Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Zea mays
(maize)

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Datasheet

Zea mays (maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Zea mays
  • Preferred Common Name
  • maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Beverage base
  • Cereal
  • Flour/starch
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Oil/fat

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TitleZ. mays - colour illustration
Caption
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
Z. mays - colour illustrationPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Zea mays L.

Preferred Common Name

  • maize

International Common Names

  • English: corn; Indian corn
  • Spanish: maíz
  • French: maïs
  • Portuguese: milho

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: pôôt
  • Germany: Mais
  • Indonesia: jagung
  • Italy: mais comune
  • Laos: khauz ph'ôd; khauz sali
  • Malaysia: jagong
  • Netherlands: gewoone mais
  • Sweden: majs
  • Thailand: khao-phot
  • Vietnam: bawsp; ngoo

EPPO code

  • ZEAMX (Zea mays)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Zea
  •                                 Species: Zea mays

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf); Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur); Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite); Achaea catocaloides; Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial leaf blight); Acremonium maydis (black bundle disease: maize); Adoretus compressus (rose beetle); Aeneolamia contigua (spotted spittlebug of pastures); Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed); Agromyza parvicornis (corn blotch leaf miner); Agrotis exclamationis (moth, heart and dart); Agrotis interjectionis; Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm); Agrotis malefida (pale-sided cutworm); Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); Agrotis tokionis; Agrypnus binodulus; Agrypnus variabilis (sugarcane wireworm); Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass); Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed); Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed); Alternaria brassicae (dark spot of crucifers); Amaranthus albus (tumble pigweed); Amaranthus blitoides (spreading amaranth); Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth); Amaranthus graecizans (prostrate pigweed); Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed); Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth); Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp); Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed); Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed); Amsacta albistriga (hairy caterpillar); Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel); Anaphothrips obscurus (grass thrips); Anomala antiqua (groundnut chafer); Anomala cupripes (large green chafer beetle); Araecerus fasciculatus (cocoa weevil); Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy); Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); Arion hortensis (garden slug); Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood); Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed); Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot); Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion); Astylus atromaculatus (astylus beetle); Athelia rolfsii (sclerotium rot); Atherigona naqvii (shootfly); Atherigona oryzae (rice shoot fly); Atriplex patula (common orache); Atta (leaf-cutter ant); Aulacophora hilaris (pumpkin flea beetle); Autographa gamma (silver-Y moth); Avena fatua (wild oat); Balclutha rubrostriata; Barley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf); Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode); Bidens pilosa (blackjack); Blastobasis graminea (sugarcane borer moth); Blissus leucopterus (chinch bug); Borreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed); Brachiaria paspaloides (common signal grass); Brentus volvulus; Busseola fusca (African maize stalk borer); Cadra cautella (dried currant moth); Caliothrips striatopterus (black thrips of maize); Callitettix versicolor (sugarcane spittlebug); Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Carpophilus (dried-fruit beetles); Carpophilus dimidiatus (corn-sap beetle); Carpophilus flavipes; Carpophilus hemipterus (dried fruit beetle); Carpophilus mutilatus (flower beetle); Caulophilus oryzae (broad nosed grain weevil); Celosia argentea (celosia); Cenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur); Ceratocystis paradoxa (black rot of pineapple); Cercospora sorghi (Cercosporiosis); Cerodontha denticornis (grass sheath miner); Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (anthurium thrips); Chaetocnema confinis (flea beetle); Chaetocnema pulicaria (corn flea beetle); Chamomilla recutita (common chamomile); Chenopodium album (fat hen); Chilo auricilius (gold-fringed rice borer); Chilo partellus (spotted stem borer); Chilo polychrysus (dark-headed striped borer); Chilo sacchariphagus (spotted borer); Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer); Chloris virgata (feather finger grass); Chlorophorus annularis (bamboo tiger longicorn); Choanephora cucurbitarum (Choanephora fruit rot); Chondracris rosea (citrus locust); Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed); Chrysodeixis eriosoma (green looper caterpillar); Chrysodeixis includens (soybean looper); Cicadulina mbila (maize leafhopper); Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle); Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle); Classeya