Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xiphinema rivesi
(dagger nematode)

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Datasheet

Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xiphinema rivesi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dagger nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Adenophorea
  •         Order: Dorylaimida
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969

Preferred Common Name

  • dagger nematode

EPPO code

  • XIPHRI (Xiphinema rivesi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Adenophorea
  •                 Order: Dorylaimida
  •                     Family: Xiphinematidae
  •                         Genus: Xiphinema
  •                             Species: Xiphinema rivesi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentEL-Nobarria, EL-Behera governorate, northern Egypt.

Asia

IranPresent
PakistanPresent

Europe

CroatiaPresentZagreb County (2017) Occurrence no. 2306528135.
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
ItalyPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent, Widespread
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent, Localized
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Canary IslandsPresent, Localized

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
GuadeloupePresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent, Widespread
-ColoradoPresentFort Collins.
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IowaPresentIdelwild Park.
-KansasPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OregonPresent, Widespread
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresentArlington National Cemetery.
-WashingtonPresent, Localized
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
SamoaPresent
TongaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresent
PeruPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / external feeding
Roots / galls along length
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphanomyces Pathogen Adults; Nematodes|Cysts; Eggs; Nematodes|Juveniles
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen Adults; Nematodes|Cysts; Eggs; Nematodes|Juveniles
Lagenidium caudatum Pathogen Adults; Nematodes|Cysts; Eggs; Nematodes|Juveniles
Leptolegnia Pathogen Adults; Nematodes|Cysts; Eggs; Nematodes|Juveniles
Mononchoides fortidens Predator Adults; Nematodes|Juveniles
Mononchoides longicaudatus Predator Adults; Nematodes|Juveniles
Pseudomonas denitrificans Pathogen Adults; Nematodes|Cysts; Eggs; Nematodes|Juveniles

Pathway Vectors

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Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes nematodes/adults; nematodes/eggs; nematodes/juveniles
Growing medium accompanying plants nematodes/adults; nematodes/eggs; nematodes/juveniles
Roots nematodes/adults; nematodes/eggs; nematodes/juveniles
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Alkemade JRM; Loof PAA, 1990. The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Peru. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 13(3):339-348; 9 ref.

Allen WR; Stobbs LW; Schagen JG van; Ebsary BA, 1988. Association of Xiphinema species with soil type and grapevines infected with tomato ringspot virus in Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease, 72(10):861-863

Arias M; Belo A; Fresno J, 1994. Grapevine virus vector nematodes in Spain. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, Fuera de Serie No. 2:187-199

Arias M; Navacerrada G, 1973. Geographical distribution of Xiphinema Cobb in Spanish vineyards. Nematologia Mediterranea, 1(1):28-35

Auger J; Leal G; Magunacelaya JC; Esterio M, 2009. Xiphinema rivesi from Chile transmits Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber. Plant Disease, 93(9):971. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Belair G, 1991. Effects of preplant soil fumigation on nematode population densities and on growth and yield of raspberry. Phytoprotection, 72:21-25.

Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri MS, 1989. Resistance of prey to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida). Revue de Nématologie, 12(1):45-49; 12 ref.

Bitterlin MW, 1987. Tomato ringspot virus: interactions with its nematode vector Xiphinema rivesi, studies on virus transmission to and detection in fruit trees, serological characterization, and implications for cross protection. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Sciences and Engineering), 47(8):3191; [156 pp., publ. 1986.].

Bitterlin MW; Gonsalves D, 1987. Spatial distribution of Xiphinema rivesi and persistence of tomato ringspot virus and its vector in soil. Plant Disease, 71(5):408-411

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Jones AT; Vrain TC; Robbins RT, 1994. Transmission of three North American nepoviruses by populations of four distinct species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Phytopathology, 84(6):646-649

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1993. Transmission of nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):349-354; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 29 ref.

Brown DJF; Lamberti F; Taylor CE; Trudgill DL, 1988. Nematode-virus plant interactions. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(2):153-158

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Xiphinema rivesi. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 940. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Converse RH, 1981. Infection of cultivated strawberries by tomato ringspot virus. Phytopathology, 71(11):1149-1152

Converse RH; Ramsdell DC, 1982. Occurrence of tomato and tobacco ringspot viruses and of dagger and other nematodes associated with cultivated highbush blueberries in Oregon. Plant Disease, 66(8):710-712

Dalmasso A, 1969. Etude anatomique et taxonomique des genres Xiphinema, Longidorus et Paralongidorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). Mem. MusTum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 61(2):33-82.

