Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Xyleborus volvulus

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Datasheet

Xyleborus volvulus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xyleborus volvulus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males g...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius, 1775)

Other Scientific Names

  • Bostrichus volvulus Fabricius, 1775
  • Xyleborus alternans Eichhoff, 1869
  • Xyleborus badius Eichhoff, 1869
  • Xyleborus granularis Schedl, 1950
  • Xyleborus grenadensis Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus guanaguatensis Duges, 1887
  • Xyleborus hubbardi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus interstitialis Eichhoff, 1878
  • Xyleborus rileyi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus schwarzi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus silvestris Beeson, 1929
  • Xyleborus torquatus Eichhoff, 1868
  • Xyleborus vagabundus Schedl, 1948

EPPO code

  • XYLBTO (Xyleborus torquatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males generally mating with their sisters within the parental gallery system before dispersal. Thus the introduction of only a few mated females may lead to the establishment of an active population if suitable host plants can be found and environmental conditions are satisfactory. A very wide range of host plants have been recorded for many species of Xyleborus and related genera. Any woody material of suitable moisture content and density may be all that is required. The direct risk of establishment of populations of species of X. volvulus outside its present range should be considered serious, although the species is not currently known to attack healthy trees.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Xyleborus
  •                                 Species: Xyleborus volvulus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Wood and Bright (1992) note that Xyleborus torquatus, frequently treated as a distinct species, may once have formed a clearly defined geographical race, but that the limits from X. volvulus have been virtually obliterated by movement through commerce and consequent hybridization. Many populations totally intergrade. The species is also doubtfully distinct from Xyleborus perforans (Wollaston), and may intergrade with that species in some areas (Wood and Bright, 1992). Molecular studies are needed on populations from different areas to determine intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Xyleborus perforans is treated in this Compendium as a distinct species. The biology and ecology of X. volvulus are essentially the same as X. perforans, and reference should be made to the latter species for further information. Lists of references to both species are given by Wood and Bright (1992), and additional references by Bright and Skidmore (1997, 2002).

Description

Top of page Adult females can often be distinguished from Xyleborus perforans by the following characters; however, it should be noted that intermediate specimens occur.

Size slightly larger, 2.4 - 2.6 mm (vs. 2.2 - 2.4 mm for X. perforans); discal striae, especially striae 1, at least weakly impressed (vs. not impressed for X. perforans); elytral declivity a little steeper and more convex; colour normally darker brown (vs. yellowish to reddish-brown for X. perforans).

The immature stages have not been described.

Distribution

Top of page There has probably been some confusion between Xyleborus perforans and X. volvulus in the published records, and some records of X. volvulus from South-East Asia to the South Pacific, should probably be referred to X. perforans (Wood and Bright, 1992). There are unpublished records from Botswana and Vietnam (RA Beaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
BurundiPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
CameroonPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
GabonPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
GhanaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
GuineaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
KenyaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
NamibiaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
RwandaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
SomaliaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
SudanPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
UgandaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedBeaver and Löyttyniemi (1985)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBrowne (1961)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSchedl (1971)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992);
-JavaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveOhno et al. (1987)
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
-SumatraPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
-HonshuPresentIntroducedInvasiveNobuchi (1985)
-KyushuPresentIntroducedInvasiveNobuchi (1985)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveNobuchi (1985)
-ShikokuPresentIntroducedInvasiveNobuchi (1985)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
-SarawakPresentIntroducedInvasiveBrowne (1961)
MyanmarPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasiveEggers (1927)
South KoreaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)

Europe

DenmarkAbsent, Intercepted onlySchedl (1971)
GermanyAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI (Undated);
ItalyAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI (Undated);

