Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Zoysia matrella
(Manila grass)

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Datasheet

Zoysia matrella (Manila grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Zoysia matrella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Manila grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Z. matrella is a warm season grass which has been widely planted as a turf grass in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and has naturalized mainly close to where it was planted in disturbed areas....

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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass); flowering habit.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionZoysia matrella (Manila grass); flowering habit.
Copyright©Gerrit Davidse/TROPICOS/ http://www.tropicos.org/Image/82572 - CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass); flowering habit.
Flowering habitZoysia matrella (Manila grass); flowering habit.©Gerrit Davidse/TROPICOS/ http://www.tropicos.org/Image/82572 - CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.

Preferred Common Name

  • Manila grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrostis matrella L.
  • Matrella juncea Pers.
  • Osterdamia matrella (L.) Kuntze
  • Osterdamia pungens (Willd.) Baill.
  • Osterdamia tenuifolia (Trin.) Kuntze
  • Osterdamia zoysia Honda
  • Zoysia aristata C.Muell.
  • Zoysia griffithiana C.Muell.
  • Zoysia malaccensis Gand.
  • Zoysia pungens Willd.
  • Zoysia serrulata Mez

International Common Names

  • English: flawn; Japanese carpetgrass; Korean grass; Mascarene grass; matrella zoysiagrass; siglap grass; siglap grass; temple grass; zoisia
  • Spanish: césped chino; hierba Manila; zoisia
  • French: chiendent gazon
  • Chinese: gou ye jie lü cao

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Manilagras
  • Japan: harishiba; kōshun-shiba; siba
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: fathil; fatil; fetil
  • Palau: siba
  • Philippines: barit-baritan; damong-alat; malakuwerdas
  • Thailand: ya-nuannoi

EPPO code

  • ZOYMA (Zoysia matrella)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Z. matrella is a warm season grass which has been widely planted as a turf grass in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and has naturalized mainly close to where it was planted in disturbed areas. It grows slowly and primarily spreads by rhizomes and stolons, but could also spread by seed. There is no information available on its impacts. It forms dense stands and could displace native species through competition for resources.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Zoysia
  •                                 Species: Zoysia matrella

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Zoysia was named to commemorate an 18th century Austrian botanist, Karl von Zois (Duble, 2016). Zoysia matrella is most commonly known by the name Manila grass (USDA-NRCS, 2016), but many other common names are also used (USDA-ARS 2016, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). The name Manila grass stems from its introduction into the USA from Manila in 1911. Older information on this species can be found under the names Agrostis matrella and Osterdamia matrella. The species contains one accepted intraspecific taxa, Zoysia matrella var. pacifica Goudsw (The Plant List, 2013).

Description

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Z. matrella grows as a low, rhizomatous, perennial grass. Prostrate culms grow 5 cm in height (Tsuruta et al. 2011) but sometimes to 35 cm long (FAO, 2015; Clayton et al., 2016). Leaves grow stiffly with the blades often curled, 3-8 cm long and 1.5-2.5 mm wide. The leaf sheaths are smooth with a membranous ligule and hairy throat (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; Clayton et al., 2016). The inflorescences are terminal with spike-like racemes up to 4 cm long. Spikelets yellowish brown to purplish brown, 10-30, loosely overlapping. The lower glume is usually absent; the upper glume is lanceolate, 5-veined with a prominent midrib. The lemma is oblong-ovate, 2-2.5 mm and the palea is lanceolate, half as long as the lemma (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Z. matrella var. pacifica is distinguished by, “leaf-blades 0.7-1 mm wide, usually erect; peduncle not or hardly exerted from the uppermost sheath, the raceme therefore not or little exerted above the foliage, up to 1.5 cm long; distribution: Taiwan to the Ryukyu Islands and Loo Choo Island, Marianas, Solomons and in the Moluccas” (‘FAO, 2015).