Driel L van; Potter JW; Ebsary BA, 1990. Distribution of virus vector nematodes associated with peach and other fruit crops in Essex County, Ontario. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 70(1):23-26

Ebsary BA; Potter JW; Allen WR, 1984. Redescription and distribution of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 and Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913 in Canada with a description of Xiphinema occiduum n.sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62(9):1696-1702.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.

Forer LB, 1981. Xiphinema rivesi associated with tomato ringspot virus-incited diseases in Pennsylvania. Phytopathology, 71(7):767

Forer LB; Hill NS; Powell CA, 1981. Xiphinema rivesi: A new tomato ringspot virus vector. Phytopathology, 71:874 (Abstr.).

Forer LB; Powell CA; Stouffer RF, 1984. Transmission of tomato ringspot virus to apple rootstock cuttings and to cherry and peach seedlings by Xiphinema rivesi. Plant Disease, 68(12):1052-1054

Forer LB; Stouffer RF, 1982. Xiphinema spp. associated with tomato ringspot virus infection of Pennsylvania fruit crops. Plant Disease, 66(8):735-736

Georgi LL, 1988. Effect of three plant species on population densities of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi. Journal of Nematology, 20(3):474-477

Georgi LL, 1988. Morphological variation in Xiphinema americanum spp. from New York orchards. Journal of Nematology, 20:47-50.

Georgi LL, 1988. Transmission of tomato ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi from New York apple orchards. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):304-308

Griesbach JA; Maggenti AR, 1990. The morphometrics of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in California. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 13(1):93-103; 24 ref.

Griffin GD; Epstein AH, 1964. Association of dagger nematode, Xiphinema americanum, with stunting and winterkill of ornamental spruce. Phytopathology, 54(2):177-180.

Halbrendt JM; Brown DJF, 1992. Morphometric evidence for three juvenile stages in some species of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato. Journal of Nematology, 24(2):305-309; 25 ref.

Halbrendt JM; Brown DJF, 1993. Aspects of biology and development of Xiphinema americanum and related species. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):355-360; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 33 ref.

Halbrendt JM; Cummins JN; Welliver R; Hadidi A; Podleckis E, 1991. Screening apple rootstocks for resistance to the tomato ringspot virus. Pennsylvania Fruit News, 71(2):39-42

Handoo ZA; Ibrahim IKA; Chitwood DJ; Mokbel AA, 2015. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 33(2):161-165.

Hooper DJ, 1986. Extraction of free-living stages from soil. In: Southey JF, ed. Laboratory Methods for work with Plant and Soil Nematodes. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Reference Book No. 402. London, UK: HMSO, 5-30.

Ibrahim IKA; Handoo ZA, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 34(2):163-169.

Islam S; Khan A; Bilqees FM, 1996. Survey of stylet-bearing nematodes associated with apple (Malus pumila mill.) in swat district, N.W.F.P., Pakistan. Proceedings of Parasitology, No. 21:1-9; 45 ref.

Jaffee BA, 1986. Parasitism of Xiphinema rivesi and X. americanum by zoosporic fungi. Journal of Nematology, 18(1):87-93

Jaffee BA; Glenn DM; Forer LB; Shaffer RL, 1988. Effect of soil texture on Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi. Nematologica, 34(2):226-237; 14 ref.

Jaffee BA; Harrison MB; Shaffer RL; Strang MB, 1987. Seasonal population fluctuation of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi in New York and Pennsylvania orchards. Journal of Nematology, 19:369-378.

Jaffee BA; Shaffer RL, 1985. Evaluation of post-plant nematicides for control of dagger nematodes on peach, 1982-83. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American-Phytopathological Society, 40:102-103.

