Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969
Preferred Common Name
- dagger nematode
- XIPHRI (Xiphinema rivesi)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Class: Adenophorea
- Order: Dorylaimida
- Family: Xiphinematidae
- Genus: Xiphinema
- Species: Xiphinema rivesi
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / external feeding|
|Roots / galls along length|
|Roots / soft rot of cortex|
|Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||adults; eggs; juveniles|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||adults; eggs; juveniles|
|Roots||adults; eggs; juveniles|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ReferencesTop of page
Allen WR; Stobbs LW; Schagen JG van; Ebsary BA, 1988. Association of Xiphinema species with soil type and grapevines infected with tomato ringspot virus in Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease, 72(10):861-863
Belair G, 1991. Effects of preplant soil fumigation on nematode population densities and on growth and yield of raspberry. Phytoprotection, 72:21-25.
Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri MS, 1989. Resistance of prey to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida). Revue de Nématologie, 12(1):45-49; 12 ref.
Bitterlin MW, 1987. Tomato ringspot virus: interactions with its nematode vector Xiphinema rivesi, studies on virus transmission to and detection in fruit trees, serological characterization, and implications for cross protection. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Sciences and Engineering), 47(8):3191; [156 pp., publ. 1986.].
Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Jones AT; Vrain TC; Robbins RT, 1994. Transmission of three North American nepoviruses by populations of four distinct species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Phytopathology, 84(6):646-649
Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1993. Transmission of nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):349-354; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 29 ref.
Converse RH; Ramsdell DC, 1982. Occurrence of tomato and tobacco ringspot viruses and of dagger and other nematodes associated with cultivated highbush blueberries in Oregon. Plant Disease, 66(8):710-712
Dalmasso A, 1969. Etude anatomique et taxonomique des genres Xiphinema, Longidorus et Paralongidorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). Mem. MusTum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 61(2):33-82.
Ebsary BA; Potter JW; Allen WR, 1984. Redescription and distribution of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 and Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913 in Canada with a description of Xiphinema occiduum n.sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62(9):1696-1702.
EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.
Forer LB, 1981. Xiphinema rivesi associated with tomato ringspot virus-incited diseases in Pennsylvania. Phytopathology, 71(7):767
Forer LB; Hill NS; Powell CA, 1981. Xiphinema rivesi: A new tomato ringspot virus vector. Phytopathology, 71:874 (Abstr.).
Georgi LL, 1988. Morphological variation in Xiphinema americanum spp. from New York orchards. Journal of Nematology, 20:47-50.
Griffin GD; Epstein AH, 1964. Association of dagger nematode, Xiphinema americanum, with stunting and winterkill of ornamental spruce. Phytopathology, 54(2):177-180.
Halbrendt JM; Brown DJF, 1993. Aspects of biology and development of Xiphinema americanum and related species. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):355-360; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 33 ref.
Hooper DJ, 1986. Extraction of free-living stages from soil. In: Southey JF, ed. Laboratory Methods for work with Plant and Soil Nematodes. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Reference Book No. 402. London, UK: HMSO, 5-30.
Jaffee BA; Harrison MB; Shaffer RL; Strang MB, 1987. Seasonal population fluctuation of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi in New York and Pennsylvania orchards. Journal of Nematology, 19:369-378.
Jaffee BA; Shaffer RL, 1985. Evaluation of post-plant nematicides for control of dagger nematodes on peach, 1982-83. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American-Phytopathological Society, 40:102-103.
Jaffee BA; Shaffer RL; Travis JW, 1986. Evaluation of DS 38697 5G for control of dagger nematodes on apple, 1984-85. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 41:72.
Jones AT; Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Vrain TC; Robbins RT, 1995. The transmission of three nepoviruses by populations of four Xiphinema americanum-group species. Acta Horticulturae, No. 385:105-109; 20 ref.
Khan A; Shaukat SS; Islam S, 1997. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on seasonal variation of three plant-parasitic nematodes associated with apple in Swat, Pakistan. International Journal of Nematology, 7:26-29.
Lamberti F; Bravo MA; Agostinelli A; Lemos RM, 1994. The Xiphinema americanum-group in Portugal with descriptions of four new species (Nematoda, Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea, 22(2):189-218; 10 ref.
Loof PAA; Luc M; Coomans A, 1993. The Xiphinema americanum group (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). 1. Comments upon the key to species published by Lamberti and Carone (1992). Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 16(4):355-358; 16 ref.
Luc M; Doucet ME, 1990. The family of Longidoridae Thorne, 1935 (Nemata) in Argentina. 1. Distribution. Revista de Ciencias Agropecuarias - Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, 7:19-25; 30 ref.
Malek RB, 1969. Population fluctuations and observations of the life cycle of Xiphinema americanum associated with cotton wood (Populus deltoides) in South Dakota. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 36(2):270-274.
Malik Z; Jairajpuri MS, 1985. Observations on the morphology of adults and juveniles of Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14(2):152-159.
McGuire JM; Douthit LB, 1976. Effect of acquisition access time on amount and location of tobacco ringspot virus within Xiphinema americanum. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3:340
Ohshima Y; Nishizawa T; Hirata A; Okabe M, 1971. Nematode fauna of mulberry orchards. Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Fuchu, Tokyo, April 7-9, 1971, 33.
Olsen LG; Nelson JW, 1986. Nematode control in blueberries in Michigan, 1985. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 41:74.
Perry VG, 1958. Parasitism of two species of dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and X. chambersi) to strawberry. Phytopathology, 48:420-423.
Ramsdell DC; Myers RL, 1974. Peach rosette mosaic virus, symptomatology and nematodes associated with grapevine 'degeneration' in Michigan. Phytopathology, 64(9):1174-1178.
Robbins RT, 1993. Distribution of Xiphinema americanum and related species in North America. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):344-348; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 27 ref.
Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.
Stouffer RF; Mowery PD, 1980. Effect of preplant soil fumigation on the control of Prunus stem pitting and the growth of Late Sunhaven peach trees. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:247-250
Tacconi R; Ambrogioni L, 1995. Quarantine Nematodes. Bologna, Italy: Editrice "Lo Scarabeo".
Thompson JA; Miller RW; Conrad N; Carpenter AS, 1983. Evaluation of postplant nematicides for control of the dagger nematode on apples, 1983. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American Phytopathological Society, 39:87
Vrain TC, 1993. Restriction fragment length polymorphism separates species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):361-364; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 18 ref.
Vrain TC; Wakarchuk DA; LTvesque AC; Hamilton RI, 1992. Intraspecific rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Xiphinema americanum group. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15(6):563-573; 31 ref.
Ward MG; Hockland S, 1996. Nematodes and plant health: legislation and sampling strategies in decision making for nematode management. Pesticide Science, 47(1):77-80; [^italic~Paper presented at the symposium 'Management of problems caused by plant parasitic nematodes', London, 25 April 1995.^roman~]; 11 ref.
Wojtowicz MR; Golden AM; Forer LB; Stouffer RF, 1982. Morphological comparisons between Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso and X. americanum Cobb populations from the Eastern United States. Journal of Nematology, 14(4):511-516
Distribution MapsTop of page
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