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
GhanaPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
RéunionPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
TogoPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
BruneiPresentNativePIER (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
ChinaPresentNativePIER (2016)
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-HainanPresent, LocalizedNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
Cocos IslandsPresent, LocalizedNativeFlora of Australia (2015)
Hong KongPresent, LocalizedNativePIER (2016)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-KeralaPresent, LocalizedNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)
IndonesiaPresentNativePIER (2016); eMonocot (2016)
-JavaPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
-SulawesiPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
-SumatraPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
Japan
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
LaosPresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
MyanmarPresentNativeeMonocot (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
SingaporePresentNativePIER (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
South KoreaPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
BermudaPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresent, LocalizedIntroducedUPRRP (2016)
Costa RicaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
CubaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCatasus Guerra (1997); eMonocot (2016)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
HaitiPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
HondurasPresentIntroducedPeterson et al. (2001)
MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedPeterson et al. (2001)
Puerto RicoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedLiogier and Martorell (2000)
Sint MaartenPresent, LocalizedIntroducedUPRRP (2016)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
United States
-AlabamaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-ConnecticutPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDuble (2016)
-FloridaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen (2015)
-GeorgiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)Kaua’i
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-North CarolinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedPIER (2016)Ofu, Ta’u
Australia
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Christmas IslandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedFlora of Australia (2015)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent, LocalizedNative and IntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)Listed as both native and introduced. Invasive on Kosrae, Yap and Pohnpei
GuamPresentNativePIER (2016)
Marshall IslandsPresentNative and IntroducedPIER (2016)Listed as both native and introduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
PalauPresent, LocalizedPIER (2016)Probably native
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedPeterson et al. (2001)
ColombiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016); eMonocot (2016)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Z. matrella was introduced to the USA from Manila, Philippines in 1911 by C. V. Piper, a USDA botanist (Duble, 2016). A large number of collections were also introduced to the USA for turf grass breeding from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines in 1982 (Casler and Duncan, 2003). It is planted widely in tropical and subtropical regions around the world as a turfgrass (Clayton et al., 2016). It is an occasional escape in Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003), and naturalizes in the southeastern USA (Kartesz, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA Philippines 1911 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes No Duble (2016) Turf grass

Risk of Introduction

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Z. matrella is widely planted as a turf grass in tropical and subtropical regions (Clayton et al., 2016; PIER, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Relatively high levels of genetic diversity are present in Zoysia, including Z. matrella, compared to other turf grass species (Chen et al., 2009). Some clones of Z. matrella express salt tolerance and the genes responsible for this salt tolerance have been identified (Chen et al., 2015). Chromosome number is n=20 (Casler and Duncan, 2003).

Reproductive Biology

Florets of the genus are self-compatible but in Z. matrella they are protogynous with pistils maturing 7-10 days before stamens (Tsuruta et al., 2011). Seeds show low germination rates under field conditions (Forbes and Ferguson, 1948). Mechanical hulling increases germination rates (Forbes and Ferguson, 1948). All turf grass production of Z. matrella is vegetative (Samples, 2007).

Physiology and Phenology

Short day length and high temperatures are required for flowering, as well as a minimum amount of growth of upright culms (Casler and Duncan, 2003). 15°C seems to be the minimum temperature for growth of Z. matrella (Youngner, 1961).

Environmental Requirements

Z. matrella prefers tropical and subtropical environments with regular rainfall (Duble, 2016). It goes dormant in freezing temperatures (Duble, 2016) and Xuan et al. (2009) determined that the temperature at which 50% of the leaves die is -5.35°C. As a turf grass it is not recommended for cooler areas as it turns brown after several hard frosts and remains brown until late spring (Duble, 2016). It is shade tolerant and adapted to wet and saline sites (FAO, 2015), but is also extremely tolerant of drought (Duble, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 20

