Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Xyleborus volvulus

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Datasheet

Xyleborus volvulus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xyleborus volvulus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males generally mating with their s...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Xyleborus volvulus; Adult, lateral view.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Adult, lateral view.
Copyright©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Adult, lateral view.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Adult, lateral view.©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.
Copyright©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.
Copyright©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of head.©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Adult, rear, lateral view.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Adult, rear, lateral view.
Copyright©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Adult, rear, lateral view.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Adult, rear, lateral view.©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of protibia.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Close up of protibia.
Copyright©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of protibia.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Close up of protibia.©Pest and Diseases Image Library/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Lateral view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Lateral view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Copyright©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Lateral view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Lateral view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Head and pronotum, anterior view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Head and pronotum, anterior view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Copyright©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Head and pronotum, anterior view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Head and pronotum, anterior view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Declivity, posterior oblique view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Declivity, posterior oblique view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Copyright©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Declivity, posterior oblique view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Declivity, posterior oblique view. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Dorsal and ventral views. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Dorsal and ventral views. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Copyright©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Dorsal and ventral views. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Dorsal and ventral views. Collected by F.C. Hadden on Mt. Makiling in Laguna, Philippines in 1932. Determined by Donald E. Bright.©Hanna Royals, Museum Collections: Coleoptera, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Posterior oblique view of declivity. Newly detected exotic species of Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with a revised key to species in eastern North America. 1990.
TitleMuseum specimen (adult)
CaptionXyleborus volvulus; Posterior oblique view of declivity. Newly detected exotic species of Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with a revised key to species in eastern North America. 1990.
Copyright©Thomas Atkinson, University of Texas at Austin/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Xyleborus volvulus; Posterior oblique view of declivity. Newly detected exotic species of Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with a revised key to species in eastern North America. 1990.
Museum specimen (adult)Xyleborus volvulus; Posterior oblique view of declivity. Newly detected exotic species of Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with a revised key to species in eastern North America. 1990.©Thomas Atkinson, University of Texas at Austin/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius, 1775)

Other Scientific Names

  • Bostrichus volvulus Fabricius, 1775
  • Xyleborus alternans Eichhoff, 1869
  • Xyleborus badius Eichhoff, 1869
  • Xyleborus granularis Schedl, 1950
  • Xyleborus grenadensis Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus guanaguatensis Duges, 1887
  • Xyleborus hubbardi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus interstitialis Eichhoff, 1878
  • Xyleborus rileyi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus schwarzi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus silvestris Beeson, 1929
  • Xyleborus torquatus Eichhoff, 1868
  • Xyleborus vagabundus Schedl, 1948

EPPO code

  • XYLBTO (Xyleborus torquatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males generally mating with their sisters within the parental gallery system before dispersal. Thus the introduction of only a few mated females may lead to the establishment of an active population if suitable host plants can be found and environmental conditions are satisfactory. A very wide range of host plants have been recorded for many species of Xyleborus and related genera. Any woody material of suitable moisture content and density may be all that is required. The direct risk of establishment of populations of species of X. volvulus outside its present range should be considered serious, although the species is not currently known to attack healthy trees.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Xyleborus
  •                                 Species: Xyleborus volvulus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Wood and Bright (1992) note that Xyleborus torquatus, frequently treated as a distinct species, may once have formed a clearly defined geographical race, but that the limits from X. volvulus have been virtually obliterated by movement through commerce and consequent hybridization. Many populations totally intergrade. The species is also doubtfully distinct from Xyleborus perforans (Wollaston), and may intergrade with that species in some areas (Wood and Bright, 1992). Molecular studies are needed on populations from different areas to determine intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Xyleborus perforans is treated in this Compendium as a distinct species. The biology and ecology of X. volvulus are essentially the same as X. perforans, and reference should be made to the latter species for further information. Lists of references to both species are given by Wood and Bright (1992), and additional references by Bright and Skidmore (1997, 2002).

Description

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Adult females can often be distinguished from Xyleborus perforans by the following characters; however, it should be noted that intermediate specimens occur.