Jaffee BA; Shaffer RL, 1987. Parasitism of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi by Catenaria anguillulp and other zoosporic fungi in soil solution, Bprmann funnels, or soil. Nematologica, 33(2):220-231

Jaffee BA; Shaffer RL; Travis JW, 1986. Evaluation of DS 38697 5G for control of dagger nematodes on apple, 1984-85. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 41:72.

Jones AT; Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Vrain TC; Robbins RT, 1995. The transmission of three nepoviruses by populations of four Xiphinema americanum-group species. Acta Horticulturae, No. 385:105-109; 20 ref.

Khan A; Islam S; Shaukat SS; Bilqees FM, 1996. Efficacy of carbofuran and Tenekil against nematodes associated with apple in Swat, Pakistan. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 6(1):59-62; 13 ref.

Khan A; Shaukat SS; Islam S, 1997. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on seasonal variation of three plant-parasitic nematodes associated with apple in Swat, Pakistan. International Journal of Nematology, 7:26-29.

Lamberti F; Bleve-Zacheo T, 1979. Studies on Xiphinema americanum sensu lato with descriptions of fifteen new species (Nematoda, Longidoridae). Nematologia Mediterranea, 7(1):51-106

Lamberti F; Bravo MA; Agostinelli A; Lemos RM, 1994. The Xiphinema americanum-group in Portugal with descriptions of four new species (Nematoda, Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea, 22(2):189-218; 10 ref.

Lamberti F; Carone M, 1991. A dichotomous key for the identification of species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) within the X. americanum-group. Nematologia Mediterranea, 19(2):341-348; 19 ref.

Loof PAA; Luc M; Coomans A, 1993. The Xiphinema americanum group (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). 1. Comments upon the key to species published by Lamberti and Carone (1992). Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 16(4):355-358; 16 ref.

Luc M; Doucet ME, 1990. The family of Longidoridae Thorne, 1935 (Nemata) in Argentina. 1. Distribution. Revista de Ciencias Agropecuarias - Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, 7:19-25; 30 ref.

Malek RB, 1969. Population fluctuations and observations of the life cycle of Xiphinema americanum associated with cotton wood (Populus deltoides) in South Dakota. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 36(2):270-274.

Malik Z; Jairajpuri MS, 1985. Observations on the morphology of adults and juveniles of Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14(2):152-159.

McGuire JM; Douthit LB, 1976. Effect of acquisition access time on amount and location of tobacco ringspot virus within Xiphinema americanum. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3:340

McGuire JM; Douthit LB, 1978. Host effect on acquisition and transmission of tobacco ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum. Phytopathology, 68(3):457-459

Mountain WL; Powell CA; Forer LB, 1992. A trough system for measuring transmission of tomato ringspot virus by dagger nematodes. HortScience, 27(12):1283-1285

Mountain WL; Powell CA; Forer LB; Stouffer RF, 1983. Transmission of tomato ringspot virus from dandelion via seed and dagger nematodes. Plant Disease, 67(8):867-868

Ohshima Y; Nishizawa T; Hirata A; Okabe M, 1971. Nematode fauna of mulberry orchards. Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Fuchu, Tokyo, April 7-9, 1971, 33.

Olsen LG, 1983. Nematode control in concord grapes in Michigan, 1983. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American Phytopathological Society, 39:91-92

Olsen LG; Nelson JW, 1986. Nematode control in blueberries in Michigan, 1985. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 41:74.

Olsen LG; Nelson JW, 1988. Nematode control in blueberries in Michigan, 1986/87. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 43:167.

Perry VG, 1958. Parasitism of two species of dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and X. chambersi) to strawberry. Phytopathology, 48:420-423.

Ramsdell DC; Myers RL, 1974. Peach rosette mosaic virus, symptomatology and nematodes associated with grapevine 'degeneration' in Michigan. Phytopathology, 64(9):1174-1178.

Robbins RT, 1993. Distribution of Xiphinema americanum and related species in North America. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):344-348; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 27 ref.

Robbins RT; Brown DJF, 1991. Comments on the taxonomy, occurrence and distribution of Longidoridae (Nematoda) in North America. Nematologica, 37(4):395-419; 149 ref.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Stouffer RF; Mowery PD, 1980. Effect of preplant soil fumigation on the control of Prunus stem pitting and the growth of Late Sunhaven peach trees. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:247-250

Tacconi R; Ambrogioni L, 1995. Quarantine Nematodes. Bologna, Italy: Editrice "Lo Scarabeo".

