Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xylosandrus compactus
(shot-hole borer)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Xylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xylosandrus compactus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shot-hole borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • X. compactus should be considered a high-risk quarantine pest; most of the species in Xylosandrus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xylosandrus plus related genera) ar...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Xylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); adult.
Copyright©Michael C. Thomas/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Xylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); adult.
AdultXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); adult.©Michael C. Thomas/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Xylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); dark brown to almost black, 1.4-1.9 mm (females), 0.8-1.1 mm (males), ca two times longer than wide. Males are wingless.
TitleAdult
CaptionXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); dark brown to almost black, 1.4-1.9 mm (females), 0.8-1.1 mm (males), ca two times longer than wide. Males are wingless.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Xylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); dark brown to almost black, 1.4-1.9 mm (females), 0.8-1.1 mm (males), ca two times longer than wide. Males are wingless.
AdultXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer); dark brown to almost black, 1.4-1.9 mm (females), 0.8-1.1 mm (males), ca two times longer than wide. Males are wingless.©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff, 1875)

Preferred Common Name

  • shot-hole borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Xyleborus compactus Eichhoff
  • Xyleborus morstatti Hagedorn, 1912
  • Xylosandrus morstatti (Hagedorn)

International Common Names

  • English: black coffee borer; black coffee twig borer; black twig borer; tea stem borer
  • French: scolyte des rameaux du caféier; scolyte noir des rameaux; scolyte noir du caféier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohrer, Schwarzer Kaffeezweig-; Schwarzer Zweigbohrer an Kaffee
  • Netherlands: takkenboeboek; zwarte takkenboeboek

EPPO code

  • XYLSCO

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page X. compactus should be considered a high-risk quarantine pest; most of the species in Xylosandrus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xylosandrus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males generally mating with their sisters within the parental gallery system before dispersal. Thus the introduction of only a few mated females may lead to the establishment of an active population if suitable host plants can be found and environmental conditions are satisfactory. Even suitable host plants may not be a limiting factor because the adult beetle does not actually feed on the plant material but uses it as a medium for growing the fungus, which is the larval food. Any woody material of suitable moisture content and size may be all that is required. A very wide range of host plants has been recorded for many species of Xylosandrus. The direct risk of establishment of species of Xylosandrus into tropical and subtropical areas should be considered extremely serious.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Xylosandrus
  •                                 Species: Xylosandrus compactus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Xylosandrus compactus was described by Eichhoff in 1875 in the genus Xyleborus. Xylosandrus was described by Reitter in 1913, and X. compactus was transferred to Xylosandrus by Nunberg (1959) and Browne (1963). Xyleborus morstatti was recognized as a synonym of X. compactus by Murayama and Kalshoven (1962). No other synonyms have been recognized.

Description

Top of page Eggs

The egg of X. compactus is about 0.3 mm wide and 0.5 mm long. It is white and ovoid with a smooth surface (Hara and Beardsley, 1979). The incubation period varies from 3 to 5 days with over 80% of eggs hatching after 4 days (Hara and Beardsley, 1979).

Larvae

The mature larva is about 2.0 mm long. The body is creamy white with a pale-brown head. It has no legs. The mean head width of final-instar larvae is about 0.36 mm (Ngoan et al., 1976). A detailed description of the larva has not been published.

Pupae

The pupae are illustrated by Hara and Beardsley (1979). The body of the pupa is creamy white and exarate. It is about the same length as the adult.

Adults

Bright (1968) provided a brief description of the female and male of X. compactus. The adult females are dark brown to almost black, 1.4-1.9 mm long and about two times longer than wide. The front of the head is convex, with a weak transverse impression just above the mouthparts. The antennal funicle is five-segmented, and the antennal club is obliquely truncate, about 1.2 times longer than wide. The pronotum, viewed from above, is subcircular. The anterior margin of the pronotum is broadly rounded, with 6-8 (sometimes 10) distinct, equal-sized serrations. The anterior half of the pronotum is finely asperate whereas the posterior portion is smooth with distinct, shallow punctures. The elytra are 1.1 times longer than wide, convex and steeply declivitous posteriorly. The strial punctures on the elytra are distinctly impressed, about equal in size to those between the striae. Each interstria bears a row of long setae, these are about two times longer than the interstrial width. The steeply convex, posterior portion of the elytra is similar to the remaining portion of the elytra.