Size slightly larger, 2.4 - 2.6 mm (vs. 2.2 - 2.4 mm for X. perforans); discal striae, especially striae 1, at least weakly impressed (vs. not impressed for X. perforans); elytral declivity a little steeper and more convex; colour normally darker brown (vs. yellowish to reddish-brown for X. perforans).

The immature stages have not been described.

Distribution

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There has probably been some confusion between Xyleborus perforans and X. volvulus in the published records, and some records of X. volvulus from South-East Asia to the South Pacific, should probably be referred to X. perforans (Wood and Bright, 1992). There are unpublished records from Botswana and Vietnam (RA Beaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
GabonPresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
NamibiaPresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
SomaliaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-JavaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SumatraPresentIntroducedInvasive
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HonshuPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KyushuPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ShikokuPresentIntroducedInvasive
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SarawakPresentIntroducedInvasive
MyanmarPresentIntroducedInvasive
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

DenmarkAbsent, Intercepted only
GermanyAbsent, Intercepted only
ItalyAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

BermudaPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNative
DominicaPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
United StatesPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-New South WalesAbsent, Intercepted only
-QueenslandAbsent, Intercepted only
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandAbsent, Intercepted only
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-Fernando de NoronhaPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
ChilePresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is believed that X. volvulus is native to the Americas (Wood, 1982). It probably arrived in Africa hundreds of years ago, and is now well-established in many parts of the Afrotropical region, although less common than X. perforans (Schedl, 1963). In Asia and the Pacific, X. volvulus was probably accidentally introduced through commerce. It is not clear whether the species is established in Australia, although it has been intercepted there (Schedl, 1964). No specimens have been seen in extensive collections of Scolytidae from Queensland (RABeaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data). Although established on the main islands of Japan (apart from Hokkaido), X. volvulus has often been intercepted at Japanese ports from timber imported from countries from Indonesia to the Solomon Islands (Schedl, 1966; Ohno et al., 1987, 1988, 1989; Ohno, 1990). It has also been intercepted in certain European countries and New Zealand, but has not established there, probably because it is unable to survive winter conditions.

Risk of Introduction

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Several other species of Xyleborus with similar habits to X. volvulus have been imported to tropical and subtropical areas around the world. A few have become important pests, either because they may attack living or stressed trees, or because of their abundance in disturbed forest areas, and their very wide host range. X. volvulus is a secondary borer, but it can attack injured trees, and is often very abundant in recently felled timber. Kühnholz et al. (2003) note that a number of secondary borers have started to attack living trees, and discuss the possible reasons for this change of habit. The risk of introduction outside its present geographic range must be considered high. X. volvulus is not specifically listed as a quarantine pest, but Xyleborus spp. are included in the APHIS Regulated Pest List in the USA, and as quarantine pests in New Zealand.
 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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X. volvulus is a strongly polyphagous species. It is able to breed in almost any tree of suitable size which provides suitable conditions for the growth of the associated ambrosia fungus. See datasheet on X. perforans for further details.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / necrosis
Stems / visible frass
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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See Xyleborus perforans.

Notes on Natural Enemies

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See Xyleborus perforans.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Loose wood packing material Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Solid wood packing material with bark Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

References

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Beaver RA, 1976. Biological studies of Brazilian Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). V. The tribe Xyleborini. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 80(1):15-30

Beaver RA; Loyttyniemi K, 1985. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Zambia. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 99(1):63-85

Beeson CFC, 1929. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. Insects of Samoa, 4:217-248.

Beeson CFC, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 142:115-121.

Bigger M, 1988. The insect pests of forest plantation trees in the Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands' Forest Record, No. 4:v + 190 pp.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp.

Brockerhoff EG; Knizek M; Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). New Zealand Entomologist, 26:29-44.

Browne FG, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records, 22:1-255.

Cola L, 1971. Insects introduced with foreign wood, especially Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde und Pflanzenschutz, 44(5):65-68

Cola L, 1973. Insects imported with foreign timber, especially Scolytidae and Platypodidae. (Part 2.). Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzen- und Umweltschutz, 46(1):7-11

Eggers H, 1927. Neue indomalayische Borkenkäfer (Ipidae). I. Nachtrag. Treubia, 9:390-408.

