Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ziziphus spina-christi
(Christ's thorn jujube)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2017. Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.57569.20203483212

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Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ziziphus spina-christi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Christ's thorn jujube
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ziziphus spina-christi is a perennial, drought hardy tree. Despite some uncertainty regarding its native range, most sources suggest it originates from the Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa and the Middle East. It is adapted to grow in w...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); habit. Israel. May 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionZiziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); habit. Israel. May 2013.
Copyright©Hanay (Hana Yariv)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); habit. Israel. May 2013.
HabitZiziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); habit. Israel. May 2013.©Hanay (Hana Yariv)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); foliage, flowers and fruits. Israel. December 2006.
TitleFoliage, flowers and fruits
CaptionZiziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); foliage, flowers and fruits. Israel. December 2006.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Dov Grobgeld/via wikipedia - CC0
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); foliage, flowers and fruits. Israel. December 2006.
Foliage, flowers and fruitsZiziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); foliage, flowers and fruits. Israel. December 2006.Public Domain - Released by Dov Grobgeld/via wikipedia - CC0
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); fruits. Israel. May 2011.
TitleFruits
CaptionZiziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); fruits. Israel. May 2011.
Copyright©Ariel Palmon/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); fruits. Israel. May 2011.
FruitsZiziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn); fruits. Israel. May 2011.©Ariel Palmon/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.

Preferred Common Name

  • Christ's thorn jujube

Other Scientific Names

  • Rhamnus spina-christi L.
  • Ziziphus spina-christi var. aucheri (Boiss.) Qaiser & Nazim.
  • Ziziphus spina-christi var. spina-christi L.

International Common Names

  • English: Christ's thorn; Syrian Christ-thorn
  • French: epine du Christ; jujube
  • Arabic: kurna; nabbag; nubak; sidr

Local Common Names

  • Iran: serd
  • Netherlands Antilles: apeldam

EPPO code

  • ZIPSC (Ziziphus spina-christi)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ziziphus spina-christi is a perennial, drought hardy tree. Despite some uncertainty regarding its native range, most sources suggest it originates from the Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa and the Middle East. It is adapted to grow in water-stressed habitats such as savannas and deserts. It is widely cultivated for its fruit, timber and use as fodder for livestock, as well as providing a stock-proof hedge and living fence, but is also used as a dune stabilizer, because of its very deep taproot and spreading lateral roots and in traditional medicine. Due to its cultivation, it has been introduced to parts of northern and tropical Africa and Madagascar. In 1885, Z. spina-christi was introduced to Curacao in the Caribbean, where it is now considered invasive. It has also been introduced to the neighbouring islands of Aruba and Bonaire. This species is an aggressive colonizer that, forms spiny and impenetrable thickets displacing and outcompeting native flora.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rhamnales
  •                         Family: Rhamnaceae
  •                             Genus: Ziziphus
  •                                 Species: Ziziphus spina-christi

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Rhamnaceae comprises 52 genera and 925 species distributed worldwide, particularly across tropical and warm temperate regions. The genus Ziziphus consists of approximately 100–170 species of deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs known for being drought tolerant and very resistant to heat (Saied et al., 2008; Stevens, 2012). The species Ziziphus spina-christi has been among the key plants of the Middle East and the Sahel region since ancient times. The epithet name ‘spina-christi’ derives from the belief that this tree provided the crown of thorns said to have been placed on Jesus’ head before he was crucified (Dafni et al., 2005; Saied et al., 2008; Orwa et al., 2009). Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast genomic SSR markers showed that Z. spina-christi clustered with Z. mauritiana, while Z. jujuba clustered with Z. acidojujuba (Huang et al., 2017). Morphological studies in Saudi Arabia recognized two varieties var. spina-christi and var. microphylla, but reported variation in growth habit, branch colour and pubescence, and leaf shape (Almalki and Alzahrani, 2018). 

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of Pakistan (2017) and Saied et al. (2008):