tenuistriga; Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt & leaf blight); Claviceps gigantea (horse's tooth); Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower); Cleonis punctiventris; Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaf folder); Cochliobolus carbonum (maize leaf spot); Cochliobolus heterostrophus (southern leaf spot); Cochliobolus lunatus (head mould of grasses, rice and sorghum); Cochliobolus sativus (root and foot rot); Colaspis louisianae; Colletotrichum graminicola (red stalk rot of cereals); Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew); Commelina diffusa (spreading dayflower); Conogethes punctiferalis (castor capsule borer); Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane); Corcyra cephalonica (rice meal moth); Cornu aspersum (common garden snail); Criconemella (ring nematode); Cryptolestes ferrugineus (rusty grain beetle); Cryptolestes pusillus (flat grain beetle); Cucumber mosaic virus (cucumber mosaic); Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed); Curvularia (black kernel); Curvularia clavata (leaf spot of sorghum); Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed); Cydia pomonella (codling moth); Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass); Cyperus compressus (annual sedge); Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge); Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge); Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge); Cyrtacanthacris tatarica (yellow-backed grasshopper); Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass); Dalbulus maidis (maize leafhopper); Datura stramonium (jimsonweed); Delia florilega (turnip maggot); Deroceras reticulatum (grey field slug); Diabrotica barberi (northern corn rootworm); Diabrotica speciosa (cucurbit beetle); Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm); Diabrotica viridula; Diaprepes abbreviatus (citrus weevil); Diatraea crambidoides; Diatraea grandiosella (southwestern corn borer); Diatraea impersonatella; Diatraea lineolata (neotropical corn stalk borer); Dichroplus elongatus; Dickeya paradisiaca (rhizome rot, "tipover", fruit soft rot of banana); Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Digitaria abyssinica (East African couchgrass); Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass); Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass); Digitaria velutina (velvet fingergrass); Diodia teres (poorjoe); Ditylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode); Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode); Dociostaurus maroccanus (Moroccan locust); Doloessa viridis; Dreata petola; Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); Dysdercus andreae (cotton stainer); Dysdercus cingulatus (red cotton stainer); Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug); Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); Earias insulana (Egyptian stem borer); Echinochloa colona (junglerice); Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass); Elasmopalpus lignosellus (lesser corn stalk borer); Eleusine indica (goose grass); Elymus repens (quackgrass); Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower); Enterobacter dissolvens (stalk rot.); Entomobrya cubensis; Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth); Equisetum arvense (field horsetail); Eragrostis cilianensis (stink grass); Euetheola bidentata (bidentate scarab); Euphorbia helioscopia (sun spurge); Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia); Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); Euschistus crenator; Euschistus servus (brown stink bug); Euschistus variolarius (onespotted stink bug); Euxesta eluta; Euxesta stigmatias; Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); Feltia subterranea (granulate cutworm); Forficula auricularia (European earwig); Frankliniella fusca (tobacco thrips); Frankliniella williamsi (corn thrips); Fumaria officinalis (common fumitory); Fusarium sporotrichioides (kernel rot of maize); Fusarium temperatum; Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier); Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier); Gibberella acuminata (stalk rot of maize); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Gibberella fujikuroi (bakanae disease of rice); Gibberella sacchari (pineapple eye rot); Gibberella zeae (headblight of maize); Globisporangium splendens (blast of oil palm); Gonocephalum (false wireworm); Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (European mole cricket); Gryllus assimilis (field cricket); Guinea grass mosaic virus; Hadula trifolii (clover cutworm); Haplothrips aculeatus (grass thrips); Harpophora maydis (late wilt of maize); Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode); Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode); Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); Helicoverpa assulta (Oriental tobacco budworm); Helicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm); Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm); Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope); Heliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope); Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue); Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans (mottled stripe of sugarcane); Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode); Heteronychus arator (African black beetle); Heteronychus licas (black sugarcane beetle); Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow); Hieroglyphus