The small, wingless males are about 0.8-1.1 mm long and two times longer than wide. The pronotum is narrowly rounded in front without serrations. The anterior portion of the pronotum is flattened and slightly concave in the median portion and the asperities are very low, almost obsolete.The elytral striae and interstrial are irregularly punctured.

A partial list of illustrations of the adult is given in Wood and Bright (1992) and Bright and Skidmore (1997).

Wood (1982) provided a key to species of Xylosandrus found in North and Central America, including X. compactus.

Distribution

Top of page In addition to the records given here, there are unpublished records from Brunei Darussalam, Christmas Island and Malaysia (Sarawak) (RA Beaver, Chiangmai, Thailand, personal communication, 2004). The record of X. compactus from New Zealand (Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1997) must refer to intercepted specimens not seen by the New Zealand Quarantine Service, or be incorrect. Brockerhoff et al. (2003) noted that there is no breeding population in New Zealand and they do not include X. compactus in their list of Scolytidae intercepted in the country.


Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentNative Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-GuangdongPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
East TimorRestricted distributionIPPC, 2016
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-GujaratPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-KarnatakaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-KeralaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-MaharashtraPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-Tamil NaduPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
IndonesiaPresentNative Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-Irian JayaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-JavaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-KalimantanPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-SulawesiPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-SumatraPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
JapanPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-HokkaidoPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-HonshuPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-KyushuPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-ShikokuPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
LaosPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-SabahPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
MyanmarPresentNative Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
SingaporePresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Sri LankaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
CameroonPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
ComorosPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
CongoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentEPPO, 2013
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Equatorial GuineaPresentEPPO, 2013
GabonPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
GhanaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
LiberiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
MauritaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
SenegalPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; EPPO, 2013
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
TogoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013

North America

USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2013
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood, 1977; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood, 1977; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood, 1977; Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bright, 1985; Wood, 1977; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced Invasive Vazquez and Monteagudo, 1988
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Franqui, 1991; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Bright, 1985; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood, 1980; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced Invasive Abreu et al., 2001; Wood, 1980
-GoiasPresentOliveira et al., 2008
PeruPresentEPPO, 2013

Europe

ItalyPresentFrancardi et al., 2012; Garonna et al., 2012; Pennacchio et al., 2012; EPPO, 2013

Oceania

American SamoaPresentEPPO, 2013
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
New ZealandAbsent, unreliable recordWood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO and, 1997; Brockerhoff et al., 2003; EPPO, 2013
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO and, 1997; EPPO, 2013
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Bigger, 1985; EPPO, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page X. compactus was probably unintentionally introduced to the Afrotropical region from the Oriental region hundreds of years ago by early traders, and is now widespread. It was accidentally introduced into the Americas before the middle of the twentieth century. Wood (1977) indicated that X. compactus was present in Florida in 1941, in Cuba in 1958, in Mississippi in 1968 and in Georgia ca 1975. Since then it has spread further in the USA and has been accidentally introduced to other Caribbean countries. It was collected in Brazil (Amazonas) in 1979 (Wood, 1980) and again in the same province more recently (Abreu et al., 2001), but has apparently not yet spread to other countries of South America. It was intercepted in Hawaii in 1931, but not found again until 1961 in Oahu, by which time it was established and spreading (Samuelson, 1981). According to Samuelson (1981), it spread to the islands of Kauai by 1962, Hawaii by 1966, Maui by 1968, Molokai by 1974 and Lanai by 1975.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Two other species of Xylosandrus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus and Xylosandrus morigerus, with similar habits to X. compactus, have become important pests of tree crops, ornamental and native trees in tropical and subtropical areas where they have been introduced. The risk of introduction for X. compactus must be considered high, most probably in the twigs and small branches of imported plants. Once established, such species are difficult to eradicate and are likely to spread with the movement of infested plants, as well as by normal dispersal of the adults. X. compactus is listed as a quarantine pest in New Zealand, but apparently not elsewhere.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Over 225 species of plants, belonging to 62 families, are susceptible to X. compactus (Ngoan et al., 1976). Browne (1961) remarked that X. compactus does not appear to be highly host specific in its natural mixed-forest habitat, and it is only when it finds special conditions of concentrated cultivation that it tends to be a pest. Only a selection of the recorded hosts is given here. Further host lists can be found in Schedl (1963), Brader (1964), Hara and Beardsley (1979) and Wood and Bright (1992).