A medium-size tree, with spreading, greyish white branches, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Stipular spines in pairs, one erect, approx. 2 cm long, the other recurved 5–8 mm long, sometimes spines absent. Leaves 2–6 x 1–4 cm ovate-elliptic or suborbicular, glabrous or pubscent on nerves beneath, rounded to subcordate at base, obtuse or shortly acuminate, margin entire or obsoletely crenate, 3-nerved; petiole 3–12 mm long, glabrous or puberulous. Inflorescence axillary tomentose, pedicel woolly, approx. 3–5 mm long. Flowers 4–6 mm across, subsessile, greenish yellow, sweet scented. Calyx approx. 1 mm long, keeled within, pubescent, ovate, ± acute, 5 petals spathulate; 1.25–1.5 mm long. Styles short, bifid. Disc prominently 10-lobed, glabrous, grooved. Ovary 2-locular. Fruit is a globose drupe, red-yellow to yellow-green with a non-separating hard stone surrounded by edible fruit pulp, 10–30 cm diameter.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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The exact native distribution of Z. spina-christi is uncertain. Orwa et al. (2009) list the species as native to a large area of Africa from Mauritania in West Africa, through the Sahara and Sahel regions to the Red Sea in the east. However, other authors consider that the native range of this species also comprises the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India (Flora of Pakistan, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). In Egypt it is cultivated in parks and villages (Saied et al., 2008). It is recorded as introduced in northern and tropical Africa and Madagascar (Orwa et al., 2009). In the Caribbean, it is introduced and naturalized in Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire; it is also listed as invasive in Curacao (Van der Burg et al., 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedPlanted
ChadPresentNative
ComorosPresentIntroduced
DjiboutiPresentNative
EgyptPresentPlanted
EritreaPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LibyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentIntroducedPlanted
MaliPresentNative
MauritaniaPresentNative
MoroccoPresentIntroducedPlanted
NigeriaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
SudanPresentNativePlanted
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
-Zanzibar IslandPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentNativePlanted
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
IndiaPresentPlanted
IranPresentPlanted
IraqPresentPlanted
IsraelPresentPlanted
JordanPresentPlanted
LebanonPresentNative
OmanPresent
PakistanPresentNative
PalestinePresent
Saudi ArabiaPresentPlanted
SyriaPresentPlanted
TurkeyPresentNative
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroducedPlanted
YemenPresentNative

Europe

NetherlandsPresentIntroduced

North America

ArubaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedInvasive

History of Introduction and Spread

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Z. spina-christi was introduced from Palestine into Curacao in 1885. It has since escaped into the wild and is naturalized in Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire in the Caribbean (Van der Burg et al., 2012).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Palestine Curaçao 1885 No No Van der Burg et al. (2012)

Risk of Introduction

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Z. spina-christi is widely cultivated, primarily across arid and semiarid habitats in Africa and Asia (Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2017). It is possible that this species could be introduced and spread as an escape from cultivation, particularly in these areas.

Habitat

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Z. spina-christi grows in dry areas, deserts, semi-desert washes, valleys and savannas (African Plant Database, 2017). It often grows along the edges of ponds, riverbanks and wadis where groundwater is available (Orwa et al., 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Growth and reproduction

Flowers of Z. spina-christi are small, yellow-green and hermaphrodite, and are visited and pollinated by insects, especially bees (Nuru et al., 2012). In Saudi Arabia, Z. spina-christi has been recorded flowering in September. Flowering time in Sudan is August to December, and fruiting extends from October to April (Saied et al., 2008). In a study of the phenology of the flowers of Z. spina-christi in Saudi Arabia, most opened early in the morning. Anthers started to dehisce between 06:00 h and 10:00 h. By 10:00 h, flowers started to secrete considerable amounts of nectar, peaking at 14:00 h. The stigma then starts to become shiny and receptive between 14:00 h and 18:00 h. Nectar secretion was positively correlated with temperature, indicating the adaptation of this tree species to hot climates (Nuru et al., 2012). In a study of seven genotypes in Israel, Asatryan and Tel-Nur (2013) reported that anthesis occurred in early morning (06:30 h), late morning (08:30 h) and midday (12:00 h). Asynchrony of the sequence of flowering occurred in around 20% of flowers during the last 2 weeks of the flowering season. Pollen viability was in the range 35.1–46.1%. In hand self pollinated flowers, pollen tube growth was arrested on the stigmas while, in hand cross pollinated flowers, the number of pollen tubes that approached the ovaries decreased with only a single pollen tube finally reaching the ovary. Following controlled self pollination, flowers dropped off one or two days after pollination with zero fruit set. Cross pollinated flowers set viable seed. The results suggest the existence of a gametophytic self incompatibility system. 

Seeds of Z. spina-christi are polyembryonic, producing two seedlings on germination (Zeinelabdin and Mohammed, 2016). Seed germination is epigeal and seedling growth is moderate, reaching 40–50 cm after 4–5 months (Saied et al., 2008).

Environmental Requirements

Z. spina-christi is drought hardy, very resistant to heat and can be found in desert and arid areas with a mean annual rainfall from 50 mm to 500 mm and a mean annual temperature in the range 19–28°C. It prefers alluvial plains with deep soils, but it also grows on clay (where water is available) as well as on moderately saline soils, usually at elevations between sea level and 2000 m. This species is frost tender and is able to withstand water logging for up to 2 months; it can also tolerate a dry season of 8–10 months (Saied et al., 2008; Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2017). Evergreen where water supply is adequate, Z. spina-christi is deciduous during the dry season in arid areas (Azam-Ali et al., 2006). Ecological studies of Z. spina-christi in Bushehr Province, Iran were reported by Sadeghi et al. (2009). The largest stands were noted on alluvial fans with loamy, sandy loam and clay-silty soils, which were slightly alkaline (pH 7–8.2).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 20 400 2000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5 2
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration810number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall50500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Z. spina-christi spreads via seed. Seeds are primarily dispersed by wind, animals and humans; fruits are sold in local markets (Saied et al., 2008).

