Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma
(grassy shoot of sugarcane)

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Datasheet

Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grassy shoot of sugarcane
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma

Preferred Common Name

  • grassy shoot of sugarcane

International Common Names

  • English: sugarcane grassy stunt phytoplasma

Local Common Names

  • India: albino; vivarn rog
  • Thailand: rok kortakri

English acronym

  • SCGS

EPPO code

  • PHYP48 (Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / distortion
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / dwarfing

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
People sharing resources Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Germplasm Yes Yes
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Deltocephalus vulgarisVijai Singh et al., 2002. InsectIndia

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Ariyarathna HACK; Everard JMDT; Karunanayake EH, 2007. Diseased sugarcane in Sri Lanka is infected with sugarcane grassy shoot and/or sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2(1):123-125. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07050

Berhanu Bekele; Abeysinghe S; Hoat TX; Hodgetts J; Dickinson M, 2011. Development of specific secA-based diagnostics for the 16SrXI and 16SrXIV phytoplasmas of the Gramineae. Bulletin of Insectology [Second International Phytoplasmologist Working Group Meeting. Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Germany, September 12-15, 2011.], 64(Supplement):S15-S16. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Bertaccini A; Duduk B, 2009. Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48(3):355-378. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Bhansali RR; Kishan Singh, 1991. Grassy-shoot mycoplasma-free sugarcane plantlets from apical meristems of lateral buds. Indian Phytopathology, 44(3):291-294

Blanche KR; Tran-Nguyen LTT; Gibb KS, 2003. Detection, identification and significance of phytoplasmas in grasses in northern Australia. Plant Pathology, 52(4):505-512.

Chandrasene G; Brune AE; Rutherford RS; Dharmawardena N, 2003. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot and white leaf diseases of sugarcane in Sri Lanka using FTATM papers. Sugar Tech, 5(4):237-241.

CHONA BL, 1958. Presidential address. Some diseases of Sugarcane reported from India in recent years. Indian Phytopathology, 11(1):1-9 pp.

Chona BL; Capoor SP; Verma PM; Seth ML, 1960. "Grassy shoot" Disease of sugarcane. Indian Phytopathology, 13:37-47.

Corbett MK; Misra SR; Singh K, 1971. Grassy shoot disease of sugarcane. IV. Association of mycoplasma-like bodies. Plant Science, 3:80-82

Edison S; Ramakrishnan K; Narayanasamy P, 1976. Comparison of grassy shoot disease (India) with the white leaf disease (Taiwan) of sugarcane. Sugarcane Pathologists' Newsletter, No. 17:30-35.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hanboonsong Y; Choosai C; Panyim S; Damak S, 2002. Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). Insect Molecular Biology, 11:97-103.

IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for the wall-less non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54:1243-1255.

Jones P; Devonshire BJ; Holman TJ; Ajanga S, 2004. Napier grass stunt: a new disease associated with a 16SrXI group phytoplasma in Kenya. Plant Pathology, 53(4):519. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ppa

Jung HeeYoung; Sawayanagi T; Wongkaew P; Kakizawa S; Nishigawa H; Wei Wei; Oshima K; Miyata S; Ugaki M; Hibi T; Namba S, 2003. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(6):1925-1929.

Kanchan Nasare; Amit Yadav; Singh AK; Shivasharanappa KB; Nerkar YS; Reddy VS, 2007. Molecular and symptom analysis reveal the presence of new phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane grassy shoot disease in India. Plant Disease, 91(11):1413-1418. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Lee IM; Pastore M; Vibio M; Danielli A; Attathom S; Davis RE; Bertaccini A, 1997. Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(3):251-254; 13 ref.

Lee IM; Zhao Y; Davis RE; Wei W; Martini M, 2007. Prospects of DNA-based systems for differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting. Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):239-244. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Lee IngMing; Davis RE; Gundersen-Rindal DE, 2000. Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annual Review of Microbiology, 54:221-255.

Lee IngMing; Gundersen-Rindal DE; Davis RE; Bartoszyk IM, 1998. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48(4):1153-1169; 145 ref.

Marcone C, 2002. Phytoplasma diseases of sugarcane. Sugar Tech, 4(3/4):79-85.

Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemuller E, 2001. Sugarcane white leaf and sugarcane grassy shoot diseases: biology and taxonomic characterization of the associated phytoplasmas. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 83-97.

Marcone C; Rao GP, 2008. White leaf and grassy shoot diseases of sugarcane. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of phytoplasmas [ed. by Harrison, N. A.\Rao, G. P.\Marcone, C.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 293-305.