The main economic host of X. compactus is coffee (especially Coffea canephora robusta, also Coffea arabica). In Japan, X. compactus is a pest of tea (Kaneko et al., 1965). X. compactus is also a pest of avocado and cocoa in South-East Asia and elsewhere (Kalshoven, 1958; Browne, 1961; Beaver, 1976; Waterhouse, 1997; Nair, 2000; Matsumoto, 2002). In India, X. compactus is reported as infesting and killing the seedlings and saplings of Khaya grandifoliola, and Khaya senegalensis, shade trees in coffee plantations (Meshram et al., 1993); in Africa, Erythrina sp. and Melia azedarach (Le Pelley, 1968). Attacks on seedlings and young plantations of a variety of forest trees can be severe (Browne, 1968; Intachat and Kirton, 1997). In addition to the large range of dicotyledonous trees and shrubs, it will sometimes attack both monocotyledonous plants, such as orchids and gingers, and conifers (Hara and Beardsley, 1979). Its attacks can also endanger rare native trees (Ziegler, 2001, 2002).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)FabaceaeOther
Acacia mangium (brown salwood)FabaceaeOther
AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeOther
Aucoumea klaineana (okoume)BurseraceaeOther
Caesalpinia kavaiensisFabaceaeWild host
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Castanea (chestnuts)FagaceaeOther
Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)MeliaceaeOther
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon)LauraceaeOther
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Colubrina oppositifoliaRhamnaceaeWild host
Cornus florida (Flowering dogwood)CornaceaeOther
Dalbergia (rosewoods)FabaceaeWild host
DendrobiumOrchidaceaeOther
Entandrophragma utile (ogipogo-mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
Erythrina abyssinica (red hot poker tree)FabaceaeOther
Eusideroxylon zwageri (billian)LauraceaeWild host
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Khaya grandifoliola (big-leaf mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
Khaya ivorensis (African mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
Khaya senegalensis (dry zone mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeOther
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
Macadamia integrifolia (macadamia nut)ProteaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeOther
Myrciaria dubiaMyrtaceaeOther
Ochroma pyramidale (balsa)BombacaceaeOther
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeOther
Pometia pinnata (fijian longan)SapindaceaeOther
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
ShoreaDipterocarpaceaeWild host
SwertiaGentianaceaeOther
Swietenia macrophylla (big leaved mahogany)MeliaceaeMain
Swietenia mahagoni (Cuban mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeOther
Toona ciliata (toon)MeliaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page X. compactus bores into the current year's twigs, killing them in a few weeks or causing them to break from the weight of the crop. The pest weakens and retards the fruiting of young plants and makes the replacement of trees very difficult. The typical host symptoms that characterize X. compactus infestation are necrosis of the leaves and stem extending from the entrance hole distally to the end of the branch. Flagging of branches occurs about 5-7 days after initial tunnelling and gallery formation. Wilting of twigs and branches usually becomes evident within weeks of infestation. The entrance holes are small (0.8 mm diameter) and are located on the underside of branches. Cankers, 10-210 mm long, are commonly seen around the attacked areas of larger twigs and branches (Dixon and Woodruff, 1982). A whitish pile of dust from boring may be seen at each hole.

