- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius, 1775)
Other Scientific Names
- Bostrichus volvulus Fabricius, 1775
- Xyleborus alternans Eichhoff, 1869
- Xyleborus badius Eichhoff, 1869
- Xyleborus granularis Schedl, 1950
- Xyleborus grenadensis Hopkins, 1915
- Xyleborus guanaguatensis Duges, 1887
- Xyleborus hubbardi Hopkins, 1915
- Xyleborus interstitialis Eichhoff, 1878
- Xyleborus rileyi Hopkins, 1915
- Xyleborus schwarzi Hopkins, 1915
- Xyleborus silvestris Beeson, 1929
- Xyleborus torquatus Eichhoff, 1868
- Xyleborus vagabundus Schedl, 1948
- XYLBTO (Xyleborus torquatus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males generally mating with their sisters within the parental gallery system before dispersal. Thus the introduction of only a few mated females may lead to the establishment of an active population if suitable host plants can be found and environmental conditions are satisfactory. A very wide range of host plants have been recorded for many species of Xyleborus and related genera. Any woody material of suitable moisture content and density may be all that is required. The direct risk of establishment of populations of species of X. volvulus outside its present range should be considered serious, although the species is not currently known to attack healthy trees.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Scolytidae
- Genus: Xyleborus
- Species: Xyleborus volvulus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Wood and Bright (1992) note that Xyleborus torquatus, frequently treated as a distinct species, may once have formed a clearly defined geographical race, but that the limits from X. volvulus have been virtually obliterated by movement through commerce and consequent hybridization. Many populations totally intergrade. The species is also doubtfully distinct from Xyleborus perforans (Wollaston), and may intergrade with that species in some areas (Wood and Bright, 1992). Molecular studies are needed on populations from different areas to determine intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Xyleborus perforans is treated in this Compendium as a distinct species. The biology and ecology of X. volvulus are essentially the same as X. perforans, and reference should be made to the latter species for further information. Lists of references to both species are given by Wood and Bright (1992), and additional references by Bright and Skidmore (1997, 2002).
DescriptionTop of page Adult females can often be distinguished from Xyleborus perforans by the following characters; however, it should be noted that intermediate specimens occur.
Size slightly larger, 2.4 - 2.6 mm (vs. 2.2 - 2.4 mm for X. perforans); discal striae, especially striae 1, at least weakly impressed (vs. not impressed for X. perforans); elytral declivity a little steeper and more convex; colour normally darker brown (vs. yellowish to reddish-brown for X. perforans).
The immature stages have not been described.
DistributionTop of page There has probably been some confusion between Xyleborus perforans and X. volvulus in the published records, and some records of X. volvulus from South-East Asia to the South Pacific, should probably be referred to X. perforans (Wood and Bright, 1992). There are unpublished records from Botswana and Vietnam (RA Beaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schedl, 1971|
|Indonesia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Java||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Kalimantan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Moluccas||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Ohno et al., 1987|
|-Sulawesi||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Sumatra||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Japan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Nobuchi, 1985|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Malaysia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Myanmar||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Taiwan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Thailand||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Angola||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Burundi||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Cameroon||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Congo||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Congo Democratic Republic||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Ethiopia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Gabon||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Ghana||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Guinea||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Kenya||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Madagascar||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Mauritius||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Mozambique||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Namibia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Nigeria||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Rwanda||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Seychelles||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Somalia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Sudan||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Uganda||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Zambia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Beaver and Loyttyniemi, 1985|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Bermuda||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Mexico||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|USA||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Florida||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Hawaii||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
Central America and Caribbean
|Costa Rica||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Cuba||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Dominica||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1949|
|El Salvador||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Grenada||Present||Native||Not invasive||Hopkins, 1915|
|Guadeloupe||Present||Native||Not invasive||Eggers, 1941|
|Guatemala||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Honduras||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Jamaica||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Nicaragua||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Panama||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Argentina||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Bolivia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Brazil||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Acre||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Amapa||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973|
|-Amazonas||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963; Schedl, 1973|
|-Bahia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963; Schedl, 1976|
|-Espirito Santo||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973; Schedl, 1976|
|-Fernando de Noronha||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Goias||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973|
|-Maranhao||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973|
|-Mato Grosso||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973; Beaver, 1976|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1971; Schedl, 1973|
|-Para||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973; Schedl, 1976|
|-Parana||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Pernambuco||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973|
