Invasive Species Compendium

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Zelkova serrata
(Japanese selkova)

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Datasheet

Zelkova serrata (Japanese selkova)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Zelkova serrata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese selkova
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Form of Z. serrata, of a tree 30 years old, 12 m tall, 35 cm dbh. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
TitleTree habit
CaptionForm of Z. serrata, of a tree 30 years old, 12 m tall, 35 cm dbh. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
CopyrightKiyotsugu Yoda
Form of Z. serrata, of a tree 30 years old, 12 m tall, 35 cm dbh. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
Tree habitForm of Z. serrata, of a tree 30 years old, 12 m tall, 35 cm dbh. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan. Kiyotsugu Yoda
Bark of Z. serrata: smooth when young (right), scaly and detached when more than 30 cm in diameter (left). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
TitleBark
CaptionBark of Z. serrata: smooth when young (right), scaly and detached when more than 30 cm in diameter (left). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
CopyrightKiyotsugu Yoda
Bark of Z. serrata: smooth when young (right), scaly and detached when more than 30 cm in diameter (left). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
BarkBark of Z. serrata: smooth when young (right), scaly and detached when more than 30 cm in diameter (left). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan. Kiyotsugu Yoda
Annual shoot with young leaves of Z. serrata. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
TitleAnnual shoot with leaves
CaptionAnnual shoot with young leaves of Z. serrata. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
CopyrightKiyotsugu Yoda
Annual shoot with young leaves of Z. serrata. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
Annual shoot with leavesAnnual shoot with young leaves of Z. serrata. Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan. Kiyotsugu Yoda
Leaf galls on a Z. serrata leaf induced by Paracolopha morrisoni (Hemiptera; Pemphigidae). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
TitleLeaf galls
CaptionLeaf galls on a Z. serrata leaf induced by Paracolopha morrisoni (Hemiptera; Pemphigidae). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
CopyrightKiyotsugu Yoda
Leaf galls on a Z. serrata leaf induced by Paracolopha morrisoni (Hemiptera; Pemphigidae). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan.
Leaf gallsLeaf galls on a Z. serrata leaf induced by Paracolopha morrisoni (Hemiptera; Pemphigidae). Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan. Kiyotsugu Yoda

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese selkova

Variety

  • Zelkova serrata var. stipulacea Makino

Other Scientific Names

  • Corchorus serratus Thunb.
  • Planera acuminata Lindl.
  • Planera japonica Miq.
  • Planera keaki K. Koch
  • Ulmus keaki Sieb.
  • Zelkova acuminata Planchon
  • Zelkova formosana Hayata
  • Zelkova hirta Schneider
  • Zelkova keaki Maxim.

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese zelkova tree; keaki; sawleaf zelkova; sawtooth zelkova; sw-leaf zelkova tree
  • French: orme du Japon; Zelkova du Japon

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: juta-do-campo
  • Cuba: malva té
  • Germany: Japanische Ulme; Japanische Zelkove; Keakibaum; Spitz-sähnige zelkova
  • Italy: olmo giapponese; Zelcova giapponese

EPPO code

  • ZELSE (Zelkova serrata)

Trade name

  • Japanese gray-bark elm
  • keyaki
  • tsuki
  • Zelcova
  • zelkovie

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Ulmaceae
  •                             Genus: Zelkova
  •                                 Species: Zelkova serrata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Zelkova is comprised of six species; Z. schneideriana, Z. sinica, Z. serrata in East Asia, Z. carpinifolia in south-western Asia, and Z. sicula and Z. abelicea in southern Europe (Wang et al., 2001). The karyotype of this genus is 2n=28, common in Ulmaceae (Oginuma et al., 1990). One variety of this species is recognized: Z. serrata var. stipulacea, called 'Mekeyaki' (Satake et al., 1989).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent Natural
JapanPresent Natural
-HokkaidoPresent Planted
-HonshuPresent Natural
-KyushuPresent Natural
-ShikokuPresent Natural
Korea, DPRPresent Natural
Korea, Republic ofPresent Natural
TaiwanPresent Natural

North America

CanadaPresent Planted
USAPresent Planted

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012

South America

BrazilPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent

Europe

Czech RepublicPresent Planted
DenmarkPresent Planted
FrancePresent Planted
GermanyPresent Planted
NetherlandsPresent Planted
NorwayPresent Planted
UKPresent Planted

Oceania

AustraliaPresent Planted
New ZealandPresent Planted

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
41 22 0 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 9 23
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 29
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -2 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration02number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall11002200mm; lower/upper limits

References

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Asami K, Okuda S, 1999. The relationship between forest communities and surface stability on steep slopes - a case study of the terrace scarp on the Nakatsuhara Plateau, Sagami River. Japanese Journal of Ecology, 49:247-257

EPPO, 2004. EPPO Reporting Service No. 5, 19. Paris, France: EPPO

Esaki K, 1999. Survival rate of Apriona japonica next generation callow individuals in Zelkova plantation. Shinrin Boueki, 48:187-190

Fujita S, 1987. Available utilization of hardwoods growing in southern Kyushu. VII. Some variation of mechanical properties in keyaki-wood (Zelkova serrata Makino). Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, No. 37, 225-235; En captions and tables; 10 ref

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 1994. Zelkova serrata, Japanese Zelkova. Environ. Horti. Dep., Florida Coop. Ext. Serv., Inst Food Agric. Sci., University of Florida, Fact Sheet ST-677