X. compactus is one of the few species of ambrosia beetles that can attack and kill live twigs and branches. Most of the other species of ambrosia beetles primarily attack newly felled, stressed, dead or dying trees and shrubs. Apparently, the pathogenic action of the ambrosia fungus, Fusarium solani to the host plant enables X. compactus to attack live plants. The pathogenic action of F. solani to woody host plants has been proven by pure culture isolates of F. solani from discoloured vascular tissues of a large number of host species (Dixon and Woodruff, 1982).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / necrosis
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Several studies of the biology of X. compactus have been made. Browne (1961) reviewed the biology of X. compactus in South-East Asia, under the name Xylosandrus morstatti. Brader (1964) studied the biology of the pest when attacking coffee in West Africa, with particular reference to the effects of climatic factors, and relationships to the associated ambrosia fungus, and to the host plant. Kaneko (1965) and Kaneko et al. (1965) studied the biology of X. compactus in tea plants in Japan. Entwistle (1972) gives a detailed review of earlier work. Dixon and Woodruff (1982) summarized the biology and ecology of X. compactus in Florida, USA. Hara and Beardsley (1979) reported on the biology of X. compactus in Hawaii, USA. Beaver (1988) studied the biology and host associations of X. compactus in the Seychelles. Wood and Bright (1992) give several hundred references relating to the biology, habits, taxonomy and control of X. compactus. Bright and Skidmore (1997, 2002) give more recent references.

Only the adult females initiate the attack on the host plants. X. compactus is mainly a borer of seedlings, shoots and small twigs, but it will also breed in cut branches and poles up to a diameter of about 6 cm, rarely in larger material (Browne, 1961). Attacks in the tap root of seedlings have been noted in West Africa (Entwistle, 1972), but such attacks are more likely to be caused by the related species, Xylosandrus morigerus. On cocoa seedlings in Nigeria, attacks were most abundant 20-40 cm above ground level, and on stems of 6-10 mm diameter (Entwistle, 1972). The female constructs an entrance tunnel into the pith or wood of the host to a depth of 1-3 cm. The tunnel system consists of a simple or bifurcated entrance tunnel, and a longitudinal chamber or irregular tunnel where a loose cluster of eggs is deposited (Browne, 1961; Entwistle, 1972). One or more females may occupy a twig or branch. Generally, there is only one female if the twig diameter is less than 7 mm, but up to 20 females may be found on branches of diameter 8-22 mm.

Entwistle (1964) and Takenouchi and Tagaki (1967) report arrhenotokous parthenogenesis in X. compactus. Unmated females produce an all-male brood, but such broods are rare (Brader, 1964; Entwistle, 1972). Hara and Beardsley (1979) found seven all-male broods out of 416 examined.

The size of the brood varies considerably. Browne (1961) found that in peninsular Malaysia, broods rarely exceeded 10 individuals, and in the Seychelles, the largest brood that was observed by Brown (1954) included two eggs and seven larvae. Chevalier (1931) reported broods of 30-50 individuals in tropical Africa. In one gallery system in Fiji, 26 individuals of all instars were found (Lever, 1938). Entwistle (1972) found a mean of 12.3 offspring in field-collected galleries, but the number could occasionally exceed 60. The larvae feed on an ambrosia fungus growing on the walls of the gallery.

The pupation and mating of brood adults occurs in the infested material; the (usually) single male in each gallery mating with his sisters. The brood adults emerge through the entrance holes made by the parent beetles. In tropical Africa, Lavabre (1958, 1959) found that oviposition began 7-8 days after the parent female began her gallery. The egg stage lasted 4-5 days, larval development took 11 days, 7 days were spent in the pupal stage and the teneral adults remained in the gallery system for another 6 days before emerging. Thus about 37 days were required from the time the female first began boring into the branch until sexual maturity of the next generation. Ngoan et al. (1976) found that approximately 28 days (at 25°C) were required for development from egg to adult. According to Ngoan et al. (1976) and Hara and Beardsley (1979), there are two larval instars. The ratio of females to males varies, but is usually approximately 9:1 (Entwistle, 1972; Hara and Beardsley, 1979).

In Japan, there are normally two generations per year, and adult females overwinter, but in most parts of the range, breeding is continuous, with overlapping generations, so that the species is active at all times, and in all stages of development (Browne, 1968).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults
Callimerus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Dendrosoter enervatus Parasite Hawaii
Dendrosoter protuberans Parasite Hawaii
Tetrastichus sp. nr. xylebororum Parasite Larvae
Tetrastichus xylebororum Parasite
Tetrastichus xylebororum Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The immature stages have few natural enemies. The female parent normally remains in the gallery entrance whilst the immature stages are developing, preventing the entry of potential predators and parasitoids. Provided that the female remains alive and the growth of the ambrosia fungus on which the larvae feed is satisfactory, mortality of the immature stages is likely to be very low. Most mortality is probably during the dispersal of the adults and during gallery establishment.