Eggers H, 1941. Borkenkäfer aus Südamerika. IX. Insel Guadeloupe. Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem, 8:99-109.

Hopkins AD, 1915. Classification of the Cryphalinae with descriptions of new genera and species. United States Department of Agriculture, Report 99:75pp.

Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, No. 30:1-32.

Ohno S, 1990. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Borneo found in logs at Nagoya port II. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan., No. 26:95-103

Ohno S; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 23:93-97

Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Uchida N; Yoneyama K; Tsukamoto K, 1989. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Bismarck Archipelago found in logs at Nagoya port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 25:59-69

Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 24:91-95

Schedl KE, 1949. Neotropical Scolytoidea, I. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 9:261-284.

Schedl KE, 1961. Borken- und Ambrosiakäfer Indonesiens. Entomologische Berichten, 21:69-75.

Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962):1-594.

Schedl KE, 1964. Three new species of Scolytidae from Australia, and some introduced Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, 89:246-249.

Schedl KE, 1966. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) intercepted from imported logs in Japanese ports. I. Kontyu, 34:29-43.

Schedl KE, 1971. Scolytidae und Platypodidae aus dem Zoologischen Museum der Universität Kopenhagen (Insecta, Coleoptera). Steenstrupia, 1:145-156.

Schedl KE, 1972. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XI. Koleopterologische Rundschau, 50:37-86.

Schedl KE, 1973. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XII. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 26:149-172.

Schedl KE, 1976. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XIII. (Coleoptera). Entomologische Abhandlungen , Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 41:49-92.

Wood SL, 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 6:1359 pp.

Wood SL; Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 1-1553.

Distribution References

Beaver R A, 1976. Biological studies of Brazilian Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). V. The tribe Xyleborini. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 80 (1), 15-30.

Beaver R A, Löyttyniemi K, 1985. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Zambia. Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 99 (1), 63-85.

Beeson C F C, 1929. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. Insects of Samoa. 217-248.

Beeson C F C, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. In: Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 115-121.

Bigger M, 1988. Solomon Islands' Forest Record. v + 190 pp.

Brockerhoff EG, Knizek M, Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). In: New Zealand Entomologist, 26 29-44.

Browne F G, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records. xi + 255.

Burbano-Figueroa O, Arcila A, Vasquez A M, Carrascal F, Pertuz K S, Moreno-Moran M, Romero-Ferrer J, Pulgarin J A, 2018. First report of Bionectria pseudochroleuca causing dieback and Wilting on avocado in the Serrania de perijá, Colombia. Plant Disease. 102 (1), 238-239. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-17-0010-PDN

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Eggers H, 1927. New Indo-malay bark beetles (Ipidae). 1 Part. (Neue indomalayische Borkenkäfer (Ipidae). I. Nachtrag.). Treubia. 390-408.

Eggers H, 1941. South American bark beetles. IX. Guadeloupe. (Borkenkäfer aus Südamerika. IX. Insel Guadeloupe.). Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem. 99-109.

Hopkins A D, 1915. Classification of the Cryphalinae, with descriptions of new genera and species. In: Classification of the Cryphalinae, with descriptions of new genera and species. Washington D.C, USA: USDA. 75 pp.

Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. In: Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, 30 1-32.

Ohno S, Yoneyama K, Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 93-97.

Ohno S, Yoshioka K, Yoneyama K, Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 91-95.

Schedl K E, 1949. Neotropical Scolytoidea, I. Revista Brasileira de Biologia. 261-284.

Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. In: Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962) 1-594.

Schedl KE, 1964. Three new species of Scolytidae from Australia, and some introduced Coleoptera. [Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales], 89 246-249.

Schedl KE, 1971. (Scolytidae und Platypodidae aus dem Zoologischen Museum der Universität Kopenhagen (Insecta, Coleoptera)). In: Steenstrupia, 1 145-156.

Schedl KE, 1972. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XI. In: Koleopterologische Rundschau, 50 37-86.

Schedl KE, 1973. (Neotropische Scolytoidea. XII). In: Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 26 149-172.

Schedl KE, 1976. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XIII. (Coleoptera)., 41 Entomologische Abhandlungen , Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden. 49-92.

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13 1-1553.

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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