Xyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Xyleborus perforans (Wollaston)
Preferred Common Name
- island pinhole borer
Other Scientific Names
- Anodius denticulus Motschulsky
- Anodius tuberculatus Motschulsky
- Bostrichus testaceus Walker
- Tomicus perforans (Wollaston)
- Xyleborus apertus Schedl
- Xyleborus criticus Schedl
- Xyleborus cylindrus Schedl
- Xyleborus duponti Montrouzier
- Xyleborus immaturus Blackburn
- Xyleborus kraatzi Eichhoff
- Xyleborus kraatzi philippinensis Eichhoff
- Xyleborus minimus Schedl
- Xyleborus whitteni Beeson
- Xylopertha hirsutus Lea
International Common Names
- English: sugarcane ambrosia beetle
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Scolytidae
- Genus: Xyleborus
- Species: Xyleborus perforans
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Length 2.1-2.5 mm. Frons convex, entire surface minutely reticulate, with faint, shallow punctures. Antennal club solid on posterior face. Pronotum 1.2 times longer than wide; sides moderately arcuate; anterior margin broadly rounded, without serrations. Elytra 1.7 times longer than wide; apex narrowly rounded. Elytral declivity steep, convex, commencing on posterior third of elytra; face of each elytron with a row of 4 to 5 small, acute granules in interspaces 1 and 3; several smaller granules are present in interspaces 4, 5 and 6; interspace 7 rounded, with small, acute granules.
The immature stages have not been described.
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Native|
|Japan||Absent, Intercepted only|
|Germany||Absent, Intercepted only||Original citation: Cola and (1971)|
|Italy||Absent, Intercepted only|
|Poland||Absent, Intercepted only|
|Portugal||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Spain||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present||Native|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|New Zealand||Absent, Intercepted only|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
X. perforans is widely distributed and very common. It attacks hundreds of host plant species in many plant families in forests and plantations(Browne, 1961; Schedl, 1963; Gray and Wylie, 1974), and has been intercepted in Japan and elsewhere from imported timber of many species and families (e.g. Ohno et al., 1987, 1988, 1989; Ohno, 1990). Its wide host range, coupled with its tolerance of a considerable range of climatic conditions, makes it a potential pest in forest plantations. It is normally found in dying, dead and newly-felled trees, and usually infests material of a moderate to large size. Given the great range of host trees attacked, and the differences between geographical areas, it is not possible to distinguish 'main host' trees from 'other host' trees. It may be expected that almost any crop, plantation or ornamental tree in a particular area can be attacked. The list that is given here is a small selection of hosts only.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
|Whole plant / wilt|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Both adults and larvae of X. perforans are dependent on the growth of the fungus on the walls of the gallery system in the wood for their food. The fungus is transmitted by the female in a mycangium. In X. perforans, this most probably consists of mandibular pouches, as in related species, including X. volvulus (Francke-Grosmann, 1966; Beaver, 1989). 'Contamination ' of the mycangia by the spores of pathogenic fungi is possible. Spores of pathogenic fungi can also be transported on the cuticle of the beetle, although their chance of survival there is much less than in the mycangial pouch. No specific studies have been made on fungi associated with X. perforans.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||adults||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Wood||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Loose wood packing material||Fresh unseasoned wood.||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Fresh unseasoned wood.||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||Fresh unseasoned wood.||Yes|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
When Xyleborus species are detected in plant material in areas outside the present range of the species, it is necessary to immediately destroy all of the infested material. When they are detected in traps, plant material in the vicinity of the trap should be actively inspected, with special attention directed towards imported woody products such as crating, dunnage and lumber milling scraps. If an active infestation is detected, control using insecticides is possible but is of limited effectiveness. Chemical control is not generally effective because the adult beetles bore deep into the host material. However, Jose and Thankamony (2005) found that a mixture of carbaryl and quinalphos was highly effective (99%) against infestation of rubber trees by Xyleborus perforans and X. similis, when swabbed weekly on the beetle-infested region of the bark. Jagginavar and Naik (2005) also report on the management of X. perforans in pomegranate orchards using insecticide mixtures. The following insecticides were used against the ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea fornicatus, which is destructive to tea: fenvalerate, deltamethrin, quinalphos and cypermethrin (Muraleedhaan, 1995). Selvasundaram et al. (2001) found that lambda-cyhalothrin 2.5 EC was more effective in reducing E. fornicatus populations than fenvalerate. Jose et al. (1989) suggest the use of solutions of boric acid and borax, which have both fungicidal and some insecticidal action, to protect stored wood. These insecticides may also be effective against other ambrosia beetles, but the concealed habitats in which these species feed and reproduce, the difficulties and high costs of insecticide application, and environmental concerns all limit the effectiveness of chemical control. The use of the parasitoid, Phymastichus xylebori, which attacks the adult beetle, has been suggested by LaSalle (1995). However, it seems unlikely that this would be practical or effective. In logging areas, prompt removal of the felled timber from the area will reduce attacks, and rapid conversion to seasoned, sawn timber will reduce the depth of such attacks as have occurred (Roberts, 1987). It should be noted that debarking may increase the susceptibility to attack (Supriana et al., 1978). X. perforans normally forms part of a complex of bark and ambrosia beetle species attacking felled trees, and control measures need to be directed against all species at the same time (Beaver, 2000).