Several studies of the natural enemies of X. compactus have been made in India. Sreedharan et al. (1992) reported that larvae of the clerid coleopteran Callimerus sp. were found in over 4% of the gallery systems of X. compactus. Although the predator feeds on all stages of the scolytid, it prefers feeding on the larvae. In India, Eupelmus sp. was found in nearly 8% of the branches of robusta coffee examined (Balakrishnan et al., 1989). The larvae of this eupelmid act as predators when several ambrosia beetle larvae are available. The incidence of parasitism ranged from 1.3% in January to nearly 21% in September. In Java, the eulophid Tetrastichus xylebororum parasitizes both this species and Xylosandrus morigerus (Le Pelley, 1968), a related species recorded from India (Dhanam et al., 1992), and a further species of Tetrastichus from Hawaii (Tenbrink and Hara, 1994). Le Pelley (1968) mentioned an undescribed bethylid ectoparasitoid of X. compactus larvae, and the bethylid, Prorops nasuta, a well-known parasite of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, has been recorded attacking X. compactus in West Africa (Brader, 1964). However, parasitism is not normally an important cause of mortality in Xylosandrus species.

One species of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was found infecting X. compactus in India (Balakrishnan et al., 1994) and has also been recorded in West Africa (Brader, 1964).

During gallery establishment, the adults are frequently attacked by ants (Lavabre, 1962; Brader, 1964). Brader (1964) noted attacks by Oecophylla longinoda in Côte d'Ivoire, and similar attacks by Oecophylla smaragdina occur in South-East Asia. Lizards and clerid beetles prey on the adults of ambrosia beetles, such as Xylosandrus as the latter attempt to bore into the host tree.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal

The adult females fly readily, and flight is one the main means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfected areas. Entwistle (1972) found that adult females dispersed at least 200 m, and it is likely that dispersal over several kilometres is possible, especially if wind-aided. However, of more importance for long distance movement is the transport of infested seedlings, saplings or cut branches.

Vector Transmission

The female has a mycangium, a pouch used to carry spores of the ambrosia fungus on which both adult and larvae feed, opening between the pronotum and mesonotum, and extending below the pronotum (Beaver, 1989). The ambrosia fungus of X. compactus has been variously identified by different researchers. Brader (1964) described it as Ambrosiella xylebori in Côte d'Ivoire. Bhat and Sreedharan (1988) agreed, but Muthappa and Venkatasubbaiah (1981) suggested that in India, the ambrosia fungus is Ambrosiella macrospora. In North America, the fungus has been identified as Fusarium solani (Ngoan et al., 1976; Hara and Beardsley, 1979). It is possible that A. xylebori is a pleomorphic form of F. solani (Hara and Beardsley, 1979). The records of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium pallidum [Geosmithia putterillii] (Brown, 1954) from X. compactus galleries in the Seychelles are of secondary saprophytic fungi (Schedl, 1963). Ambrosiella spp. are not known to be pathogenic, although they do cause staining of the wood around the gallery systems. However, F. solani is well known as a plant pathogen, and its pathogenicity to host plants of X. compactus has been confirmed (Hara and Beardsley, 1979; Dixon and Woodruff, 1983). Entwistle (1972) noted that fungal attack always follows gallery formation. In West Africa, the fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae [Lasiodiplodia theobromae] and Calonectria rigidiuscula [Nectria rigidiuscula] (the perfect stage of Fusarium decemcellulare), both of which are wound parasites of weak pathogenicity, are involved (Entwistle, 1972).