Marcone C; Schneider B; Seemüller E, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis', the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54(4):1077-1082.

RANE MS; DAKSHINDAS DG, 1962. The sugarcane disease-'albino' or 'grassy shoot' ? Indian Sugar, 12:179-80.

Rao GP; Dhumal KN, 2002. Grassy shoot disease of sugarcane. In: Sugarcane Crop Management [ed. by Singh, S. B. \Rao, G. P. \Easwaramoorthy]. Houston, USA: Sci Tech Publishing LLC, 208-222.

Rao GP; Gaur RK; Maneesha Singh; Sharma SR; Berry S, 2003. Molecular characterization of a phytoplasma associated with grassy shoot disease of sugarcane in India. Sugar Tech, 5(4):301-303.

Rao GP; Sangeeta Srivasta; Maneesha Singh; Marcone C, 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma with closely related agents. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting, Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):347-348. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Rao GP; Srivastava S; Gupta PS; Sharma SR; Singh A; Singh S; Singh M; Marcone C, 2008. Detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma infecting sugarcane in India and its phylogenetic relationships to closely related phytoplasmas. Sugar Tech, 10(1):74-80. http://www.iapsit.org

Rishi N; Chen CT, 1989. Grassy shoot and white leaf diseases. In: Ricaud BC, Egan BT, eds. Diseases of Sugarcane. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 289-300.

Rishi N; Okuda S; Arai K; Doi Y; Yora K; Bhargava KS, 1973. Mycoplasma like bodies, possibly the cause of grassy shoot disease of sugarcane in India. Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan., 39:429-431.

Rishi N; Okuda S; Arai K; Doi Y; Yora K; Bhargava KS, 1973. Mycoplasma like bodies, possibly the cause of grassy shoot disease of sugarcane in India. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 39:429-431.

Sarindu N; Clark MF, 1993. Antibody production and identity of MLOs associated with sugar-cane whiteleaf disease and bermuda-grass whiteleaf disease from Thailand. Plant Pathology, 42(3):396-402

Schneider B; Padovan A; Rue Sde la; Eichner R; Davis R; Bernuetz A; Gibb K, 1999. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas in Australia: an update. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(3):333-342.

Sdoodee R, 2001. Recent studies on white leaf and grassy shoot phytoplasmas of sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 235-244.

Sdoodee R; Schneider B; Padovan AC; Gibb KS, 1999. Detection and genetic relatedness of phytoplasmas associated with plant diseases in Thailand. Journal of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, 3(2):133-140.

Seemüller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; Goschl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasm. J. Plant Pathol, 80:3-26.

Seemüller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; Göschl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80(1):3-26.

Seneviratne JAUT; Bandara JMRS; Ahangama D; Li HuaPing, 2004. Rapid detection of sugarcane phytoplasma by PCR amplification using specific primers. Tropical Agricultural Research, 16:61-70.

Shukla US; Singh V, 1990. Inactivation of GSD MLOs in diseased setts by heat treatment. Indian Phytopathology, 43(4):561-562.

Srivastava S; Singh V; Gupta PS; Sinha OK; Baitha A, 2006. Nested PCR assay for detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma in the leafhopper vector Deltocephalus vulgaris: a first report. Plant Pathology, 55(1):25-28. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa

Tran-Nguyen L; Blanche KR; Egan B; Gibb KS, 2000. Diversity of phytoplasmas in northern Australian sugarcane and other grasses. Plant Pathology, 49(6):666-679.

Vijai Singh; Baitha A; Sinha OK, 2002. Transmission of grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by a leaf hopper (Deltocephalus vulgaris Dash & Viraktamath). Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology, 17(1/2):60-63.

Viswanathan R, 1997. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by ELISA techniques. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 104(1):9-16; 20 ref.

Viswanathan R, 2001. Different aerated steam therapy (AST) regimes on the development of grassy shoot disease symptoms in sugarcane. Sugar Tech, 3(3):83-91.

Viswanathan R, 2001. Serodiagnosis of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease in sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 209-220.

Viswanathan R; Balamuralikrishnan M; Poongothai M, 2005. Detection of phytoplasma cusing Grassy shoot disease in sugarcane by PCR technique. Sugar Tech, 7(2-3):71-73.

Wongkaew P; Hanboonsong Y; Sirithorn P; Choosai C; Boonkrong S; Tinnangwattana T; Kitchareonpanya R; Damak S, 1997. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95(4):660-663; 17 ref.

Distribution Maps

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