

Padulosi S, Eyzaquirre P, Hodgkin T, 1999. Challenges and strategies in promoting conservation and use of neglected and underutilized crop species. In: Janick J, ed. Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. Alexandria, USA: ASHS Press, 140-145.

Palma T, Stanley DW, Aguilera JM, Zoffoli JP, 1993. Respiratory behavior of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) under controlled atmospheres. Hortscience, 28(6):647-649.

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Pascual L, Perfectti F, Gutierrez M, Vargas AM, 1993. Characterizing isozymes of Spanish cherimoya cultivars. Hortscience, 28(8):845-847.

Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2011. Tropical fruits, Volume 1., Tropical fruits, Volume 1:viii + 391 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103354984

Pavez ML, 1985. Respuesta a la polinización artificial y determinación de cambios físicos y químicos del fruto de chirimoyo (Annona cherimola Mill) en distintos cultivares en la zona de La Cruz. MSc Thesis. Valparaíso, Chile: Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Perfectti F, Pascual L, 1998. Characterization of cherimoya germplasm by isozyme markers. Fruit Varieties Journal, 52(1):53-62.

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pittmann EC, 1956. La chirimoya. Lima, Peru: Estación Experimental Agrícola La Molina, Circular No. 71.

Popenoe W, 1921. The native home of the cherimoya. Journal of Heredity, XII (7):331-337.

Popenoe W, 1970. The cherimoya. California Avocado Society Yearbook, 54:133-139.

Popenoe W, 1974. Manual of tropical and subtropical fruits, excluding the banana, coconut, pinapple, citrus fruits, olive and fig. A Facsimile of the 1920 Edition. New York, USA: Haffner Press, London, UK: Collier-Macmillan Publishers.

PROSEA, 1992. Plant resources of South-east Asia. Vol. 2, Edible fruits and nuts. Bogor Indonesia: PROSEA.

Purohit A, 1995. Annonaceous fruits. In: Salunkle DK, Kadam SS, eds. Handbook of Fruit Science and Technology: Production, Composition, Storage and Processing. New York, USA: M Dekker, 377-385.

Purseglove JW, 1968. Tropical crops. Dicotyledons. 1. London:Longmans, Green & Co.Ltd., 225-236.

Rahman MSM, Shimada T, Yamamoto T, Yonemoto JY, Yoshida M, 1998. Genetical diversity of cherimoya cultivars revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Breeding Science, 48(1):5-10, 77; 21 ref.

Rajat R, 2000. Prospects for marketing of underutilized tropical fruits & vegetables in developed countries. Acta Horticulturae, 518:249-251.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rasai S, George AP, Kantharajah AS, 1995. Tissue culture of Annona spp. (cherimoya, atemoya, sugar apple and soursop): A review. Scientia Horticulturae, 62(1/2):1-14; 81 ref.

Richardson AC, 1990. The food of the Gods, Cherimoya, Future Prospects. Growing Today, March 1990, 17-19.

Richardson AC, Anderson PA, 1990. Is hand pollination of cherimoya necessary? The Orchardist of New Zealand, 63(11):21-25.

Richardson AC, Anderson PA, 1993. A detailed evaluation of cherimoya cultivars. The Orchardist of New Zealand, 66(7):28-30.

Richardson AC, Anderson PA, 1993. Propagating cherimoya. The Orchardist of New Zealand, 66:41-43.

Richardson AC, Anderson PA, 1996. Hand pollination effects on the set and development of cherimoya (Annona cherimola) fruit in a humid climate. Scientia Horticulturae, 65:273-281.

Ronning CM, Schnell RJ, Gazit S, 1995. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to identify Annona cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 120(5):726-729.

Rosell P, Galan V, 1995. Notes on rhythms observed in the duration of flower anthesis throughout flowering in cherimoya on the island of Tenerife. Fruits, 50(3):233-237.

Rupprecht JK, Hui YH, McLaughlin JL, 1990. Annonaceous acetogenins: a review. Journal of Natural Products, 53(2):237-278

Saavedra E, 1977. Influence of pollen grain stage at the time of hand pollination as a factor on fruit set of cherimoya. Hortscience, 12(2):117-118.

Sahpaz S, Gonzalez MC, Hocquemiller R, Zafra Polo MC, Cortes D, 1996. Annosenegalin and annogalene: two cytotoxic mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins from Annona senegalensis and Annona cherimola. Phytochemistry, 42(1):103-107; 25 ref.

Sanewski G(Editor), 1991. Custard apples: cultivation and crop protection. Brisbane, Australia; Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Ed. 2:103 pp.

Schroeder CA, 1941. Hand pollination effects in the cherimoya (Annona cherimola). California Avocado Society Yearbook, 1941:94-98.

Schroeder CA, 1943. Hand pollination studies on the cherimoya. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 43:39-41.

Soria JT, Hermoso González JM, Farré JM, 1991. Polinización del chirimoyo. In: II Jornadas de la Asociación de Productores de Frutos Subtropicales. Ayuntamiento de Almuñecar, Granada, Spain, 11-25.

Soria JV, 1991. Estrategias de conservación in situ de recursos fitogenéticos en Ecuador. In: Castillo R, Estrella J, Tapia C, eds. Técnicas Para el Manejo y Uso de los Recursos Fitogenéticos. INIAP, Quito, Ecuador, 104-115.

Tazzari L, Pestelli P, Fiorino P, Parri G, 1990. Propagation techniques for Annona cherimola Mill. Acta Horticuturae, 275:315-321.

Thakur DR, Singh RN, 1965. Studies on pollen morphology, pollination and fruit set in some Annonas. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 22(1):10-18.

Thompson, A. K., 2010. Controlled atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables., Controlled atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables:xvi + 272 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103257949

Undurraga PL, 1989. El cultivo de la chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) en Chile. In: Memorias de la II Reunión Técnica de la Red Latinoamericana de Agroindustria de Frutas Tropicales, Manizales, Colombia, 73-92.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Valencia R, Pitman N, León-Yánez S, Jørgensen PM, 2000. Libro rojo de las plantas endémicas del Ecuador. Herbario QCA, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Van Damme P, 1992. Toegepaste plantensystematiek. Course Text. Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Science, Ghent University, Belgium.

Van Damme P, Scheldeman X, 1999. Commercial development of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) in Latin America. Acta Horticulturae, 497:17-28.

Van Damme P, Scheldeman X, 1999. Promoting cultivation of cherimoya in Latin America. Unasylva, 50(198):43-46.

Van den Eynden V, Cueva E, Cabrera O, 1999. Plantas silvestres comestibles del sur del Ecuador - Wild edible plants of southern Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Vavilov NI, 1950. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Chronica Botanica 13. Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.

Vidal Hernández L, 1993. La reproducción sexual y multiplicación vegetativo de las Anonaceas. Universidad Veracruzana, Publicación Técnica No. 3, Veracruz, México.

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

West CJ, 1996. Assessment of the weed control programme on Raoul Island, Kermadec Group. Science and Research Series 98. http://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/science-and-technical/srs98entire.pdf

Wiersema JH, León B, 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 749 pp.

Zeven AC, Zhukovsky PM, 1975. Dictionary of cultivated plants and their centres of diversity. Wageningen, The Netherlands: PUDOC.

Zurita J, Lopez M, 1980. Análisis pomológico de la chirimoya en cinco zonas de producción con fines agroindustriales. MSc Thesis. Quito, Ecuador: Universidad Central del Ecuador.

Contributors

Top of page

18/12/2014 Updated by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map