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page X. compactus is a serious pest of shrubs and trees. It causes extensive damage to coffee and cocoa throughout tropical Africa, Indonesia, southern India and the West Indies. There is no recent objective assessment of crop losses caused by X. compactus. In India, Ramesh (1987) observed that losses due to X. compactus were 21% on 45-year-old coffee plants and 23.5% on young plants. Infestation rates of 60-70% in African mahogany were reported by Meshram et al. (1993) in India. Lavabre (1958, 1959) reported losses of about 20% of the coffee crop in Cameroon. In Japan, X. compactus is a major pest of tea causing extensive dieback (Kaneko et al., 1965). In China, Yan et al. (2001) recorded an attack rate of 78% on the main stems of young chesnut trees.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page In Hawaii, X. compactus attacks several rare and threatened native trees, including Colubrina oppositifolia (Ziegler, 2001) and Caesalpinia kavaiensis (Ziegler, 2002), providing an additional threat to their survival. Similar threats to rare native trees may occur elsewhere in the range of the beetle as a result of its very wide host range.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Cyanea calycinaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Cyanea lanceolata (lanceleaf cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Doryopteris takeuchii (Takeuch's lipfern)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Flueggea neowawraea (mehamehame)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenic,
Melicope christopherseniiEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Melicope hiiakaeNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPoisoningUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Melicope makahaeEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPollen swampingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Plantago princepsNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaienseNo DetailsHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011
Schiedea nuttalliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Serianthes nelsoniiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Pathogenic
  • Poisoning
  • Pollen swamping

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Chemical Control

The decision to use chemical control is influenced by environmental concerns and the difficulties of applying chemicals to the concealed habitats in which X. compactus feeds. Mangold et al. (1977) reported that when chlorpyrifos was applied with a hand sprayer to individual twigs of flowering dogwood in Florida, USA, there was 77% mortality of all stages of the beetle. In subsequent field studies, hydraulic sprays of chlorpyrifos killed 83-92% of all beetle stages per infested twig. Bambara (2003) suggested the use of chlorpyrifos, permethrin or bifenthrin. Yan et al. (2001) used quinalphos or chlorypyrifos plus cypermethrin mixed with yellow soil and painted it on the main stem of young chestnut trees, and reported good control.

Cultural Control

Material that is infested with X. compactus should be pruned and destroyed. Where practicable, this is perhaps the most effective method of control, but it may not be economic (Le Pelley, 1968). Practices that promote tree vigour and health will aid recovery from beetle damage (Dixon and Woodruff, 1982; Bambara, 2003). Entwistle (1972) noted the attraction of X. compactus to cocoa seedlings with overhead shade, and with a growing ground cover, but he pointed out that shade may be essential for seedling establishment, and that its removal may also render the plant more susceptible to other pests. In Malaysia, Anuar (1986) found that when growing robusta and Liberian coffee under shaded and unshaded conditions, only robusta showed damage caused by X. compactus. The frequency and severity of damage was significantly higher on shaded than on unshaded trees.

Biological Control

X. compactus is "singularly free from attack by parasites and predators" (Entwistle, 1972). In Africa, there are no effective parasites of X. compactus (Brader, 1964). Parasites are known in Indonesia and Le Pelley (1968) suggested that they have "an appreciable effect from time to time". The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, causes some mortality in X. compactus and its potential usefulness is being investigated (Balakrishnan et al., 1994). However, biological control methods seem unlikely to be effective for X. compactus.

References

Top of page

Abreu RLS, Fonseca CRV, Marques EN, 1997. Analysis species of Scolytidae collected in the primary forest of the State of Amazonas. Anais da Sociedade Entomolo^acute~gica do Brasil, 26(3):527-535; 24 ref

Anuar AM, 1986. Observation on damage by Xylosandrus compactus in coffee as affected by shade and variety. MARDI Research Bulletin, 14(2):108-110

Balakrishnan MM, Sreedharan K, Bhat PK, 1994. Occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on certain coffee pests in India. Journal of Coffee Research, 24(1):33-35

Balakrishnan MM, Vinodkumar PK, Prakasan CB, 1989. Impact of the predator Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) on the incidence of Xylosandrus compactus. Journal of Coffee Research, 19(2):88-90

Bambara S, 2003. Black twig borer. North Carolina State Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Entomology Insect Note. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/O&T/trees/note106/note106.html

Beaver RA, 1976. The biology of Samoan bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae and Platypodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65(4):531-548