It is cultivated throughout the tropics and therefore has been intentionally introduced to many countries outside its native range (Orwa et al., 2009).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionOften cultivated for its fruits Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Van der Burg et al., 2012
FoodFruits Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Forage Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Habitat restoration and improvementDune stabilization Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Medicinal useTraditional medicine Yes Yes Neuwinger, 2000

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsTrade at local markets Yes Saied et al., 2008
Wind Yes Yes Saied et al., 2008

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Z. spina-christi is an aggressive colonizer that forms spiny, impenetrable thickets that displace and outcompete native vegetation. It is very difficult to control once established and has an extraordinary regenerative capacity. In addition, the seeds have a hard, woody shell allowing them to remain viable for a long time (Orwa et al., 2009; Van der Burg et al., 2012; PROTA, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

Z. spina-christi is widely cultivated for its fruits across the Sahara, Tunisia, Algeria, Niger, East Africa, Israel and Iran. The fruit is edible and occasionally sweet, but the flavour and texture are inferior to other Ziziphus spp. The fruits are eaten fresh or dried. They may also be ground into a floury meal or paste, used as a condiment or for making confectionary (Elsheshetawy and Faid, 2015). Sundried fruits are ground into a powder, water is added and the mixture shaped into cakes similar to gingerbread ( Azam-Ali et al., 2006).

The wood is also used for fuelwood and for making high quality charcoal. The tree coppices well. The hard, heavy and termite resistant red or dark brown wood is used for spear shafts, posts, roofing beams, tool handles, utensils, artistic woodwork and cabinet making. The leaves provide valuable animal forage and fodder under open grazing conditions. Sheep and goats consume the fruits and camels consume the foliage. Grown as a windbreak it is also used as a living fence due to its thorny branches (Neuwinger, 2000; Saied et al. 2008; Orwa et al., 2009; Asgarpanah and Haghighat, 2012; Nuru et al., 2012; PROTA, 2017). 

Flowers also valued as a nectar source for honeybees (Sudhersan et al., 2016). It is the most important tree for honey production within its native range, particularly in the Middle East where the excellent flavoured honey from this tree is considered a speciality and sells for up to $190/kg, the most expensive honey sold in the region. In West Africa it is intercropped with millet (Orwa et al., 2009; Nuru et al., 2012).

Social Benefit

Flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins are the main phytochemicals that are reported from this plant species. Geranyl acetone, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, farnesyl acetone, hexadecanol and ethyl octadecanoate are characterized as the major components of the leaves’ volatile oil. The various various alkaloids include ziziphine, jubanine and amphibine, alpha terpinol and linalol (Younes et al., 1996). Due to the easy collection of the plant materials, its low cost, and remarkable biological activities, Z. spina-christi has long been used in traditional Middle Eastern and African medicine, particularly the fruits, seeds, leaves, roots and bark (Asgarpanah and Haghighat, 2012). In the Sahel region, the roots are used to treat headaches, while the spines or ashes of the species are applied to snake bites. Boiled leaves are applied to various surface wounds, and also have anti-helminthic and anti-diarrhetic properties (Malgras, 1992; Boulos, 1983). In Egypt and the southern Sahara, a narcotic beverage is made from the fruits, which is considered to be a tranquilizer and sedative (Younes et al., 1996). In Morocco, the fruits are used as an emollient and astringent agent. It is also reputed to reduce abscesses and boils and poultice of young leaves are used to reduce eye inflammations. Among Bedouin in Israel the fruits were formerly used as an abortifacient, and as a control agent for rodent pests (Shappira et al., 1990). Azam-Ali et al. (2006) reported that in Saudi Arabia the fruits, when eaten in quantity, act as a laxative and the stem bark is used to relieve fevers and toothache. 

Aqueous leaf extracts showed strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric, but no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, hydroalcoholic leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, but not against the other three bacteria (Masoumian and Zandi, 2017). In mice Mubaraki et al. (2017) demonstrated a protective effect of leaf extracts against Plasmodium berghei-induced cerebral tissue injuries, markedly reducing weight loss in malarial mice compared with the control. Leaf extracts were also tested for antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities in mice (Al-Ghamdi and Shahat, 2017). Butanolic extracts showed potential hypoglycaemic activity while methanol, ethyl acetate and butanolic extracts had high DPPH free radical scavenging ability equivalent to 89, 96 and 80.3% of the activity of the standard control drug glibenclamide, respectively. Almeer et al. (2018) reported that leaf extracts ameliorated liver damage in mice caused by the schistosomiasis causing parasite Schistosome mansoni. The leaf extracts had anti-apoptotic, anti-fibrotic and antioxidant effects. A significant decline in the number of worms and eggs was also noted up to 8 weeks post-infection.