North America

BermudaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
Costa RicaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
CubaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
DominicaPresentNativeSchedl (1949)
El SalvadorPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
GrenadaPresentNativeHopkins (1915)
GuadeloupePresentNativeEggers (1941)
GuatemalaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
HondurasPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
JamaicaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
MexicoPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
NicaraguaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
PanamaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
United StatesPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
-FloridaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
-HawaiiPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright (1992)
-New South WalesAbsent, Intercepted onlySchedl (1964)
-QueenslandAbsent, Intercepted onlySchedl (1964)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBeeson (1935)
New ZealandAbsent, Intercepted onlyBrockerhoff et al. (2003)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBigger (1988)
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBeeson (1929)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveOhno et al. (1988)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
BoliviaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-AmapaPresentNativeSchedl (1973)
-AmazonasPresentNativeSchedl (1963); Schedl (1973)
-BahiaPresentNativeSchedl (1963); Schedl (1976)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeSchedl (1973); Schedl (1976)
-Fernando de NoronhaPresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-GoiasPresentNativeSchedl (1973)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeSchedl (1973)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeSchedl (1973); Beaver (1976)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeSchedl (1971); Schedl (1973)
-ParaPresentNativeSchedl (1973); Schedl (1976)
-ParanaPresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-PernambucoPresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeSchedl (1973)
-RondoniaPresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-RoraimaPresentNativeSchedl (1973)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeSchedl (1963)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeSchedl (1972); Schedl (1973)
ChilePresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
ColombiaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EcuadorPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
French GuianaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
GuyanaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
ParaguayPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
PeruPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
SurinamePresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
UruguayPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
VenezuelaPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page It is believed that X. volvulus is native to the Americas (Wood, 1982). It probably arrived in Africa hundreds of years ago, and is now well-established in many parts of the Afrotropical region, although less common than X. perforans (Schedl, 1963). In Asia and the Pacific, X. volvulus was probably accidentally introduced through commerce. It is not clear whether the species is established in Australia, although it has been intercepted there (Schedl, 1964). No specimens have been seen in extensive collections of Scolytidae from Queensland (RABeaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data). Although established on the main islands of Japan (apart from Hokkaido), X. volvulus has often been intercepted at Japanese ports from timber imported from countries from Indonesia to the Solomon Islands (Schedl, 1966; Ohno et al., 1987, 1988, 1989; Ohno, 1990). It has also been intercepted in certain European countries and New Zealand, but has not established there, probably because it is unable to survive winter conditions.

Risk of Introduction

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Several other species of Xyleborus with similar habits to X. volvulus have been imported to tropical and subtropical areas around the world. A few have become important pests, either because they may attack living or stressed trees, or because of their abundance in disturbed forest areas, and their very wide host range. X. volvulus is a secondary borer, but it can attack injured trees, and is often very abundant in recently felled timber. Kühnholz et al. (2003) note that a number of secondary borers have started to attack living trees, and discuss the possible reasons for this change of habit. The risk of introduction outside its present geographic range must be considered high. X. volvulus is not specifically listed as a quarantine pest, but Xyleborus spp. are included in the APHIS Regulated Pest List in the USA, and as quarantine pests in New Zealand.
 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page X. volvulus is a strongly polyphagous species. It is able to breed in almost any tree of suitable size which provides suitable conditions for the growth of the associated ambrosia fungus. See datasheet on X. perforans for further details.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / necrosis
Stems / visible frass
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page See Xyleborus perforans.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page See Xyleborus perforans.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Loose wood packing material Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Solid wood packing material with bark Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

References

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Beaver RA, 1976. Biological studies of Brazilian Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). V. The tribe Xyleborini. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 80(1):15-30

Beaver RA; Loyttyniemi K, 1985. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Zambia. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 99(1):63-85

Beeson CFC, 1929. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. Insects of Samoa, 4:217-248.

Beeson CFC, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 142:115-121.

Bigger M, 1988. The insect pests of forest plantation trees in the Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands' Forest Record, No. 4:v + 190 pp.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp.

Brockerhoff EG; Knizek M; Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). New Zealand Entomologist, 26:29-44.

Browne FG, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records, 22:1-255.