Beaver RA, 1988. Biological studies on ambrosia beetles of the Seychelles (Col., Scolytidae and Platypodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 195:62-73

Bhat SS, Sreedharan K, 1988. Association of Ambrosiella xylebori Brader, with the shot-hole borer Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff, a pest of robusta coffee. Journal of Coffee Research, 18(1):54-57

Bigger M, 1988. The insect pests of forest plantation trees in the Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands' Forest Record, No. 4:v + 190 pp

Brader L, 1964. Etude de la relation entre le scolyte des rameaux du caféier, Xyleborus compactus Eichh. (X. morstatti Hag.), et sa plante-hote. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, 64:1-109

Bright DE, 1968. Review of the tribe Xyleborini in America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist, 100:1288-1323

Bright DE, Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp

Bright DE, Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp

Brockerhoff EG, Knizek M, Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). New Zealand Entomologist, 26:29-44

Brown ES, 1954. Xyleborus morstatti Hag. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), a shot-hole borer attacking avocado pear in the Seychelles. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 45:707-710

Browne FG, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records, 22:1-255

Browne FG, 1963. Taxonomic notes on Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Entomologische Berichten, 23:53-59

Browne FG, 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees: an annotated list of the principal species occurring in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Xylosandrus compactus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June (2nd revision). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 244

Chevalier A, 1931. Sur un dangereaux ennemi du caféier en Guinée frantaise: le borer des rameaux (Xyleborus morstatti Haged.). Revue de Botanique Appliquee et d'Agriculture Tropicale, 11:661-665

Dhanam M, Raju T, Bhat PK, 1992. Tetrastichus sp. nr. xylebororum Domenichini (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff). Journal of Coffee Research, 22(Supplement 7):127-128

Dixon WN, Woodruff RE, 1983. The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 250:2 pp

Dixon WN, Woodruff RE, 1983. The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 250:2 pp

Eichhoff WJ, 1875. In: Chapuis F, Eichhoff W. Scolytides recueillis au Japan par M. C. Lewis. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique, 18:195-203

Entwistle PF, 1964. Inbreeding and arrhenotoky in the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus compactus (Eichh.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 39:83-88

Entwistle PF, 1972. Pests of cocoa. London, UK: Longman, 779 pp

EPPO, 2013. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Francardi V, Pennacchio F, Santini L, Rumine P, Paoli A, Navarra A, Musetti N, 2012. First report of Xylosandrus compactus on Laurus nobilis in Tuscany. (Prima segnalazione di Xylosandrus compactus su Laurus nobilis in Toscana.) In: Giornate Fitopatologiche 2012, Milano Marittima (RA), 13-16 marzo 2012. Bologna, Italy: Università di Bologna, 443-446

Franqui RA, 1991. Xylosandrus compactus (Eichoff), Coleoptera: Scolytidae, the black twig borer attacking coffee in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 75(2):183-184

Garonna AP, Dole SA, Saracino A, Mazzoleni S, Cristinzio G, 2012. First record of the black twig borer Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Europe. Zootaxa, 3251:64-68. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03251p068f.pdf

Hara AH, Beardsley JW Jr, 1976. The biology of the black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 23(1):55-70

Intachat J, Kirton LG, 1997. Observations on insects associated with Acacia mangium in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 9(4):561-564; 11 ref

IPPC, 2016. Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera:Scolytidae) detected in Timor-Leste. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. TLS-01/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Kalshoven LGE, 1958. The occurrence of the primary twig borer Xyleborus morstatti Hag. in Indonesia. Entomologische Berichte, 18:220-252

Kaneko T, 1965. Biology of some scolytid ambrosia beetles attacking tea plants. I. Growth and development of two species of scolytid beetles reared on sterilised tea plants. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 9:211-216

Kaneko T, Tamaki Y, Takagi K, 1965. Preliminary report on the biology of some scolytid beetles, the tea root borer, Xyleborus germanus Blandford, attacking tea roots, and the tea stem borer, Xyleborus compactus Eichhoff attacking tea twigs. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 9:23-28

Lavabre EM, 1962. Recherches biologiques et écologiques sur le scolyte des rameaux de caféiers. Bulletin de l'Institut Française de Café et Cacao, 2:1-137

