Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Xyleborus volvulus

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Datasheet

Xyleborus volvulus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xyleborus volvulus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males g...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius, 1775)

Other Scientific Names

  • Bostrichus volvulus Fabricius, 1775
  • Xyleborus alternans Eichhoff, 1869
  • Xyleborus badius Eichhoff, 1869
  • Xyleborus granularis Schedl, 1950
  • Xyleborus grenadensis Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus guanaguatensis Duges, 1887
  • Xyleborus hubbardi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus interstitialis Eichhoff, 1878
  • Xyleborus rileyi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus schwarzi Hopkins, 1915
  • Xyleborus silvestris Beeson, 1929
  • Xyleborus torquatus Eichhoff, 1868
  • Xyleborus vagabundus Schedl, 1948

EPPO code

  • XYLBTO (Xyleborus torquatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Most of the species in Xyleborus and related genera should be considered potential quarantine pests. This is because members of the tribe Xyleborini (Xyleborus plus related genera) are all inbreeding, with the males generally mating with their sisters within the parental gallery system before dispersal. Thus the introduction of only a few mated females may lead to the establishment of an active population if suitable host plants can be found and environmental conditions are satisfactory. A very wide range of host plants have been recorded for many species of Xyleborus and related genera. Any woody material of suitable moisture content and density may be all that is required. The direct risk of establishment of populations of species of X. volvulus outside its present range should be considered serious, although the species is not currently known to attack healthy trees.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Xyleborus
  •                                 Species: Xyleborus volvulus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Wood and Bright (1992) note that Xyleborus torquatus, frequently treated as a distinct species, may once have formed a clearly defined geographical race, but that the limits from X. volvulus have been virtually obliterated by movement through commerce and consequent hybridization. Many populations totally intergrade. The species is also doubtfully distinct from Xyleborus perforans (Wollaston), and may intergrade with that species in some areas (Wood and Bright, 1992). Molecular studies are needed on populations from different areas to determine intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Xyleborus perforans is treated in this Compendium as a distinct species. The biology and ecology of X. volvulus are essentially the same as X. perforans, and reference should be made to the latter species for further information. Lists of references to both species are given by Wood and Bright (1992), and additional references by Bright and Skidmore (1997, 2002).

Description

Top of page Adult females can often be distinguished from Xyleborus perforans by the following characters; however, it should be noted that intermediate specimens occur.

Size slightly larger, 2.4 - 2.6 mm (vs. 2.2 - 2.4 mm for X. perforans); discal striae, especially striae 1, at least weakly impressed (vs. not impressed for X. perforans); elytral declivity a little steeper and more convex; colour normally darker brown (vs. yellowish to reddish-brown for X. perforans).

The immature stages have not been described.

Distribution

Top of page There has probably been some confusion between Xyleborus perforans and X. volvulus in the published records, and some records of X. volvulus from South-East Asia to the South Pacific, should probably be referred to X. perforans (Wood and Bright, 1992). There are unpublished records from Botswana and Vietnam (RA Beaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Browne, 1961
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Schedl, 1971
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-JavaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-KalimantanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-MoluccasPresentIntroduced Invasive Ohno et al., 1987
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-SumatraPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-HonshuPresentIntroduced Invasive Nobuchi, 1985
-KyushuPresentIntroduced Invasive Nobuchi, 1985
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Nobuchi, 1985
-ShikokuPresentIntroduced Invasive Nobuchi, 1985
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-SarawakPresentIntroduced Invasive Browne, 1961
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Eggers, 1927
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
ThailandPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
BurundiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
CameroonPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
CongoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
GabonPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
GhanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
GuineaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
KenyaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
RwandaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
SomaliaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
SudanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
UgandaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Beaver and Loyttyniemi, 1985
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

North America

BermudaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
USAPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-FloridaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-HawaiiPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
CubaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
DominicaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1949
El SalvadorPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
GrenadaPresentNative Not invasive Hopkins, 1915
GuadeloupePresentNative Not invasive Eggers, 1941
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
HondurasPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
JamaicaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
Puerto RicoPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
BoliviaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-AmapaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973
-AmazonasPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963; Schedl, 1973
-BahiaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963; Schedl, 1976
-Espirito SantoPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973; Schedl, 1976
-Fernando de NoronhaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-GoiasPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973
-MaranhaoPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973
-Mato GrossoPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973; Beaver, 1976
-Minas GeraisPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1971; Schedl, 1973
-ParaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973; Schedl, 1976
-ParanaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-PernambucoPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973
-RondoniaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-RoraimaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1973
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1963
-Sao PauloPresentNative Not invasive Schedl, 1972; Schedl, 1973
ChilePresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
EcuadorPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
French GuianaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
GuyanaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
ParaguayPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
PeruPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
SurinamePresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
UruguayPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

Europe

DenmarkAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedSchedl, 1971
GermanyAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedCola and, 1971; Cola and, 1973
ItalyAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedCola and, 1971; Cola and, 1973