Cola L, 1971. Insects introduced with foreign wood, especially Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde und Pflanzenschutz, 44(5):65-68

Cola L, 1973. Insects imported with foreign timber, especially Scolytidae and Platypodidae. (Part 2.). Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzen- und Umweltschutz, 46(1):7-11

Eggers H, 1927. Neue indomalayische Borkenkäfer (Ipidae). I. Nachtrag. Treubia, 9:390-408.

Eggers H, 1941. Borkenkäfer aus Südamerika. IX. Insel Guadeloupe. Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem, 8:99-109.

Hopkins AD, 1915. Classification of the Cryphalinae with descriptions of new genera and species. United States Department of Agriculture, Report 99:75pp.

Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, No. 30:1-32.

Ohno S, 1990. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Borneo found in logs at Nagoya port II. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan., No. 26:95-103

Ohno S; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 23:93-97

Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Uchida N; Yoneyama K; Tsukamoto K, 1989. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Bismarck Archipelago found in logs at Nagoya port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 25:59-69

Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 24:91-95

Schedl KE, 1949. Neotropical Scolytoidea, I. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 9:261-284.

Schedl KE, 1961. Borken- und Ambrosiakäfer Indonesiens. Entomologische Berichten, 21:69-75.

Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962):1-594.

Schedl KE, 1964. Three new species of Scolytidae from Australia, and some introduced Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, 89:246-249.

Schedl KE, 1966. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) intercepted from imported logs in Japanese ports. I. Kontyu, 34:29-43.

Schedl KE, 1971. Scolytidae und Platypodidae aus dem Zoologischen Museum der Universität Kopenhagen (Insecta, Coleoptera). Steenstrupia, 1:145-156.

Schedl KE, 1972. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XI. Koleopterologische Rundschau, 50:37-86.

Schedl KE, 1973. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XII. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 26:149-172.

Schedl KE, 1976. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XIII. (Coleoptera). Entomologische Abhandlungen , Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 41:49-92.

Wood SL, 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 6:1359 pp.

Wood SL; Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 1-1553.

Distribution References

Beaver R A, 1976. Biological studies of Brazilian Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). V. The tribe Xyleborini. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 80 (1), 15-30.

Beaver R A, Löyttyniemi K, 1985. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Zambia. Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 99 (1), 63-85.

Beeson C F C, 1929. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. Insects of Samoa. 217-248.

Beeson C F C, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. In: Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 115-121.

Bigger M, 1988. Solomon Islands' Forest Record. v + 190 pp.

Brockerhoff EG, Knizek M, Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). In: New Zealand Entomologist, 26 29-44.

Browne F G, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records. xi + 255.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Eggers H, 1927. New Indo-malay bark beetles (Ipidae). 1 Part. (Neue indomalayische Borkenkäfer (Ipidae). I. Nachtrag.). Treubia. 390-408.

Eggers H, 1941. South American bark beetles. IX. Guadeloupe. (Borkenkäfer aus Südamerika. IX. Insel Guadeloupe.). Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem. 99-109.

Hopkins A D, 1915. Classification of the Cryphalinae, with descriptions of new genera and species. In: Classification of the Cryphalinae, with descriptions of new genera and species. Washington D.C, USA: USDA. 75 pp.

Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. In: Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, 30 1-32.

Ohno S, Yoneyama K, Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 93-97.

Ohno S, Yoshioka K, Yoneyama K, Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 91-95.

Schedl K E, 1949. Neotropical Scolytoidea, I. Revista Brasileira de Biologia. 261-284.

Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. In: Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962) 1-594.

Schedl KE, 1964. Three new species of Scolytidae from Australia, and some introduced Coleoptera. [Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales], 89 246-249.

Schedl KE, 1971. (Scolytidae und Platypodidae aus dem Zoologischen Museum der Universität Kopenhagen (Insecta, Coleoptera)). In: Steenstrupia, 1 145-156.

Schedl KE, 1972. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XI. In: Koleopterologische Rundschau, 50 37-86.

Schedl KE, 1973. (Neotropische Scolytoidea. XII). In: Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 26 149-172.

Schedl KE, 1976. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XIII. (Coleoptera)., 41 Entomologische Abhandlungen , Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden. 49-92.

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13 1-1553.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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