Tacconi R; TalamF M, 1995. Parasitic nematodes of stone and pome fruits and vegetable crops. Rivista di Frutticoltura e di Ortofloricoltura, 57(3):63-71; 71 ref.

Taylor CE; Brown DJF, 1981. Nematode-virus interactions. In: Zuckerman BM, Rohde RA, eds. Plant parasitic nematodes. Volume III. New York, USA/London, UK: Academic Press Inc., 281-301

Thompson JA; Miller RW; Conrad N; Carpenter AS, 1983. Evaluation of postplant nematicides for control of the dagger nematode on apples, 1983. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American Phytopathological Society, 39:87

Vrain TC, 1993. Restriction fragment length polymorphism separates species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):361-364; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 18 ref.

Vrain TC; Wakarchuk DA; LTvesque AC; Hamilton RI, 1992. Intraspecific rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Xiphinema americanum group. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15(6):563-573; 31 ref.

Ward MG; Hockland S, 1996. Nematodes and plant health: legislation and sampling strategies in decision making for nematode management. Pesticide Science, 47(1):77-80; [^italic~Paper presented at the symposium 'Management of problems caused by plant parasitic nematodes', London, 25 April 1995.^roman~]; 11 ref.

Wojtowicz MR; Golden AM; Forer LB; Stouffer RF, 1982. Morphological comparisons between Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso and X. americanum Cobb populations from the Eastern United States. Journal of Nematology, 14(4):511-516

Distribution References

Akinbade S A, Mojtahedi H, Guerra L, Eastwell K, Villamor D E V, Handoo Z A, Skantar A M, 2014. First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 1018-1019. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0961-PDN

Alkemade J R M, Loof P A A, 1990. The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Peru. Revue de Nématologie. 13 (3), 339-348.

Allen W R, Stobbs L W, Schagen J G van, Ebsary B A, 1988. Association of Xiphinema species with soil type and grapevines infected with tomato ringspot virus in Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease. 72 (10), 861-863. DOI:10.1094/PD-72-0861

Aly Khan, Tareen J K, 2012. Plant Parasitic nematodes associated with cherry (Prunus avius L.) in Balochistan, Pakistan. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 9 (3), 293-294. http://www.ijbbku.com

Anon, 2021. Widely Prevalent Nematodes of the United States., USA: University of Georgia, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://www.prevalentnematodes.org/index.cfm

Archidona-Yuste A, Navas-Cortés J A, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Palomares-Rius J E, Castillo P, 2016. Cryptic diversity and species delimitation in the Xiphinema americanum-group complex (Nematoda: Longidoridae) as inferred from morphometrics and molecular markers. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 176 (2), 231-265. DOI:10.1111/zoj.12316

Arias M, Bello A, Fresno J, 1994. Grapevine virus vector nematodes in Spain. (Nematodos vectores de virus de la vid en España.). Investigación Agraria, Producción y Protección Vegetales. 187-199.

Arias M, Navacerrada G, 1973. Geographical distribution of Xiphinema Cobb in Spanish vineyards. Nematologia Mediterranea. 1 (1), 28-35.

Auger J, Leal G, Magunacelaya J C, Esterio M, 2009. Xiphinema rivesi from Chile transmits Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber. Plant Disease. 93 (9), 971. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0971B

Belair G, 1991. Effects of preplant soil fumigation on nematode population densities and on growth and yield of raspberry. Phytoprotection. 72 (1), 21-25.

Bitterlin M W, 1987. Tomato ringspot virus: interactions with its nematode vector Xiphinema rivesi, studies on virus transmission to and detection in fruit trees, serological characterization, and implications for cross protection. USA: Cornell University. 3191.

Brown D J F, Halbrendt J M, Robbins R T, Vrain T C, 1993. Transmission of nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes. Journal of Nematology. 25 (3), 349-354.