ReferencesTop of page
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Bain J, 1974. Overseas wood- and bark-boring insects intercepted at New Zealand ports. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service, Technical Paper Number 61:24 pp.
Bambara S; Stephan D; Reeves E, 2002. Asian ambrosia beetle trapping. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/O&T/trees/note122/note122.html.
Beaver RA, 1989. Insect-fungus relationships in the bark and ambrosia beetles. Insect-fungus interactions. 14th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London in collaboration with the British Mycological Society [edited by Wilding, N.; Collins, N.M.; Hammond, P.M.; Webber, J.F.] London, UK; Academic Press, 121-143
Beaver RA, 2000. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) of the South Pacific. Canadian Entomologist, 132:755-763.
Beeson CFC, 1930. The biology of the genus Xyleborus, with more new species. Indian Forest Records, 14:209-272.
Beeson CFC, 1935. Platypodidae and Scolytidae of the Society Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 142:115-121.
Blandford WFH, 1893. Report on the destruction of beercasks in India by the attacks of a boring beetle (Xyleborus perforans). Kew Bulletin, 1893:1-48.
Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp.
Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp.
Brockerhoff EG; Knizek M; Bain J, 2003. Checklist of Indigenous and Adventive Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and Interceptions of Exotic Species (1952-2000). New Zealand Entomologist, 26:29-44.
Browne FG, 1961. The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records, 22:1-255.
Francke-Grosmann H, 1966. Ectosymbiosis in wood-inhabiting insects. In: Henry SM ed., Symbiosis, its physical and biochemical significance, Vol. II. New York, USA: Academic Press, 141-205.
Grégoire J-C; Piel F; De Proft M; Gilbert M, 2003. Spatial distribution of ambrosia beetle catches: a possibly useful knowledge to improve mass-trapping. Integrated Pest Managament Reviews, 6:237-242.
Jose VT; Rajalakshmi VK; Jayarathnam K; Nehru CR, 1989. Preliminary studies on the preservation of rubberwood by diffusion treatment. Rubber Board Bulletin, 25:11-16.
Kalshoven LGE, 1964. The occurrence of Xyleborus perforans (Woll.) and X.similis in Java (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Beaufortia, 11:131-142.
Krcmar-Nozic E; Wilson B; Arthur L, 2000. The potential impacts of exotic forest pests in North America: a synthesis of research. Information Report - Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, No. BC-X-387:ix + 33 pp.; Many ref.
Krishnasamy N; Muthaiyan MC; Murali R; Kumarasamy M; Ahamed SR, 1991. Note on coleopteran pests intercepted during 1990 at Madras port, India. Quarterly Newsletter - Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 34(3-4):1-4
Kühnholz S; Borden JH; Uzunovic A, 2003. Secondary ambrosia beetles in apparently healthy trees: adaptations, potential causes and suggested research. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 6:209-219.
LaSalle J, 1995. A new species of Phymastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitic on adult Xyleborus perforans (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on macadamia trees in Hawai'i. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 32:95-101.
Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, No. 30:1-32.
Ohno S; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1987. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Molucca Islands, found in logs at Nayoga Port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 23:93-97
Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Uchida N; Yoneyama K; Tsukamoto K, 1989. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Bismarck Archipelago found in logs at Nagoya port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 25:59-69
Ohno S; Yoshioka K; Yoneyama K; Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 24:91-95
Pelley RH le, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd.
Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962):1-594.
Schedl KE, 1973. Borkenkafer aus Nepal. Entomologische Blätter, 69:210-212.
Schedl KE, 1977. Scolytidae und Platypodidae des Ungarischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Museums. II (Coleoptera). Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, 6: 277-286.
Wood SL; Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic Index Volume A. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13:1-833.
Wylie FR; Peters B; DeBaar M; King J; Fitzgerald C, 1999. Managing attack by bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in fire-damaged Pinus plantations and salvaged logs in Queensland, Australia. Australian Forestry, 62(2):148-153; 17 ref.
Zehnter L, 1900. De Riet-schorskever, Xyleborus perforans Wollaston. Mededelingen Proefstation Suikerriet West Java, Kagok-Tegal, 44: 1-21.
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Bain J, 1974. Overseas wood- and bark-boring insects intercepted at New Zealand ports., 61 Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 24 pp.
Bright DE, Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), (1990-1994)., Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press. 368 pp.
Bright DE, Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999)., Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press. 523 pp.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Nobuchi A, 1985. Family Scolytidae. In: Check-list of Coleoptera of Japan, 30 1-32.
Ohno S, Yoshioka K, Uchida N, Yoneyama K, Tsukamoto K, 1989. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Bismarck Archipelago found in logs at Nagoya port. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 59-69.
Ohno S, Yoshioka K, Yoneyama K, Nakazawa H, 1988. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) from Solomon Islands, found in logs at Nagoya Port, I. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 91-95.
Schedl KE, 1963. Scolytidae und Platypodidae Afrikas, Band II. In: Revista de Entomologia de Moçambique, 5 (1962) 1-594.
Schedl KE, 1973. (Borkenkafer aus Nepal). In: Entomologische Blätter, 69 210-212.
Schedl KE, 1977. (Scolytidae und Platypodidae des Ungarischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Museums. II (Coleoptera)). In: Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, 6 Dresden, 277-286.
Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic Index Volume A. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13 1-833.
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