banian (rice grasshopper); High plains virus (high plains disease); Hoplolaimus seinhorsti (lance nematode); Hortensia similis (common green sugarcane leafhopper); Hydraecia micacea (potato skin borer); Hydrellia griseola (rice leaf miner); Hypomeces squamosus (green weevil); Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Ipomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory); Iva xanthiifolia (Marsh-elder); Kabatiella zeae (eyespot); Khuskia oryzae (cob rot of maize); Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa); Leersia hexandra (southern cut grass); Lepidiota stigma (sugarcane white grub); Lepidium draba (hoary cress); Leptochloa chinensis (Chinese sprangletop); Leucophlebia lineata; Leucopholis irrorata (toy beetle); Leucopholis lepidophora (Areca white grub); Limonius californicus (sugarbeet wireworm); Liorhyssus hyalinus (hyaline grass, bug); Liposcelis bostrychophila (book louse); Liposcelis entomophila (grain psocid); Liposcelis paeta (grain psocid); Liriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner); Liriomyza sorosis; Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil); Locusta migratoria (migratory locust); Longidorus (longidorids); Longula malaca; Loxostege sticticalis (beet webworm); Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot of bean/tobacco); Macrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid); maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt); Maize chlorotic dwarf virus; Maize chlorotic mottle virus; Maize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize); Maize lethal necrosis disease; Maize mal de Rio Cuarto virus; Maize mosaic virus (corn mosaic virus); Maize rayado fino virus (maize rayado fino); Maize rough dwarf virus; Maize streak virus (streak disease of maize); Maize stripe virus (stripe disease of maize); Maize white line mosaic virus; Maladera orientalis (smaller velvet chafer); Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth); Marasmia patnalis (rice leafroller); Marasmia trapezalis (maize webworm); Margarodes formicarium (ground pearl); Mastigosporium rubricosum (leaf fleck: bent grass); Medicago lupulina (black medick); Megathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass); Melanerpes striatus (woodpecker); Melanoplus bivittatus (twostriped grasshopper); Melanoplus sanguinipes (lesser migratory grasshopper); Melinis repens (natal redtop); Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); Merremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose); Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grass aphid); Microdochium bolleyi (root rot of maize); Mocis frugalis; Mocis latipes (grass looper); Momordica charantia (bitter gourd); Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass); Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed); Mus musculus domesticus (mouse); Mussidia nigrivenella (cob borer); Mycosphaerella holci (glume blight); Mycosphaerella zeae-maydis (yellow leaf blight of maize); Myochrous barbadensis; Mythimna (cutworm); Mythimna latiuscula; Mythimna loreyi (maize caterpillar); Mythimna separata (paddy armyworm); Mythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm); Myzus persicae (green peach aphid); Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); Neocurtilla hexadactyla (six-fingered mole-cricket); Nicandra physalodes (apple of Peru); Nomadacris septemfasciata (red locust); Oebalus mexicana; Oebalus pugnax (rice stinkbug); Oliarus maidis; Oligonychus (sugarcane mite); Opogona sacchari (banana moth); Oryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle); Oscinella frit (frit fly); Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian corn borer); Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); Oulema melanopus (oat leaf beetle); Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel); Oxalis latifolia (sorrel); Oxya chinensis (rice grasshopper); Panicum repens (torpedo grass); Panoquina sylvicola; Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Paratrichodorus minor (stubby root nematode); Paratrichodorus porosus; Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed); Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass); Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower); Patanga succincta (bombay locust); Pelopidas conjuncta; Penicillium (penicillium ear rot); Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass); Peregrinus maidis (corn planthopper); Perkinsiella saccharicida (sugarcane leafhopper); Peronosclerospora maydis (downy mildew of maize); Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew); Peronosclerospora sacchari (sugarcane downy mildew); Peronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew); Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed); Phalera combusta; Phyllachora graminis (black: grasses leaf spot); Phyllachora maydis (black spot of maize); Phyllophaga (white grubs); Phyllophaga helleri; Phyllophaga misteca; Phyllophaga polyphylla; Phyllophaga ravida; Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry); Physoderma maydis (brown spot of corn); Physopella zeae (rust: maize); Platynota stultana (omnivorous leaf roller); Ploceus cucullatus (village weaver bird); Poa annua (annual meadowgrass); Podischnus agenor; Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed); Polygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper); Polygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria); Polygonum nepalense (Nepal persicaria); Polygonum persicaria (redshank); Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode); Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode); Pratylenchus zeae (root lesion nematode); Prostephanus truncatus (larger grain borer); Protaetia fusca (mango flower beetle); Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa (stalk rot); Pseudomonas syringae pv. striafaciens (bacterial: barley black node); Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); Puccinia polysora (American corn rust); Puccinia sorghi (common rust of maize); Punctodera chalcoensis; Pyralis manihotalis; Pyroderces rileyi (corn, worm, pink); Pythium aphanidermatum (damping-off); Pythium arrhenomanes (cereals root rot); Pythium graminicola (seedling blight of grasses); Pythium ultimum (black-leg of seedlings); Radopholus similis (burrowing nematode); Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish); Rattus exulans (Pacific rat); Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); Rhopalosiphum padi (grain aphid); Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer); Rice black-streaked dwarf virus; Richardia brasiliensis (white-eye (Australia)); Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass); Rotylenchulus parvus (reniform nematode); Salina wolcotti (yellow spring-tail); Scapteriscus (mole crickets); Scapteriscus variegatus; Schistocerca americana (south American locust); Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust); Schizaphis graminum (spring green aphid); Sclerophthora macrospora (downy mildew); Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize); Scotinophara coarctata (black rice bug); Senecio vulgaris; Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod); Sesamia calamistis (African pink stem borer); Sesamia cretica (greater sugarcane borer); Sesamia inferens (purple stem borer); Sesamia nonagrioides (Mediterranean corn stalk borer); Sesamia uniformis (shoot boring caterpillar); Setaria faberi (giant foxtail); Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail); Setaria pumila (yellow foxtail); Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail); Setaria viridis (green foxtail); Setosphaeria turcica (maize leaf blight); Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber); Sida acuta (sida); Sigmodon (field rat); Sipha maydis; Sitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil); Sitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil); Sitotroga cerealella (grain moth); Solanum carolinense (horsenettle); Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade); Solanum nigrum (black nightshade); Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle); Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle); Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle); Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass); Spergula arvensis (corn spurry); Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood); Sphacelotheca reiliana (head smut of maize); Spiroplasma kunkelii (corn stunt spiroplasma); Spodoptera; Spodoptera albula (Costa Rican armyworm); Spodoptera exempta (black armyworm); Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm); Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); Spodoptera latifascia (lateral lined armyworm); Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); Spodoptera mauritia (paddy swarming caterpillar); Spodoptera ornithogalli (yellow striped armyworm); Stegobium paniceum (drugstore beetle); Stenocarpella macrospora (dry rot of maize); Stenocarpella maydis (ear rot of maize); Stenocoris filiformis; Striacosta albicosta; Striga asiatica (witch weed); Striga aspera (witchweed); Striga densiflora (witchweed); Striga hermonthica (witchweed); Sugarcane mosaic virus (mosaic of abaca); Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella); Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger); Tanymecus dilaticollis (grey corn weevil); Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion); Tenebrio molitor (European meal worm); Tenebroides mauritanicus (cadelle); Tetranychus gloveri (banks glovers, mite); Tetranychus truncatus; Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host); Thaumatotibia leucotreta (false codling moth); Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress); Thrips hawaiiensis (Hawaiian flower thrips); Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane); Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle); Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle); Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes); Trichodorus viruliferus (stubby root nematode); Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); Trogoderma granarium (khapra beetle); Trogoderma variabile (grain dermestid); Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (stunt nematode); Tylenchorhynchus mashhoodi; Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris; Typhaea stercorea (hairy fungus beetle); Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cereal mite); Urochloa panicoides (liverseed grass); Urochloa plantaginea (marmeladegrass); Urochloa platyphylla (broadleaf signalgrass); Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass); Urtica urens (annual nettle); Ustilago maydis (common smut of maize); Valanga nigricornis (valanga grasshopper); Vicia villosa (hairy vetch); Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye); Vittatidera zeaphila; Waitea circinata (root rot of maize); Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr); Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur); Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode); Zea mosaic virus; Zygotylenchus guevarai