Haraguchi M, 1998. Mass clonal propagation of selected mature keyaki (Zelkova serrata Makino) trees by axillary bud culture. Journal of Japanese Forestry Research, 80:283-292

Hashizume H, 1994. The effect of light intensity on the growth and development of Zelkova serrata seedlings. Research Bulletin of the Tottori University Forests, No. 22, 17-24; 17 ref

Horie H, Takano K, Uematsu S, Yoshimatsu H, Ikeda F, 2001. Diseases and Pests of Flowers and Greens. Tokyo, Japan: Zennoukyou

Hoshino Y, 1990. Fruiting shoot as a wind-dispersed diaspore assisting the fruit dispersal of Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino. Japanese Journal of Ecology, 40(1):35-41; With English figures and tables; 21 ref

Ihara S, 1989. Wood species and the positions where they are used in Japanese historical houses from the middle to modern ages. Sci. Conserv., Dep. Conserv. Sci., Tokyo Nat. Res. Inst. Cult. Prop., 28:25-62

Ikemoto A, Nagamori M, 1983. The propagation of hardwood by cutting. 1. Cuttings in the vinyl tunnel in autumn. Bull. For. Fac. Agri. Kochi Univ., 10:53-57

Ito R, Kondo T, 1995. Propagation of superior clones which have difficulty of vegetative propagation such as cutting, grafting, etc, Tissue culture of axillary buds and seedlings of Zelkova serrata. Bull. For. Tree Breed. Ctr, 13:27-32

Iwata Y, Sano J, 2005. Fundamental studies on growth traits and management of planted trees - viability and growth conditions of Liriodendron tulipifera and Zelkova serrata. Hardwood Research, No.11:23-34

Japan Forestry Association, 2001. Encyclopedia of Forests and Forestry. Tokyo, Japan; Maruzen, 245-246

Kanazawa Y, Kiyono Y, Fujimori T, Kamo K, 1984. Seasonal changes in the above-ground biomass of a young Zelkova serrata stand. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 66(5):167-173; 12 ref

Karizumi N, 1987. Illustrations of tree roots. Tokyo, Japan: Seibundo, 714-716

Maeda M, 1993. Tissue culture of Zelkova serrata (I) In vitro plantlet regeneration from plumule of Keyaki seedlings. Bull. Hyogo For. Exp. Stn., 40:15-23

Mitchell A, 1974. A field guide to the trees of Britain and northern Europe. London, UK; Collins. 415 pp. + 40 pl

Mitchell A, 1996. Trees of Britain. London, UK: Harper Collins Publishers

Miyawaki A, Okuda S, Fujiwara R, 1994. Handbook of Japanese Vegetation. Revised edition. Tokyo, Japan: Shibundo Publishers

Mogi Y, Kawajiri H, 1996. Tissue culture of precious mature trees II. Winter bud culture of Zelkova mature tree. Bull. Gifu Pref. For. Sci. Res. Inst., 25:17-22

Nakagawa H, Kawajiri H, Mogi Y, 1995. Growth state of Zelkova serrata natural forest and regeneraton state of the natural young growth. Bull. Gifu Pref. For. Sci. Res. Inst., 23:1-18

Numata M, 1974. Flora and vegetation of Japan. Flora and vegetation of Japan., x+294pp

Oginuma K, Raven PH, Tobe H, 1990. Karyomorphology and relationships of Celtidaceae and Ulmaceae (Urticales). Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 103:113-131

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Satake Y, Hara H, Watari S, Tominari T, 1989. Wild Flowers of Japan: Woody Plants I. Tokyo, Japan: Heibonsha Publishers

Sherman-Broyles SL, Barker WT, Schulz LM, 1997. 23. Ulmaceae. In: Flora of North American Editorial Committee, ed. Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 3. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 368-380

Suo Z, Hashizume H, 1995. Flower-bearing habits, flowering, pollination, pollen production and pollen dispersal in Zelkova serrata Makino. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 77(4):332-339; With English figures and tables; 16 ref

Suzuki H, Kaneko T, Suzuki T, 1989. Methods for raising nursery stocks of inuenzyu (Maackia amurensis var. buergeri) and keyaki (Zelkova serrata) by seedling. Bull. Shizuoka Pref. Forest. For. Prod. Res. Inst., 17:59-64

Taniguchi S, 1998. Studies on the afforestation system of the mixed forest of coniferous and broad-leaf trees. (IV) Effects of the form and growth of Zelkova serrata of girth trees in the Zelkova serrata and Cryptomeria japonica mixed forest. Bull. Hyogo Pref. For. For. Prod. Res. Inst., 46:8-12

Taniguchi S, Hashizume H, 2003. Initiation and development of flower buds in Zelkova serrata Makino. Appl. For. Sci., 12:35-39

Wang Y-F, Ferguson DK, Zetter R, Denk T, Garfi G, 2001. Leaf architecture and epidermal characters in Zelkova, Ulmaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 136:255-265

Yamazaki J, 1991. Sprouting from water-dipped branches of Keyaki (Zelkova serrata Makino). Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tamagawa University, 31:59-69

Yamazaki K, Sugiura S, 2001. Bionomics of the gall-parasitic flea weevil Rhynchaenus hustachei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomological Science, 4(2):239-242; 23 ref

Yogo H, 1997. Propagation of Zelkova serrata, Pinus densiflora, Pinus thunbergii, and Chamaecyparis obtuse, by tissure culture. Bull. Ehime Pref. For. Exp. Stn., 18:73-82

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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