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedWood and Bright, 1992
-New South WalesAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedSchedl, 1964
-QueenslandAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedSchedl, 1964
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Beeson, 1935
New ZealandAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedBrockerhoff et al., 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bigger, 1988
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Beeson, 1929
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Ohno et al., 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page It is believed that X. volvulus is native to the Americas (Wood, 1982). It probably arrived in Africa hundreds of years ago, and is now well-established in many parts of the Afrotropical region, although less common than X. perforans (Schedl, 1963). In Asia and the Pacific, X. volvulus was probably accidentally introduced through commerce. It is not clear whether the species is established in Australia, although it has been intercepted there (Schedl, 1964). No specimens have been seen in extensive collections of Scolytidae from Queensland (RABeaver, Chiangmai University, Thailand, unpublished data). Although established on the main islands of Japan (apart from Hokkaido), X. volvulus has often been intercepted at Japanese ports from timber imported from countries from Indonesia to the Solomon Islands (Schedl, 1966; Ohno et al., 1987, 1988, 1989; Ohno, 1990). It has also been intercepted in certain European countries and New Zealand, but has not established there, probably because it is unable to survive winter conditions.

Risk of Introduction

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Several other species of Xyleborus with similar habits to X. volvulus have been imported to tropical and subtropical areas around the world. A few have become important pests, either because they may attack living or stressed trees, or because of their abundance in disturbed forest areas, and their very wide host range. X. volvulus is a secondary borer, but it can attack injured trees, and is often very abundant in recently felled timber. Kühnholz et al. (2003) note that a number of secondary borers have started to attack living trees, and discuss the possible reasons for this change of habit. The risk of introduction outside its present geographic range must be considered high. X. volvulus is not specifically listed as a quarantine pest, but Xyleborus spp. are included in the APHIS Regulated Pest List in the USA, and as quarantine pests in New Zealand.
 

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page X. volvulus is a strongly polyphagous species. It is able to breed in almost any tree of suitable size which provides suitable conditions for the growth of the associated ambrosia fungus. See datasheet on X. perforans for further details.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / necrosis
Stems / visible frass
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page See Xyleborus perforans.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page See Xyleborus perforans.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Loose wood packing material Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Solid wood packing material with bark Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Fresh, unseasoned wood Yes
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

References

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Beaver RA, 1976. Biological studies of Brazilian Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). V. The tribe Xyleborini. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 80(1):15-30

Beaver RA; Loyttyniemi K, 1985. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Zambia. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 99(1):63-85

Beeson CFC, 1929. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. Insects of Samoa, 4:217-248.

Beeson CFC, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 142:115-121.

Bigger M, 1988. The insect pests of forest plantation trees in the Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands' Forest Record, No. 4:v + 190 pp.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp.

Brockerhoff EG; Knizek M; Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). New Zealand Entomologist, 26:29-44.

Browne FG, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records, 22:1-255.

Cola L, 1971. Insects introduced with foreign wood, especially Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde und Pflanzenschutz, 44(5):65-68

Cola L, 1973. Insects imported with foreign timber, especially Scolytidae and Platypodidae. (Part 2.). Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzen- und Umweltschutz, 46(1):7-11

Eggers H, 1927. Neue indomalayische Borkenkäfer (Ipidae). I. Nachtrag. Treubia, 9:390-408.

Eggers H, 1941. Borkenkäfer aus Südamerika. IX. Insel Guadeloupe. Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem, 8:99-109.

Hopkins AD, 1915. Classification of the Cryphalinae with descriptions of new genera and species. United States Department of Agriculture, Report 99:75pp.

Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, No. 30:1-32.

Ohno S, 1990. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Borneo found in logs at Nagoya port II. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan., No. 26:95-103

Ohno S; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 23:93-97

Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Uchida N; Yoneyama K; Tsukamoto K, 1989. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Bismarck Archipelago found in logs at Nagoya port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 25:59-69

Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 24:91-95

Schedl KE, 1949. Neotropical Scolytoidea, I. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 9:261-284.

Schedl KE, 1961. Borken- und Ambrosiakäfer Indonesiens. Entomologische Berichten, 21:69-75.

Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962):1-594.

Schedl KE, 1964. Three new species of Scolytidae from Australia, and some introduced Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, 89:246-249.

Schedl KE, 1966. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) intercepted from imported logs in Japanese ports. I. Kontyu, 34:29-43.

Schedl KE, 1971. Scolytidae und Platypodidae aus dem Zoologischen Museum der Universität Kopenhagen (Insecta, Coleoptera). Steenstrupia, 1:145-156.

Schedl KE, 1972. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XI. Koleopterologische Rundschau, 50:37-86.

Schedl KE, 1973. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XII. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 26:149-172.

Schedl KE, 1976. Neotropische Scolytoidea. XIII. (Coleoptera). Entomologische Abhandlungen , Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 41:49-92.

Wood SL, 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 6:1359 pp.

Wood SL; Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 1-1553.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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