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 2 26

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration5number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall13472061mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Leptosphaeria korrae Pathogen Roots not specific
Puccinia zoysiae Pathogen Leaves to genus
Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Herbivore Roots not specific
Thanetophorus cucumeris Pathogen Roots not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Ophiosphaerella korrae causes spring deadspot in the southeastern USA (Watschke et al., 2013). Dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) and dead patch (Rhizoctonia solani [Thanetophorus cucumeris]) are also common in Z. matrella lawns in Florida (Unruh et al., 2016). No information was found on any pests or diseases specific to Z. matrella.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Seeds may be dispersed by grazing animals (Reynolds, 1995). Most spread has been intentional, as the species is widely planted as a turfgrass (Samples, 2007).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionTurfgrass production in tropical and subtropical regions Yes FAO, 2015
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSpreads by rhizomes Yes Duble, 2016
ForageGrazed in coconut plantations Yes FAO, 2015
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes Wiersema and León, 1999
Landscape improvementTurfgrass Yes Yes FAO, 2015
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive

Environmental Impact

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Z. matrella is present in some conservation areas including Toro Negro State Forest, Maricao Forest Reserve, and Las Cabezas de San Juan Nature Reserve in Puerto Rico (Plants of the Island of Puerto Rico, 2016; UPRRP, 2016) and several parks in south Florida (Institute for Regional Conservation, 2016); however, no information was available on impacts.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Used as forage on sandy sites and grazed in coconut plantations (FAO, 2015). Several cultivars are widely used as lawn grasses (Samples, 2007; FAO, 2015). It is also used for erosion control (Wiersema and León, 1999).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Z. matrella is intermediate in characteristics between the closely related Z. japonica and Z. tenuifolia (Tsuruta et al., 2011). The florets of Z. matrella are smaller than those of Z. japonica (Tsuruta et al., 2011). Z. tenuifolia is the shortest and finest of the three species (Duble, 2016). Z. matrella is also similar in appearance to Cynodon dactylon and Sporobolus virginicus (Flora of Australia, 2015). C. dactylon has 4-5 one-sided racemes in a whorl (Flora of Australia, 2015). S. virginicus has a branched inflorescence (Flora of Australia, 2015).

Z. matrella is very difficult to distinguish from the Australian endemic species, Zoysia macrantha Desv. (Flora of Australia, 2015). Z. macrantha is a coarser grass and the spikelets have a truncate rather than oblique attachment to the pedicel (VicFlora, 2015). 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Physical and mechanical removal need to contend with the stolons and rhizomes produced by Z. matrella (Duble, 2016).

Chemical Control

Most reports of control are on how to get rid of an undesired zoysia grass lawn. Spraying a non-selective herbicide in late summer and then re-treating resprouts can eliminate zoysia grass (American Lawns, 2016).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Very little information is available on impacts and control of Z. matrella in natural areas.

References

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American Lawns, 2016. Getting rid of zoysia grass from your cool season lawn. http://www.american-lawns.com/grasses/zoysia_out.html

Burcham LT, 1948. Observations on the grass flora of certain Pacific Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 30(2):405-447.

Casler MD, Duncan RR, 2003. Turfgrass biology, genetics and breeding [ed. by Casler, M. D.\Duncan, R. R.]. Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., x + 367 pp.

Catasus Guerra L, 1997. Las gramíneas (Poaceae) de Cuba, I ([English title not available]). Madrid, Spain: Real Jardín Botánico. http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/spa/Libro.php?Libro=3141

Chen Yu, Zong JunQin, Tan ZhiQun, Li LanLan, Hu BaoYun, Chen ChuanMing, Chen JingBo, Liu JianXiu, 2015. Systematic mining of salt-tolerant genes in halophyte-Zoysia matrella through cDNA expression library screening. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 89:44-52. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09819428

Chen, Z, Wang ML, Waltz C, Raymer P, 2009. Genetic diversity of warn-season turfgrass: seashore paspalum, bermudagrass and zoysiagrass revealed by AFLPs. Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology, 3(1):20-24. http://www.globalsciencebooks.info/Online/GSBOnline/images/0906/FOB_3(1)/FOB_3(1)20-24o.pdf

Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2016. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://www.org/data/grasses-db.html

Duble RL, 2016. Zoysiagrass. Aggie Horticulture., USA: Texas A&M Agrilife Extension. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/archives/parsons/turf/publications/zoysia.html

eMonocot, 2016. eMonocot - an online resource for monocot plants. http://e-monocot.org/

FAO, 2015. Grassland species profiles. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Gbase/Default.htm

Flora of Australia, 2015. Flora of Australia Online. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Forbes I Jr, Ferguson MH, 1948. Effects of strain differences, seed treatment, and planting depth on seed germination of Zoysia sp. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy, 40:725-32.