Environmental Services

Z. spina-christi is often planted for soil erosion control and dune stabilization due to its deep taproots and spreading lateral roots (Orwa et al., 2009; Sudhersan et al., 2016). The tree is planted around towns and villages for shade as it makes useful windbreaks and shelterbelts. It is known to improve soil fertility by increasing available phosphorous (Saied et al. 2008).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits
  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Furniture

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For light construction

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

There is no information available for the chemical or biological control of this species. However, a combination of clear-cutting methods followed by the application of herbicides such as triclopyr and picloram has been recommended in Australia for the control of the closely related invasive species Z. jujuba (Weeds of Australia, 2017). On the other hand, Ziziphus species (including the invasive species Z. jujuba and Z. spina-christi) have been promoted as potential crops for dry and arid zones (Baumer, 1983; Azam-Ali et al., 2006; Saied et al., 2008; Nuru et al., 2012), despite the risk of naturalization and potential invasiveness. Currently, there are no restrictions for the international movement of this species.

References

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Abbas, M. F., Al Niami, J. H., Asker, M. A., 1990. The effect of temperature on certain chemical constituents and storage behavior of jujube fruits (Zizyphus spina-christi (L) Willd) cv. Zaytoni. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 19(3-4), 263-267.

Abd El Raouf A, Moustafa AA, Abd El Wahab RH, Helmy MA, Batanouny KH, 1996. Phenology, germination and propagation of some wild trees and shrubs in south Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of botany, 36: 91-107

Aboutalebi, A., Hasanzada, H. H., Farahi, M. H., 2012. Effect of various treatments on seed germination characteristics of wild Ziziphus (Ziziphus spina-christi). World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(7), 900-904. http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj17(7)12/16.pdf

Aboutalebi, A., Hassanzadeh, H., 2012. Evaluation the graft height, scion number and cutting off the rootstock on graft union percentageage, canopy volume and yield of three grafted Ziziphus cultivars (Ziziphus mauritiana). World Applied Sciences Journal, 19(7), 937-942. http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj19(7)12/5.pdf

Adam, Y. O., Pretzsch, J., 2010. Contribution of local trade in Ziziphus spina-christi L. fruits to rural household's economy in Rashad locality, Sudan. Forestry Ideas, 16(1), 9 pp. https://forestry-ideas.info/issues/issues_Download.php?download=3

African Plant Database, 2017. https://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche.php

Al-Ghamdi, A. A. M., Shahat, A. A., 2017. Antioxidant, hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Willd (Rhamnacae) leaf extract. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 16(11), 2601-2610. https://www.tjpr.org/admin/12389900798187/2017_16_11_5.pdf

Almalki, R. A., Alzahrani, D. A., 2018. Morphological investigation of genus Ziziphus Mill. (Rhamnaceae) in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9(13), 2644-2658. https://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=89230 doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.913192

Almeer, R. S., El-Khadragy, M. F., Semlali Abdelhabib, Moneim, A. E. A., 2018. Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract ameliorates schistosomiasis liver granuloma, fibrosis, and oxidative stress through downregulation of fibrinogenic signaling in mice. PLoS ONE, 13(10), e0204923. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204923 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204923

Al-Saikhan, M. S., 2018. Effect of calcium chloride dipping treatment on quality of Ziziphus spina-christi L. fruits during cold storage. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(16), 866-871. http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/781FFA656766 doi: 10.5897/ajar2018.12976

Amoo, I. A., Atasie, V. N., 2012. Nutritional and functional properties of Tamarindus indica pulp and Zizyphus spinachristi fruit and seed. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10(1 part 1), 16-19. http://www.isfae.org/scientificjournal.php

Asatryan, A., Tel-Zur, N., 2013. Pollen tube growth and self-incompatibility in three Ziziphus species (Rhamnaceae). Flora (Jena), 208(5/6), 390-399. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03672530 doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2013.04.010

Asatryan, A., Tel-Zur, N., 2014. Intraspecific and interspecific crossability in three Ziziphus species (Rhamnaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 61(1), 215-233. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10722 doi: 10.1007/s10722-013-0027-8

Asgarpanah, J., Haghighat, E., 2012. Phytochemistry and pharmacologic properties of Ziziphus spina christi (L.) Willd. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6(31), 2332-2339. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJPP/abstracts/abstracts/abstract%202012/22Aug/Asgarpanah%20and%20Haghighat.htm

Assareh, M. H., Hossein Sardabi, 2005. Macropropagation and micropropagation of Ziziphus spina-christi. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 40(5), 459-465. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2005000500006

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Distribution References

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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18/09/17 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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