Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma
Preferred Common Name
- grassy shoot of sugarcane
International Common Names
- English: sugarcane grassy stunt phytoplasma
Local Common Names
- India: albino; vivarn rog
- Thailand: rok kortakri
- PHYP48 (Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Bacteria
- Phylum: Firmicutes
- Class: Mollicutes
- Order: Acholeplasmatales
- Family: Acholeplasmataceae
- Genus: Phytoplasma
- Species: Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Haryana||Widespread||Satyavir & Beniwal, 1978; Rao et al., 2008|
|-Karnataka||Widespread||Kanchan Nasare et al., 2007|
|-Maharashtra||Widespread||Kanchan Nasare et al., 2007; Rao et al., 2008|
|-Tamil Nadu||Widespread||Viswanathan, 1997; Rao et al., 2008|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Widespread||Rao et al., 2003; Kanchan Nasare et al., 2007; Rao et al., 2007; Rao et al., 2008|
|Sri Lanka||Widespread||Chandrasene et al., 2003; Ariyarathna et al., 2007; Berhanu Bekele et al., 2011|
|Thailand||Widespread||Wongkaew et al., 1997; Sdoodee et al., 1999; Sdoodee, 2001|
|Yemen||Present||Berhanu Bekele et al., 2011|
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / distortion|
|Inflorescence / discoloration panicle|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Stems / witches broom|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Leaves||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Impact outcomes
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
- Damages animal/plant products
- Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
ReferencesTop of page
Ariyarathna HACK; Everard JMDT; Karunanayake EH, 2007. Diseased sugarcane in Sri Lanka is infected with sugarcane grassy shoot and/or sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2(1):123-125. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07050
Berhanu Bekele; Abeysinghe S; Hoat TX; Hodgetts J; Dickinson M, 2011. Development of specific secA-based diagnostics for the 16SrXI and 16SrXIV phytoplasmas of the Gramineae. Bulletin of Insectology [Second International Phytoplasmologist Working Group Meeting. Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Germany, September 12-15, 2011.], 64(Supplement):S15-S16. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/
Chandrasene G; Brune AE; Rutherford RS; Dharmawardena N, 2003. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot and white leaf diseases of sugarcane in Sri Lanka using FTATM papers. Sugar Tech, 5(4):237-241.
Chona BL; Capoor SP; Verma PM; Seth ML, 1960. "Grassy shoot" Disease of sugarcane. Indian Phytopathology, 13:37-47.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Hanboonsong Y; Choosai C; Panyim S; Damak S, 2002. Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). Insect Molecular Biology, 11:97-103.
IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for the wall-less non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54:1243-1255.
Jones P; Devonshire BJ; Holman TJ; Ajanga S, 2004. Napier grass stunt: a new disease associated with a 16SrXI group phytoplasma in Kenya. Plant Pathology, 53(4):519. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ppa
Jung HeeYoung; Sawayanagi T; Wongkaew P; Kakizawa S; Nishigawa H; Wei Wei; Oshima K; Miyata S; Ugaki M; Hibi T; Namba S, 2003. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(6):1925-1929.
Kanchan Nasare; Amit Yadav; Singh AK; Shivasharanappa KB; Nerkar YS; Reddy VS, 2007. Molecular and symptom analysis reveal the presence of new phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane grassy shoot disease in India. Plant Disease, 91(11):1413-1418. HTTP://www.apsnet.org
Lee IM; Pastore M; Vibio M; Danielli A; Attathom S; Davis RE; Bertaccini A, 1997. Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(3):251-254; 13 ref.
Lee IM; Zhao Y; Davis RE; Wei W; Martini M, 2007. Prospects of DNA-based systems for differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting. Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):239-244. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/
Lee IngMing; Gundersen-Rindal DE; Davis RE; Bartoszyk IM, 1998. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48(4):1153-1169; 145 ref.
Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemuller E, 2001. Sugarcane white leaf and sugarcane grassy shoot diseases: biology and taxonomic characterization of the associated phytoplasmas. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 83-97.
Marcone C; Rao GP, 2008. White leaf and grassy shoot diseases of sugarcane. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of phytoplasmas [ed. by Harrison, N. A.\Rao, G. P.\Marcone, C.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 293-305.
Marcone C; Schneider B; Seemüller E, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis', the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54(4):1077-1082.
Rao GP; Dhumal KN, 2002. Grassy shoot disease of sugarcane. In: Sugarcane Crop Management [ed. by Singh, S. B. \Rao, G. P. \Easwaramoorthy]. Houston, USA: Sci Tech Publishing LLC, 208-222.
Rao GP; Sangeeta Srivasta; Maneesha Singh; Marcone C, 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma with closely related agents. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting, Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):347-348. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/
Rao GP; Srivastava S; Gupta PS; Sharma SR; Singh A; Singh S; Singh M; Marcone C, 2008. Detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma infecting sugarcane in India and its phylogenetic relationships to closely related phytoplasmas. Sugar Tech, 10(1):74-80. http://www.iapsit.org
Rishi N; Chen CT, 1989. Grassy shoot and white leaf diseases. In: Ricaud BC, Egan BT, eds. Diseases of Sugarcane. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 289-300.
Rishi N; Okuda S; Arai K; Doi Y; Yora K; Bhargava KS, 1973. Mycoplasma like bodies, possibly the cause of grassy shoot disease of sugarcane in India. Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan., 39:429-431.
Rishi N; Okuda S; Arai K; Doi Y; Yora K; Bhargava KS, 1973. Mycoplasma like bodies, possibly the cause of grassy shoot disease of sugarcane in India. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 39:429-431.
Schneider B; Padovan A; Rue Sde la; Eichner R; Davis R; Bernuetz A; Gibb K, 1999. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas in Australia: an update. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(3):333-342.
Sdoodee R, 2001. Recent studies on white leaf and grassy shoot phytoplasmas of sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 235-244.
Sdoodee R; Schneider B; Padovan AC; Gibb KS, 1999. Detection and genetic relatedness of phytoplasmas associated with plant diseases in Thailand. Journal of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, 3(2):133-140.
Seemüller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; Goschl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasm. J. Plant Pathol, 80:3-26.
Shukla US; Singh V, 1990. Inactivation of GSD MLOs in diseased setts by heat treatment. Indian Phytopathology, 43(4):561-562.
Srivastava S; Singh V; Gupta PS; Sinha OK; Baitha A, 2006. Nested PCR assay for detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma in the leafhopper vector Deltocephalus vulgaris: a first report. Plant Pathology, 55(1):25-28. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa
Vijai Singh; Baitha A; Sinha OK, 2002. Transmission of grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by a leaf hopper (Deltocephalus vulgaris Dash & Viraktamath). Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology, 17(1/2):60-63.
Viswanathan R, 1997. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by ELISA techniques. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 104(1):9-16; 20 ref.
Viswanathan R, 2001. Serodiagnosis of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease in sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 209-220.
Viswanathan R; Balamuralikrishnan M; Poongothai M, 2005. Detection of phytoplasma cusing Grassy shoot disease in sugarcane by PCR technique. Sugar Tech, 7(2-3):71-73.
Wongkaew P; Hanboonsong Y; Sirithorn P; Choosai C; Boonkrong S; Tinnangwattana T; Kitchareonpanya R; Damak S, 1997. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95(4):660-663; 17 ref.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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