CABI, EPPO, 2004. Xiphinema rivesi. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 940. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500940

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chaves E J, Mondino E A, 2013. Description of some Xiphinema species populations (nematoda) from Argentina. Nematropica. 43 (1), 68-77. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82434/79468

Converse R H, 1981. Infection of cultivated strawberries by tomato ringspot virus. Phytopathology. 71 (11), 1149-1152. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-71-1149

Converse R H, Ramsdell D C, 1982. Occurrence of tomato and tobacco ringspot viruses and of dagger and other nematodes associated with cultivated highbush blueberries in Oregon. Plant Disease. 66 (8), 710-712. DOI:10.1094/PD-66-710

DALMASSO A, 1969. Anatomical studies and taxonomy of the genera Xiphinema, Longidorus and Paralongidorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). (Etude anatomique et taxonomique des genres Xiphinema, Longidorus et Paralongidorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae).). Memoires du Museum Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle, Série A, Zool. 61 (2), 33-82.

Driel L van, Potter J W, Ebsary B A, 1990. Distribution of virus vector nematodes associated with peach and other fruit crops in Essex County, Ontario. Canadian Plant Disease Survey. 70 (1), 23-26.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

European Nucleotide Archive, 2021. Geographically tagged INSDC sequences. Specimen record in the occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/cndomv accessed via GBIF.org.,

Fadaei A A, Coomans A, Ahmad Kheiri, 2003. Three species of the Xiphinema americanum lineage (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Iran. Nematology. 5 (3), 453-461. DOI:10.1163/156854103769224430

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2., http://www.faunaeur.org

Forer L B, Stouffer R F, 1982. Xiphinema spp. associated with tomato ringspot virus infection of Pennsylvania fruit crops. Plant Disease. 66 (8), 735-736. DOI:10.1094/PD-66-735

Georgi L L, 1988. Morphological variation in Xiphinema spp. from New York orchards. Journal of Nematology. 20 (1), 47-57.

Griesbach J A, Maggenti A R, 1990. The morphometrics of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in California. Revue de Nématologie. 13 (1), 93-103.

Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez C, Bravo M A, Santos M T, Vieira P, Mota M, 2016. An update on the genus Longidorus, Paralongidorus and Xiphinema (family Longidoridae) in Portugal. Zootaxa. 4189 (1), 99-114. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4189.1.4

Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez C, Rius J E P, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Landa B B, Castillo P, 2011. Prevalence, polyphasic identification, and molecular phylogeny of dagger and needle nematodes infesting vineyards in southern Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 129 (3), 427-453. DOI:10.1007/s10658-010-9705-y

Halbrendt J M, Cummins J N, Welliver R, Hadidi A, Podleckis E, 1991. Screening apple rootstocks for resistance to the tomato ringspot virus. Pennsylvania Fruit News. 71 (2), 39-42.

Handoo Z A, Ibrahim I K A, Chitwood D J, Mokbel A A, 2015. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 33 (2), 161-165.

Ibrahim I K A, Handoo Z A, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 34 (2), 163-169.

Islam S, Khan A, Bilqees F M, 1996. Survey of stylet-bearing nematodes associated with apple (Malus pumila mill.) in swat district, N.W.F.P., Pakistan. Proceedings of Parasitology. 1-9.

Jaffee B A, Glenn D M, Forer L B, Shaffer R L, 1988. Effect of soil texture on Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi. Nematologica. 34 (2), 226-237.

Khan A, Islam S, Shaukat S S, Bilqees F M, 1996. Efficacy of carbofuran and Tenekil against nematodes associated with apple in Swat, Pakistan. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology. 6 (1), 59-62.

Khan A, Shaukat S S, Islam S, 1997. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on seasonal variation of three plant-parasitic nematodes associated with apple in Swat, Pakistan. International Journal of Nematology. 7 (1), 26-29.

Lamberti F, Bravo M A, Agostinelli A, Lemos R M, 1994. The Xiphinema americanum-group in Portugal with descriptions of four new species (Nematoda, Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea. 22 (2), 189-218.

Luca F de, Agostinelli A, 2011. Molecular and morphometry identification of plant parasitic nematodes. Redia. 143-148.

Mountain W L, Powell C A, Forer L B, Stouffer R F, 1983. Transmission of tomato ringspot virus from dandelion via seed and dagger nematodes. Plant Disease. 67 (8), 867-868. DOI:10.1094/PD-67-867

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