Minor host of:

Acalymma vittatum (striped cucumber beetle); Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); Acarus siro (flour mite); Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); Acronicta rumicis (knotgrass moth); Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid); Aegopsis bolboceridus; Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Indian cotton jassid); Amsacta moorei (tiger moth); Aphelenchoides arachidis (groundnut testa nematode); Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode); Aphis fabae (black bean aphid); Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid); Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); Asphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed); Atherigona orientalis (pepper fruit fly); Atherigona soccata (sorghum stem fly); Aulacophora lewisii; Barley yellow striate mosaic virus; Bipolaris sacchari (eye spot); Brevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite); Brome mosaic virus; Burkholderia andropogonis (bacterial leaf stripe of sorghum and corn); Burkholderia gladioli (leaf spot of orchids); Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma); Cereal chlorotic mottle virus; Chilo infuscatellus (yellow top borer of sugarcane); Chinavia hilaris (green stink bug); Chnootriba similis (maize ladybird); Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth); Cicadulina bimaculata; Cicadulina parazeae; Cochliobolus miyabeanus (brown leaf spot of rice); Colaspis brunnea (grape colaspis); Conium maculatum (poison hemlock); Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane); Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute); Cryptoblabes gnidiella (citrus pyralid); Curvularia australiensis (leaf blight of grasses); Cyclocephala flavipennis; Cylas puncticollis (sweet potato weevil); Cynodon chlorotic streak virus; Delia platura (bean seed fly); Diabrotica balteata (banded cucumber beetle); Diabrotica undecimpunctata (spotted cucumber beetle); Diatraea saccharalis (sugarcane stalk borer); Dickeya chrysanthemi (bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals); Dicladispa armigera (rice hispa); Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode); Edessa meditabunda (green and brown stink bug); Eldana saccharina (African sugarcane borer); Emex australis (Doublegee); Epitrix cucumeris (potato flea beetle); Epitrix pubescens; Euphorbia davidii; Euphoria lurida; Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug); Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis); Foxtail mosaic virus; Fusarium kyushuense; Fusarium pallidoroseum (fungal gummosis (of Leucaena)); Gibberella coronicola; Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans; Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot); Gloeocercospora sorghi (zonate leaf spot); Gonocephalum macleayi (southern false wireworm); Gonocephalum simplex (dusty brown beetle); Haematonectria haematococca (dry rot of potato); Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode); Hemicriconemoides mangiferae; Heterodera avenae (cereal cyst eelworm); Heterodera elachista; Heterodera oryzae (rice cyst nematode); Hirschmanniella oryzae (rice root nematode); Holotrichia serrata (white grub); Hoplolaimus indicus (lance nematode); Hoplolaimus magnistylus; Hypera zoilus (clover leaf weevil); Icerya aegyptiaca (breadfruit mealybug); Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass); Kyllinga brevifolia (green kyllinga); Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis (Bermuda grass stunting disease); Leptoglossus zonatus; Ludwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose); Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug); Maize streak Reunion virus; Mamestra configurata (bertha armyworm); Marasmia exigua (rice leaf roller); Melanaphis sacchari (yellow sugarcane aphid); Melanotus communis (common wireworm); Meloidogyne chitwoodi (columbia root-knot nematode); Meloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode); Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode); Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Merremia cissoides (roadside woodrose); Merremia umbellata (hogvine); Metamasius hemipterus (West Indian cane weevil); Metopolophium festucae (fescue aphid); Mimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant); Murgantia histrionica (harlequin bug); Nezara viridula (green stink bug); Oedaleus senegalensis (Senegalese grasshopper); Orgyia leucostigma (white-marked tussock moth); Pachnoda interrupta (chafer beetle); Pantoea agglomerans (bacterial grapevine blight); Pantoea ananatis (fruitlet rot of pineapple); Papaver rhoeas (common poppy); Paspalum distichum (knotgrass); Pectobacterium atrosepticum (potato blackleg disease); Pelopidas mathias (rice skipper); Penicillium digitatum (green mould); Penicillium expansum (blue mould of stored apple); Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth); Perkinsiella vastatrix (sugarcane leafhopper); Peronosclerospora australiensis; Peronosclerospora spontanea (spontaneum downy mildew); Phaenacantha saccharicida (sugarcane red bug); Phaeocytostroma ambiguum (stalk rot: maize); Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Phyllanthus urinaria (leafflower); Phyllophaga smithi (white grub); Phytophthora nicotianae (black shank); Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail); Portulaca oleracea (purslane); Pratylenchus goodeyi (banana lesion nematode); Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode); Pratylenchus thornei; Prioniturus (racket-tailed parakeet); Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Jack Beardsley mealybug); Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (sheath brown rot); Pseudomonas syringae pv. coronafaciens (halo blight); Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato (USA)); Puccinia purpurea (rust (of grasses, sorghum)); Pyrenophora teres (net blotch); Pyricularia setariae (blast of millet); Pyrilla perpusilla (sugarcane planthopper); Pythium debaryanum (damping-off); Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut); Pythium schmitthenneri; Pythium selbyi; Rattus argentiventer (rice field rat); Rattus rattus mindanensis (common Philippine field rat); Rhabdoscelus obscurus (sugarcane weevil borer); Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Rhopalosiphum insertum (apple-grass aphid); Rice stripe virus (rice stripe tenuivirus); Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot); Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode); Rumex crispus (curled dock); Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane); Sarocladium oryzae (rice sheath rot); Sarocladium strictum (acremonium wilt); Sclerospora graminicola (downy mildew of pearl millet); Scutellonema brachyurus; Scutellonema clathricaudatum; Sitobion avenae (wheat aphid); Sitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid); Sitophilus granarius (grain weevil); Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant); Somaticus terricola; Sophonia orientalis (two-spotted leafhopper); Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (armyworm); Spoladea recurvalis (Hawaiian beet webworm); Stenchaetothrips biformis (rice thrips); Striga angustifolia (witchweed); Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite); Tetranychus pacificus (Pacific spider mite); Tipula paludosa (European crane fly); Tithonia diversifolia (Tithonia); Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper); Urophorus humeralis (pineapple sap beetle); Ustilaginoidea virens (false smut); Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard); Veronica persica (creeping speedwell); Wheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak); Xanthomonas albilineans (leaf scald of sugarcane); Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease); Xanthomonas vasicola pv. holcicola (streaky spot of sorghum and Sudan grass); Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); Xiphinema (dagger nematode)