Lavabre EW, 1958. Le scolyte des branchettes du caféier robusta Xyleborus morstatti Haged. Café, Cacao, Thé, 2:119-130

Lavabre EW, 1959. Le scolyte des branchettes du caféier robusta Xyleborus morstatti Haged. Café, Cacao, Thé, 3:21-33

Lever RJAW, 1938. The shot-hole beetle borer of avocado pear trees. Agricultural Journal of the Fiji Department of Agriculture, 9:20-21

Mangold JR, Wilkinson RC, Short DE, 1977. Chlorpyrifos sprays for control of Xylosandrus compactus in flowering dogwood. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(6):789-790

Matsumoto K, 2002. Insect pests of Mahogany in Indonesia and Malaysia. Tropical Forestry, No.55:29-36; 19 ref

Meshram PB, Husen M, Joshi KC, 1993. A new report of ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) as a pest of African mahogany, Khaya sp. Indian Forester, 119(1):75-77

Murayama JJ, Kalshoven LGE, 1962. Xyleborus morstatti Hag., a synonym of X. compactus Eichh. (Col., Scolytidae). Entomologische Berichten, 22:247-250

Muthappa BN, Venkatasubbaiah P, 1981. Association of Ambrosiella macrospora with Xylosandrus compactus, the shot-hole borer of robusta coffee in India. Journal of Coffee Research, 11(2):54

Nair KSS, 2000. Insect pests and diseases in Indonesian forests. An assessment of the major threats, research efforts and literature. Insect pests and diseases in Indonesian forests: an assessment of the major threats, research efforts and literature, vii + 91 pp.; Many ref

Ngoan ND, Wilkinson RC, Short DE, Moses CS, Mangold JR, 1976. Biology of an introduced ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus compactus, in Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(5):872-876

Oliveira CM, Flechtmann CAH, Frizzas MR, 2008. First record of Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on soursop, Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil, with a list of host plants. Coleopterists Bulletin, 62(1):45-48. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue

Pelley RH le, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd

Pennacchio F, Santini L, Francardi V, 2012. Bioecological notes on Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae), a species recently recorded into Italy. Redia, 95:67-77. http://www.radia.it-redazione.redia@isza.it

Ramesh PK, 1987. Observations on crop loss in robusta coffee due to mealybug and shot-hole borer. Journal of Coffee Research, 17(1):94-95

Reitter E, 1913. Bestimmungs-tabelle der Borkenkafer (Scolytidae) aus Europa und den angrenzenden Landern. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 32(Beiheft):1:1-116

Samuelson GA, 1981. A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Pacific Insects, 23(1/2):50-92

Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. Revista de Entomologia de Mocambique, 5:1-594

Sreedharan K, Balakrishnman MM, Bhat PK, 1992. Callimerus sp. (Coleoptera; Cleridae), a predator of the shot-hole borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichh.). Journal of Coffee Research, 22(2):139-142

Takenouchi Y, Takagi K, 1967. A chromosome study of two parthenogenetic scolytid beetles. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, 40:105-110

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii. In: Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.60 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants : US Fish and Wildlife Service.206 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and Designation of Critical Habitat for 124 Species; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 77(181) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.57648-57862. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-18/pdf/2012-19561.pdf

Vazquez LL, Monteagudo S, 1988. Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): new coffee pest in Cuba. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal, 3(1):67-73

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Waterhouse DF, 1997. The Major Invertebrate Pests and Weeds of Agriculture and Plantation Forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. ACIAR Monograph No. 44. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR

Wood SL, 1977. Introduced and exported American Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist, 37(1):67-74

Wood SL, 1980. New American bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with two recently introduced species. Great Basin Naturalist, 40(4):353-358

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic Index Volume A. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13:1-833

Yan ShuPing, Huang HaiYuan, Wang JianBao, 2001. The occurrence of chestnut beetle and its control. South China Fruits, 30(1):48

Ziegler M, 2001. Kauila. Environment Hawai'i, 12(1):1-2

Ziegler M, 2002. Uhiuhi. Environment Hawai'i, 12(11):1-2

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map