Hammel BE, Grayum MH, Herrera C, Zamora N, 2003. Manual of plants of Costa Rica. Vol. III. (Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. III.) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93:1-884.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Institute for Regional Conservation, 2016. Zoysia matrella. Floristic inventory of South Florida. http://regionalconservation.org/ircs/database/plants/PlantPage.asp?TXCODE=Zoysmatr

Kartesz JT, 2016. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP), Taxonomic Data Center. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. http://www.bonap.net/tdc

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Peterson PM, Soreng RJ, Davidse G, Filgueiras TS, Zuloaga FO, Judziewicz EJ, 2001. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 41, 255 pp.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Plants of the Island of Puerto Rico, 2016. Zoysia matrella var. matrella. The Institute for Regional Conservation. http://regionalconservation.org/ircs/database/plants/PlantPagePR.asp?TXCODE=Zoysmatr

Reynolds SG, 1995. Pasture-cattle-coconut systems. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), xiv + 664 pp.

Samples T, 2007. Turfgrass selection: Zoysia. W159-H, University of Tennessee Extension. https://extension.tennessee.edu/publications/Documents/W159-H.pdf

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Tsuruta S, Kobayashi M, Ebina M, 2011. Zoysia. In: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources, Millets and Grasses [ed. by Cole, C.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 297-309.

Unruh JB, Trenholm LE, Cisar JL, 2016. Zoysia grass for Florida lawns., USA: EDIS, University of Florida IFAS Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh011

UPRRP, 2016. UPRRP Herbarium. University of Puerto Rico. http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/Bol/uprrp/Search

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

VicFlora, 2015. Flora of Victoria. Melbourne, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. http://data.rbg.vic.gov.au

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Watschke TL, Dernoeden PH, Shetlar DJ, 2013. Managing Turfgrass Pests, 2nd Edition. New York, NY, USA: CRC Press, 519 pp.

Wiersema JH, León B, 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 749 pp.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2015. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Xuan J, Liu J, Gao H, Hu H, Cheng X, 2009. Evaluation of low temperature tolerance of zoysia grass. Tropical Grasslands, 43:118-124.

Youngner VB, 1961. Growth and flowering of Zoysia species in response to temperatures, photoperiods, and light intensities. Crop science, 1(2):91-3.

Distribution References

Catasus Guerra L, 1997. (Las gramíneas (Poaceae) de Cuba, I)., Madrid, Spain: Real Jardín Botánico. http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/spa/Libro.php?Libro=3141

Duble RL, 2016. Zoysiagrass. In: Aggie Horticulture, USA: Texas A&M Agrilife Extension. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/archives/parsons/turf/publications/zoysia.html

eMonocot, 2016. eMonocot - an online resource for monocot plants., http://e-monocot.org/

Flora of Australia, 2015. Flora of Australia Online., http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Hammel BE, Grayum MH, Herrera C, Zamora N, 2003. Manual of plants of Costa Rica. Vol. III. (Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. III). In: Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93 1-884.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis., San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Peterson P M, Soreng R J, Davidse G, Filgueiras T S, Zuloaga F O, Judziewicz E J, 2001. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 41, 255 pp.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

UPRRP, 2016. UPRRP Herbarium., University of Puerto Rico. http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/Bol/uprrp/Search

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2015. Atlas of Florida vascular plants., Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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05/07/2016 Original text by:

Sylvan Kaufman, Sylvan Green Earth Consulting, Santa Fe, USA

Distribution Maps

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