|-Rondonia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Roraima||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1973|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1963|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1972; Schedl, 1973|
|Chile||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Colombia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Ecuador||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-Galapagos Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|French Guiana||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Guyana||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Paraguay||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Peru||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Suriname||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Uruguay||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Venezuela||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Denmark||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Schedl, 1971|
|Germany||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Cola and, 1971; Cola and, 1973|
|Italy||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Cola and, 1971; Cola and, 1973|
|Australia||Present||Introduced||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|-New South Wales||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Schedl, 1964|
|-Queensland||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Schedl, 1964|
|Fiji||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|French Polynesia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Beeson, 1935|
|New Zealand||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Brockerhoff et al., 2003|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Bigger, 1988|
|Solomon Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Ohno et al., 1988|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page It is believed that X. volvulus is native to the Americas (Wood, 1982). It probably arrived in Africa hundreds of years ago, and is now well-established in many parts of the Afrotropical region, although less common than X. perforans (Schedl, 1963). In Asia and the Pacific, X. volvulus was probably accidentally introduced through commerce. It is not clear whether the species is established in Australia, although it has been intercepted there (Schedl, 1964). No specimens have been seen in extensive collections of Scolytidae from Queensland (RABeaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data). Although established on the main islands of Japan (apart from Hokkaido), X. volvulus has often been intercepted at Japanese ports from timber imported from countries from Indonesia to the Solomon Islands (Schedl, 1966; Ohno et al., 1987, 1988, 1989; Ohno, 1990). It has also been intercepted in certain European countries and New Zealand, but has not established there, probably because it is unable to survive winter conditions.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Several other species of Xyleborus with similar habits to X. volvulus have been imported to tropical and subtropical areas around the world. A few have become important pests, either because they may attack living or stressed trees, or because of their abundance in disturbed forest areas, and their very wide host range. X. volvulus is a secondary borer, but it can attack injured trees, and is often very abundant in recently felled timber. Kühnholz et al. (2003) note that a number of secondary borers have started to attack living trees, and discuss the possible reasons for this change of habit. The risk of introduction outside its present geographic range must be considered high. X. volvulus is not specifically listed as a quarantine pest, but Xyleborus spp. are included in the APHIS Regulated Pest List in the USA, and as quarantine pests in New Zealand.
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page X. volvulus is a strongly polyphagous species. It is able to breed in almost any tree of suitable size which provides suitable conditions for the growth of the associated ambrosia fungus. See datasheet on X. perforans for further details.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / dieback|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Stems / dieback|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Stems / necrosis|
|Stems / visible frass|
|Stems / wilt|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page See Xyleborus perforans.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page See Xyleborus perforans.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||adults||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Wood||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Loose wood packing material||Fresh, unseasoned wood||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Fresh, unseasoned wood||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||Fresh, unseasoned wood||Yes|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Processed or treated wood|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ReferencesTop of page
Beeson CFC, 1929. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. Insects of Samoa, 4:217-248.
Beeson CFC, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 142:115-121.
Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp.
Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp.
Brockerhoff EG; Knizek M; Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). New Zealand Entomologist, 26:29-44.
Browne FG, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records, 22:1-255.
Eggers H, 1927. Neue indomalayische Borkenkäfer (Ipidae). I. Nachtrag. Treubia, 9:390-408.
Eggers H, 1941. Borkenkäfer aus Südamerika. IX. Insel Guadeloupe. Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem, 8:99-109.
Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, No. 30:1-32.
Ohno S; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 23:93-97
Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Uchida N; Yoneyama K; Tsukamoto K, 1989. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Bismarck Archipelago found in logs at Nagoya port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 25:59-69
Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 24:91-95
Schedl KE, 1949. Neotropical Scolytoidea, I. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 9:261-284.
Schedl KE, 1961. Borken- und Ambrosiakäfer Indonesiens. Entomologische Berichten, 21:69-75.
Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962):1-594.
Schedl KE, 1964. Three new species of Scolytidae from Australia, and some introduced Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, 89:246-249.
Schedl KE, 1966. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) intercepted from imported logs in Japanese ports. I. Kontyu, 34:29-43.
Schedl KE, 1971. Scolytidae und Platypodidae aus dem Zoologischen Museum der Universität Kopenhagen (Insecta, Coleoptera). Steenstrupia, 1:145-156.
Schedl KE, 1972. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XI. Koleopterologische Rundschau, 50:37-86.
Schedl KE, 1973. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XII. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 26:149-172.
Schedl KE, 1976. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XIII. (Coleoptera). Entomologische Abhandlungen , Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 41:49-92.
Wood SL; Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 1-1553.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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