Wild host of:

Exomala orientalis (oriental beetle); Hippotion celerio (taro hawkmoth); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (rice water weevil)

Associated with (not a host):

Acaropsellina docta; Acaropsellina sollers; Archytas incertus; Archytas marmoratus; Arthrobotrys dactyloides (antagonist: Nematodes); Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus parasiticus; Aspergillus tamarii; Aspergillus terreus; Bacillus subtilis; Burkholderia cepacia (sour skin of onion); Chelonus insularis; Cheyletus eruditus; Coleomegilla maculata (beetle, Spotted ladybird); Cycloneda sanguinea; Cylindrocarpon didymum; Digonogastra grenadensis; Doru lineare; Epicoccum nigrum (red blotch of grains); Eucelatoria armigera; Euphorocera claripennis; Euphorocera floridensis; Euplectrus platyhypenae; Haplothrips gowdeyi (gold-tipped tubular thrips); Lespesia archippivora; Metagonistylum minense (amazon fly); Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea); Neonectria radicicola (black root of strawberry); Palpozenillia palpalis; Paratheresia claripalpis; Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato); Solenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant); Teretrius nigrescens; Trichothecium roseum (fruit rot of tomato); Winthemia quadripustulata (tachina, red-tailed); Xylocoris flavipes

Host of (source - data mining):

Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean bruchid); Adoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle); Aeolus mellillus (wireworm, flat); Agriotes brevis; Agriotes lineatus (wireworm); Agriotes sputator (click beetle, common); Agriotes ustulatus; Agrotis gladiaria (claybacked cutworm); Agrotis repleta (cutworm); Ahasverus advena (foreign grain beetle); Aleuroglyphus ovatus (brownlegged grain mite); Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria tenuissima (nailhead spot of tomato); Amblysellus grex; Amphimallon solstitiale; Amphipoea ussuriensis; Anaphothrips sudanensis; Anasa tristis (squash bug); Anomala; Apamea lateritia; Apamea ophiogramma; Aspergillus kambarensis; Atherigona punctata; Atractomorpha crenulata; Attagenus unicolor (black carpet beetle); Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Caliothrips phaseoli; Carpophilus freemani; Carpophilus lugubris (sap beetle, dusky); Carpophilus obsoletus (corn sap beetle); Cathartus quadricollis (square-necked grain beetle); Celaena leucostigma; Cercospora zeae-maydis (grey leaf spot); Chaetocnema aridula (flea beetle, cereal); Chaetocnema hortensis; Chilo agamemnon (oriental corn borer); Chilo orichalcociliellus (coastal stalk borer); Cicadulina bipunctata (sorghum, jassid); Cicadulina chinai; Cicadulina ghaurii; Cicadulina similis; Cicadulina storeyi; Clavigralla shadabi; Cochliobolus hawaiiensis (leaf spot: maize); Cochliobolus ravenelii (false smut); Coniesta ignefusalis; Conoderus amplicollis (gulf wireworm); Conoderus falli (wireworm, southern potato); Conoderus rudis; Cynaeus angustus (larger black flour beetle); Cyrtomenus bergi (cassava root bug); Dacus frontalis; Dalbulus elimatus; Dalbulus gelbus; Dalbulus guevarai; Deois flavopicta (demerara, froghopper); Diabrotica cristata; Diabrotica virgifera zeae; Diaphania hyalinata (melon worm); Dichelops melacanthus; Dichroplus pratensis; Empoasca kraemeri; Eoreuma loftini; Euetheola rugiceps (sugarcane beetle); Euproctis virguncula; Euxoa detersa (sand cutworm); Feltia jaculifera (dingy cutworm); Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Fusarium proliferatum; Geomyza tripunctata; Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower); Gibberella nygamai; Graminella nigrifrons (blackfaced leafhopper); Heterotermes convexinotatus; Hoplolaimus galeatus; Hydraecia immanis (hop vine borer); Johnsongrass mosaic virus; Lacinipolia renigera (bristly cutworm); Latheticus oryzae (longheaded flour beetle); Lepidoglyphus destructor (groceries, mite); Lepinotus reticulatus (booklouse, reticulatewinged); Limothrips cerealium (corn, thrips); Limothrips denticornis (barley thrips); Lygus gemellatus; Lygus pratensis (plant bug, tarnished); Macdunnoughia confusa; Macrosteles laevis; Marasmia suspicalis; Melanoplus differentialis (differential grasshopper); Melanotus annosus; Melanotus depressus; Melanotus legatus; Melanotus verberans; Microtermes obesi; Miltotrogus aequinoctialis; Monolepta bifasciata; Mythimna sequax; Mythimna vitellina; Myzus obtusirostris; Ochropleura herculea; Odontotermes wallonensis; Oligonychus pratensis (spider mite); Oligonychus zeae; Opatrum sabulosum; Oscinella pusilla; Ostrinia kasmirica; Ostrinia kurentzovi; Ostrinia narynensis; Ostrinia scapulalis; Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (cotton, seed bug); Papaipema nebris (stalk borer); Penicillium oxalicum (root rot: Sorghum spp.); Pennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass); Pestalosphaeria gubae; Phyllophaga anxia; Phyllophaga crinita (white, grub); Phyllophaga implicita; Phyllophaga menetriesii; Phyllophaga vicina; Phyllotreta atra (cabbage flea beetle); Phyllotreta nemorum (striped flea beetle); Phyllotreta vittula (barley flea beetle); Polyphylla laticollis; Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow); Pratylenchus rwandae; Pratylenchus scribneri; Psalidium maxillosum; Pseudocochliobolus verruculosus (post-harvest rot); Pseudomonas syringae (bacterial blast); Pyrenochaeta terrestris (pink root of onion); Pythium spinosum (root rot: ornamentals); Pythium tardicrescens; Rhizopus arrhizus (barn rot of tobacco); Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Richia albicosta (bean, cutworm, western); Romalea guttata (lubber, grasshopper, eastern); Schistocerca nitens (gray bird grasshopper); Sciomesa biluma; Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga; Sesamia penniseti; Sphenophorus callosus (southern corn billbug); Spilosoma urticae; Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain); Tanymecus palliatus (weevil, Beet leaf); Tarsonemus granarius (glossy grain mite); Tetraneura ulmi (elm cockscomb, gall aphid); Tetranychus evansi (red spider mite); Tetranychus turkestani (strawberry, spider mite); Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite); Toya propinqua; Trigonotylus coelestialium (rice, leafbug); Trogoderma inclusum (larger cabinet beetle); Udea ferrugalis; Ulomoides dermestoides; Veneza zonata; Zyginidia pullula; Zyginidia scutellaris

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Cereal
  • Flour/starch
  • Oil/fat
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore