Xiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Species Vectored
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen, 1950
Preferred Common Name
- fan-leaf virus nematode
Other Scientific Names
- Diversiphinema index Thorne & Allen (Cohn & Sher, 1972)
International Common Names
- English: dagger nematode
- Spanish: vector virus en vinedos
- XIPHIN (Xiphinema index)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Class: Adenophorea
- Order: Dorylaimida
- Family: Xiphinematidae
- Genus: Xiphinema
- Species: Xiphinema index
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Female: body length=2.9-3.6 mm; a=54-61; b=6.0-7.7; c=72-98; c'=0.9-1.3; V=38-42%; odontostyle=119-130 µm; odontophore=65-78 µm.
Male (rare; after Thorne and Allen, 1951): body length=3.6 mm; a=63; b=7.3; c=88; T=49.
Female: body forms an open spiral on death. Cephalic region continuous with body contour. Amphidial slits almost as long as cephalic region width. Odontostyle needle-like, averaging 126 µm long. Odontophore with three large basal flanges, average length 70 µm. Basal stylet guiding ring 100-114 (108) µm from anterior end. A short mucro resembling spear tip present about 30 µm behind odontophore. Oesophagus in two parts - anterior slender and posterior bulbar part. The dorsal oesophageal gland cell extends along the length of the basal oesophageal bulb on the dorsal side and the anterior half of the ventral side. The cell has a system of six ducts formed by deep infolds of the limiting cell membrane. Two ducts extend almost the entire length of the bulb on the dorsal side and four extend half-way on the ventral side (Robertson and Wyss, 1979). Ovaries paired, opposed, reflexed. Z-organ absent. Prerectum 320-390 µm long. Tail mammiform, about as long as anal body width, usually with a digitate ventral or terminal peg 9-13 µm long; females with pegless tail sometimes occur (Heyns, 1971).
Male: extremely rare, reported by Thorne and Allen (1951) from USA; Harris (1977) from Victoria, Australia; and Luc and Cohn (1982) from Israel; not essential for reproduction. Spicules strong, 63 µm long measured along medial line; lateral guiding pieces of spicules 12 µm long. A ventromedian series of seven supplementary papillae present.
Juveniles: four different juvenile stages recognized by the relative body length and the length of the odontostyle. The length of the replacement odontostyle of one stage corresponds to the length of the functional odontostyle of the next stage. Odontostyle length increased from 49±4.6 (38-55) µm for the first stage juveniles to 135±2.8 (128-138) µm for the female and male, with a growth rate of 61, 35, 30 and 13% compared to the previous stage for J2, J3, J4 and adults, respectively (Vovlas and Larizza, 1994).
Bleve Zacheo et al. (1976) described the ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of X. index and Xiphinema mediterraneum.
Morphology and taxonomy of X. index have been given by Thorne and Allen (1951), Heyns (1971) and Siddiqi (1974). A key to Xiphinema species occurring in the UK, including X. index, is given by Southey (1973).
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present|
|Hungary||Present, Few occurrences||1967|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present|
|United States||Present, Localized|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
Epidermal and outer cortical cells collapse at feeding sites and show necrosis. In growing roots, multinucleate cells, which are considerably enlarged and contain dense cytoplasm, are formed beneath the layer of necrotic cells (Weischer and Wyss, 1976). Root-tip cells of Vitis vinifera and Ficus carica fed on directly by X. index are necrotic, contain coagulated cytoplasm and disorganized nuclei, and show a marked affinity for stains (Lehmann et al., 1978) (see Diagnostic Methods).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / cortex with lesions|
|Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions|
|Roots / soft rot of cortex|
Species VectoredTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
All stages occur in soil as migratory root ectoparasites. Reproduction is by meiotic parthenogenesis (n=10) and a single juvenile is capable of raising a population (Dalmasso and Younes, 1969; Dalmasso, 1970). The life cycle has been studied by Radewald and Raski (1962) and Fisher and Raski (1967). Eggs hatch in 6-8 days and the first moult occurs outside the egg 24-48 h after emergence. Second, third and fourth moults occur at 6-day intervals thereafter; the complete life cycle taking 22-27 days at 24°C in California, USA (Radewald and Raski, 1962). In Israel, however, 7-9 months are required for the completion of the life cycle at 20-23°C and 3-5 months at 28°C on a suitable host such as Vitis vinifera, Urtica urens or Citrus aurantium (Cohn and Mordechai, 1969).
X. index completes embryogenic development in 10-12 days at 24±2°C. Shortly before hatching, activity is resumed and is accompanied by an evident flexibility of the egg membrane (Vovlas and Larizza, 1994). In Cypriot vineyards X. index completes one generation per year in coastal plains but requires a longer period in the mountainous area, at an altitude of 950 m. Egg laying in the coastal plain occurred from early May to early July and in the mountainous region from late May to the end of July. At both sites, soil temperature at the initiation of egg laying ranged between 16.5 and 19°C, and the maximum numbers of females occurred immediately prior to initiation of egg laying.
Its life cycle in Central Spain takes 6-8 weeks to complete. X. index was found in 14% of all vineyards and in 50% of vineyards infected with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (Arias and Fresno, 1994). In southern Australian vineyards, X. index completed one life cycle a year. Greatest numbers were found at a depth of 15 cm (Harris, 1978).
In Sardinian vineyards in Italy, the life cycle from gravid female to adult lasts 12-14 months, and ovulation occurs principally in spring/summer but to a lesser extent also in autumn. Juvenile forms comprised 50-65% of the population. Total population levels fluctuated at 16-18-month intervals, but there were also annual fluctuations with major increments in autumn and minor ones in spring, usually corresponding to increases in numbers of first-stage juveniles (Prota and Garau, 1973). In experiments performed at 20.5 to 22.5°C in Sardinia, Italy, young females of X. index on Ficus carica produced first-stage juveniles, some already moulting on the 40th day. Third- and fourth-stage juveniles were found 60 and 100 days, respectively, after inoculation; the first young females, still moulting, were present on the 120th day. Another population of X. index from Apulia under similar conditions produced the first new generation females about 63 days after inoculation. This population increased 60-fold in 2.5 months and each female was estimated to lay 25-45 eggs in 9-10 weeks (Prota et al., 1977).
All stages feed ectoparasitically on roots. Juveniles have a large replacement odontostyle in the anterior part of the oesophagus which does not prevent feeding. Feeding is described by Fisher and Raski (1967). X. index feeds on a column of meristematic cells in root tips and causes gall formation. Extensive terminal root galls due to its feeding were observed on figs in France (Dalmasso, 1970a). Feeding along the roots of grapevine, nettle (Urtica urens) and Bidens tripartita, with no immediate change in the shape of roots, was noticed in Israel (Cohn, 1970). The terminal root galls have multinucleate and metabolically highly active cells which provide a long-lasting food reservoir for the nematode. The nematode feeds on a cell for a few minutes, then moves into successive deeper layers. The secretion of the dorsal oesophageal gland, which is injected into the cell through the hollow needle-like stylet, quickly degrades the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell which become liquified in about 1 min. Then the basal muscular bulb of the oesophagus is used as a pump for food ingestion which lasts for 2 min (Wyss, 1987). A film on feeding (in German) is available from Institut fur den Wissenschaftlichen Film, Gottingen, Germany (see Wyss, 1977b). At the feeding site, the plant develops galling with multinucleate giant cells which provide a continuous supply of food for the parasite. Multinucleate giant cell formation is a parasitic adaptation which appears to be a precondition for a successful host-parasite relationship. Single females produced many eggs when feeding on galled root tips of fig seedlings, but not when feeding was confined to root tips of tomato seedlings, which responded only with a slight swelling and necrotic cells (Wyss, 1978).
The feeding of X. index on grapevine roots begins by the perforation of the cell wall by a twisting action of the odontostyle. Soon after perforation, rhythmic contractions of the basal oesophageal bulb occur at a rate of about 70 contractions/0.5 min. On each contraction the bulb is stretched and the oesophageal lumen is dilated. Upon muscular relaxation the bulb shortens again and the lumen narrows from front to back, thus forcing food into the intestine. Pumping is usually intermittent. The length of time nematodes stay at one feeding site can vary from several minutes to several days (Weischer and Wyss, 1976).
Females and larvae of X. index usually fed gregariously at galled root tips of Ficus carica. Egg production of females feeding at the root gall varied between 55 and 118 under non-sterile conditions, and was less in aseptic culture. A minimum of 77 days elapsed between oviposition and the last moult giving the young female (Wyss, 1977a).
Population dynamics and host-parasite relationships
In an Italian vineyard, populations of X. index were smaller in November and February and largest during the summer; gravid females were seen only in July (Amici, 1967). Light- and medium-textured soils were preferred, as is a pH of 6.5-7.5 (Prota, 1970). However, it did well in heavy soils in Israel, with quicker population build-up and shorter duration of life cycle, as the temperature was increased from 16-28°C (Cohn and Mordechai, 1970). In England, X. index had its maximum population in autumn and minimum in spring; peak egg-laying took place during summer (Cotten et al., 1971).
Populations of X. index in grapevine fields infected with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus in the Champagne vine-growing region of France were assessed by Esmenjaud et al. (1992). The lowest nematode count was observed between 0 and 25 cm in the field with the highest clay content (Mesnil), and between 0 and 40 cm in the two fields with sandier soil textures. The highest nematode count (5-120 individuals per kg fine soil) was detected in the 55-70 cm horizon of the Mesnil field, and below 90 cm in the chalk parent rock for the two other fields.
In south-eastern France, X. index prevails in heavy soils, the oldest vineyards and vineyards planted in fields which were formerly cultivated with vines. It is found up to 1.5 m deep but is more abundant between 20 and 60 cm. These observations explain the inefficiency of nematicide treatments in controlling X. index; better results are obtained by keeping the soil free of vine for at least 6 years (Scotto La Massese et al., 1988).
In 1972, 75% of vines on the Kurgan-Tyubinsk plantation in Tadzhikistan were infected with X. index. The nematodes were present in the soil throughout the year but showed three peaks of occurrence: in April (172 nematodes per 75 square centimetre soil sample), August (91 nematodes per sample) and November (128 nematodes per sample) (Kankina, 1976, 1977).
In moist sterile soil without a food source, X. index died out after 9-10 months (Raski and Hewitt, 1960; Taylor and Raski, 1964). It can survive winter temperatures in England including freezing (Cotten et al., 1971). It is reported to have survived for 4.5 years in soil after grapevine host plants (but not the roots) were removed (Raski et al., 1965). X. index survived for 69 days under a wide range of soil temperatures and moisture levels. Nematodes survived storage in soil at 37 and -11°C, but 45 and -22°C were lethal; few survived in either saturated soil or soil held at less than 74% RH (Harris, 1979).
Raski and Hewitt (1960) noted that under starving conditions, X. index retained the ability to transmit grapevine fanleaf nepovirus for up to 9 months. The virus did not affect the rate of reproduction of X. index but did improve its survival rate during starvation (Das and Raski, 1969). The virus did not persist through the egg; juveniles lost the ability to transmit the virus at moulting, and had to feed again to acquire the virus (Taylor and Raski, 1964).
Interaction with other nematodes
Inoculation of Thompson Seedless grapevine with 500 X. index and Pratylenchus vulnus, alone or in combination, suppressed vine shoot and root growth under glasshouse conditions. P. vulnus caused greater stunting of Thompson Seedless grapevine roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone (Pinochet et al., 1976).
Interactions with other species
The demonstration by Hewitt et al. (1958) that X. index transmits Grapevine fanleaf virus in Californian vineyards was the first experimental proof of the role of nematodes in virus transmission. The virus is not carried by the nematode as a contaminant, but it has intimate association with the oesophageal lining of the nematode. The specific retention of virus particles within their vector nematodes may involve molecular recognition at their point of contact (Brown and Trudgill, 1997). Robertson and Henry (1986) observed that a carbohydrate layer discontinuously lined the lumens of the odontophore and oesophagus of X. diversicaudatum and that particles of nepovirus were seen attached only at those carbohydrate regions.
In France, X. index has been recorded as a vector of courtnoue disease of grapevine (Boubals et al., 1971), and as transmitting virus causing 'dégénérescence infectieuse' [infective degeneration] disease in grapevines (Vuittenez and Legin, 1964; see also Martelli and Raski, 1963 for Italy; Dalmasso and Cuany, 1969 for Algeria; and Dalmasso, 1970b for France). The distribution and role of X. index and Xiphinema italiae in transmitting Grapevine fanleaf virus in vineyards in mediterranean France is discussed by Dalmasso et al. (1972).
Grapevine yellow mosaic virus [Grapevine fanleaf virus] is transmitted by X. index in Chile (González and Valenzuela, 1968) as well as in Hungary (Martelli and Sárospataki, 1969). In trials in Hungary, both 'yellow mosaic' and Grapevine chrome mosaic virus were transmitted to healthy grapevines by the larvae and females of X. index (Mali et al., 1975); both viruses were also transmitted to Chenopodium quinoa, Phaseolus vulgaris and Gomphrena globosa. This is the first record of X. index as a transmitter of Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (Mali, 1977). In southern Italy, Grapevine fanleaf virus was associated only with X. index and was never detected in, nor transmitted by, Xiphinema italiae, X. pachtaicum, Longidorus apulus or Longidorus euonymus (Catalano et al., 1992).
Fanleaf and yellow mosaic virus particles were found in the odontophore and oesophageal lumen but not in the odontostyle of X. index. This distribution is discussed in relation to the different charges on the stomodeal cuticle due to their embryological origin and reinforces the concept of a division of the stoma into oesophastome and cheilostome (Raski et al., 1973). It was shown experimentally that X. index transmitted grapevine yellow mosaic virus [Grapevine fanleaf virus] to healthy plants (Vanek et al., 1972). Thirty-one grapevine rootstocks were used to test for reproduction, root feeding symptoms and transmission of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus by a South African population of X. index. Grapevine fanleaf virus was transmitted within 4 months to the roots and systemically spread within 6 months to the leaves of all the rootstocks tested (Malan and Meyer, 1993). In a sample grapevine population, increased acquisition access feeding time by X. index caused an increase in the number of plants subsequently becoming infected by Grapevine fanleaf virus (Alfaro and Goheen, 1974). When fed upon Grapevine fanleaf virus-infected Chenopodium quinoa, X. index acquired the virus but did not transmit it to C. quinoa, although it did transmit the nepovirus to the grapevine (Trudgill and Brown, 1980).
Evidence suggests that the X. index-Grapevine fanleaf virus association probably evolved elsewhere and was imported to the Americas with grapevines (Halbrendt, 1993).
High concentrations of Rickettsia-like organisms were found in the pseudocoelom of X. index and in root tissue taken from the grapevines showing yellows disease in the Rhine, Moselle, and Saar wine-growing regions of Germany. Dividing stages of the Rickettsia-like organisms were found in the nematode, indicating a close relationship and a possible vector role; this appears to be the first report of Rickettsia-like organisms in a nematode (Rumbos et al., 1977; Sikora and Rumbos, 1977).
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Culture filtrate of the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, grown on collagen as a single source of carbon and nitrogen, reduced the motility of X. index; the biocontrol potential of the fungus for plant nematodes was increased when collagen was used as a soil amendment (0.1% w/w) (Galper et al., 1991).
The bulb mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus was found to feed on X. index, which was bitten into pieces and the juices sucked out. It may serve as a biocontrol agent (Sturhan and Hampel, 1977).
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page
High population levels of X. index (above 50 specimens per litre of soil) negatively affected grape yields (Lamberti and Melillo, 1991). In California, USA, X. index significantly reduced root and shoot growth of the grape cultivar French Colombard. Bud break was delayed by X. index and buds were less vigorous than in the control (Anwar and Van Gundy, 1989). Grapevine plants grown at 16.6°C and inoculated with 500 X. index had, in the first year, 23% increased abscission of oldest leaves, and in the second year, 65 and 38% reduction in top and root weights, respectively, 60% fewer inflorescences and 89% reduced fruit size (Kirkpatrick et al., 1965; see also Boubals et al., 1971).
A survey on the distribution of X. index in the traditional vine-growing areas of Cyprus revealed that the nematode is widely spread, while its average percentage of occurrence, out of the 1185 soil samples examined, reached 22.2%. It is believed that the major factor influencing the spread of this nematode is the presence of its natural host plant, grapevine, as shown by historical documentation on the island's vine cultivation since the 12th century (Philis, 1993). In Iran, X. index was recorded from 105 of 170 vineyards (maximum population=500/250 ml soil), from eight provinces (Mojtahedi et al., 1980).
The impact of X. index is increased by its transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus and Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (see Biology and Ecology). An 11-year-old Thompson Seedless vineyard in the central area of Chile had a mean population of 250 X. index and was infected with Grapevine fanleaf virus. The effect of the virus infection was seen in differences between infected and healthy plants in the rate of photosynthesis, stem and berry diameter, yield and soluble solids (Auger et al., 1992).
DiagnosisTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Attacked grapevine roots turn brown and swell at the tips (form terminal galls). Epidermal and outer cortical cells collapse at feeding sites and show necrosis. In growing roots, multinucleate cells, which are considerably enlarged and contain dense cytoplasm, are formed beneath the layer of necrotic cells (Weischer and Wyss, 1976) (see Diagnostic Methods).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
There is a close similarity in the appearance of root galls on grapevines induced by X. index and phylloxera (Viteus vitifoliae), hence the nematodes in soil around the galls must be searched for and identified (Vovlas and Avgelis, 1988).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
See Siddiqi (1974) for the control of X. index.
A single, deep placement of 1,3-dichloropropene has prevented re-infection of replanted vines with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus and controlled the vector, X. index, for 5 years. 1,3-dichloropropene reduced nematode numbers and disease incidence; carbon disulphide (superseded) was ineffective. Wet soils and those with a high clay content prevented successful control of the nematode-virus complex by any treatment (Lear et al., 1981).
1,3-dichloropropene reduced the population of X. index and increased the yields of grapevines in California (Raski and Goheen, 1988).
German vineyards with high X. index populations were treated with 'D-D' (superseded). On the untreated plots, more than 50% of the vines were infested by the 4th year after planting and over 90% by the 10th year, whereas on the treated plots only 5.3 and 22.4% were infested in the 4th and 10th years after planting, respectively. After the 2nd year, yields from treated plots were higher and the higher yields from treated plots compensated for the fumigating costs by the 4th cropping year. The graft combination Traminer/SO4 became infested more slowly than Traminer/5C and yielded better (Rudel, 1978).
In France, treatment of plots of grapevines (cv. Ugni Blanc on 41B) with 'D-D' gave about 20% higher yields than control plots. In South African trials for eliminating grapevine fanleaf nepovirus from old vineyard soils by applying 'D-D' soil fumigation against the vector, X. index, no re-infection was observed after deep fumigation, but shallow treatment was ineffective (Anon., 1978b).
In Switzerland, a solution of glyphosate, applied to grapevines 3-6 months before grubbing, reduced X. index populations to below economic threshold (Boubals, 1994; see also Vallotton and Perrier, 1990).
During experiments to eliminate grapevine fanleaf nepovirus from vineyards of South African soils by fumigation with 'D-D' (superseded) against the vector X. index, it was found that re-infestation can occur within two seasons. Infestation in deep-fumigated plots was 3% compared with 52% in shallow-fumigated plots (Anon., 1980).
In the vineyard nursery, treatment with hot water at 52°C for 10 min controls X. index, Meloidogyne incognita and other nematodes (Vega, 1978). Hot-water treatment is recommended to growers of grapevines in South Africa (Orffer, 1977).
Vitis species most resistant to X. index are: Vitis candicans, V. solonis, V. arizonica, V. rufotomentosa and V. smalliana (Kunde et al., 1968).
Among 31 grapevine rootstocks tested, no root damage and a low reproduction rate of X. index were found on the rootstocks Harmony, Freedom and 1613C, all of which have Vitis longii and Othello in their parentage (Malan and Meyer, 1993). All of nine grapevine rootstocks tested were hosts of X. index, but ceiling population levels varied amongst the rootstocks. There was no correlation between root-knot resistance and host status for X. index (Cohn, 1975).
Fifty-five grape rootstock selections, nine V. vinifera x Muscadinia rotundifolia [Vitis rotundifolia, VR] hybrids and three fanleaf grape rootstocks susceptible to degeneration were planted in 1979 in a site in the Napa Valley, California, USA, known to be infested with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus and viruliferous X. index. Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus was detected in scions on all rootstocks, but not for 10 years in scions on VR039-16 (Walker et al., 1994).
Differences in the reaction to the grapevine rootstocks were evident between the X. index populations, particularly that from California, and these need to be taken into account in breeding programmes. Tests with four populations of X. index from Italy, California, USA, Israel and France indicated that Vitis candicans was a source of resistance to X. index and confirmed the resistance of Dog Ridge (Coiro et al., 1990b). Twenty-five hybrid seedlings (Lider seedlings) were bred for resistance to X. index, budded with Chasselas scions and planted in a vineyard replant site infested with X. index in north-eastern Victoria. The scions on most of the Lider seedling rootstocks produced significantly higher yields than those on the rootstocks traditionally used in the area for resistance to phylloxera (Harris, 1988). Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were Harmony, Freedom, Schwarzmann and 3309. Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, 171-52 and 176-9 were possibly immune to X. index (Harris, 1983).
M. rotundifolia [Vitis rotundifolia] is resistant to transmission of the virus by its vector X. index (Bouquet, 1983). In Italy, three isolates of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus were equally well transmitted by the two nematode populations and detected by DAS-ELISA in all species and rootstocks of grapevine tested, including V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrids (Catalano et al., 1991). Muscadine grapes (V. rotundifolia) did not show symptoms of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus 3 years after inoculation with X. index, but when grafted with infected scions of the indicator host V. rupestris St Georges, transmission of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus occurred, indicating that muscadine grapes were not immune to the virus (Bouquet, 1981).
Derived from the cross V. vinifera cv. Almeria x M. rotundifolia Male No. 1 made in 1948, this rootstock was selected for resistance to the grapevine fanleaf nepovirus and the nematode vector X. index. VR039-16 is a sterile F1 hybrid and scions grafted onto it are vigorous, have high yields and are resistant to fanleaf degeneration (Walker et al., 1991).
See Lemos et al. (1997) for further information on plant resistance to viruses.
A number of natural enemies with potential for biocontrol of X. index have been identified and are being studied (see Natural Enemies).
After removal of virus-infected grapevines, their roots persist in soil for about 4.5 years, thereby providing a reservoir for virus and food for X. index. It is suggested that a minimum of 5 years be allowed to eliminate the virus and its vector (Raski et al., 1965). Dalmasso (1969) suggested a 6- to 7-year rotation with non-hosts, a 3-year rotation with non-hosts plus the use of nematicides, or a more intensive nematicidal treatment. Esmenjaud (1983) suggests that in high-risk zones, grapevine should not be grown for 5-7 years if X. index has been detected, the soil disinfected and replanting done in spring, 3-6 months after treatment.
Higher X. index mortality was obtained by the application of macerated Capsicum annuum pods in water than in boiled pod extract at the same concentration; nematode mortality increased with the increase of the concentration of both aqueous extracts and by extending the exposure period (Sasanelli and Catalano, 1991). Aqueous extracts from leaves of Ruta graveolens had a high nematicidal effect against X. index. Nematode mortality increased with increasing leaf extract concentration and exposure time (Sasanelli, 1992).
In Cyprus under local conditions, fallow alone or fallow rotated with barley can decrease populations to non-detectable levels, 40-52 months after uprooting grapevine plantations (Philis, 1994).
For preventive control, grapevine nurseries should be sited on soil which has not carried host plants such as grapevines, figs, citrus or poplar (Cuany et al., 1977). To control X. index and prevent viral diseases transmitted by it, resting of the soil for at least 5 years is considered as the most effective method but is rarely practicable. One year's rest after careful extraction of all roots and thorough preparation of the soil before application of fumigants may be used (INRA, 1991). In the absence of a host, fewer than 10% of the nematodes survived for 60 days even under favourable (intermediate) moisture conditions. Survival was very low in both saturated and dry soils (Sultan and Ferris, 1991).
ReferencesTop of page
1980. Annual Report of the Secretary for Agricultural Technical Services for the period 1 July 1978 to 30 June 1979. Annual Report of the Secretary for Agricultural Technical Services for the period 1 July 1978 to 30 June 1979. Pretoria. South Africa, 114 pp.
Alfaro A; Goheen AC, 1974. Transmission of strains of grapevine fanleaf virus by Xiphinema index. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(6):549-552.
Amici A, 1967. Fluttazione della popdazione di Xiphinema index in una zona viticola italiana. Studi del gruppo di lavoro del C.N.R. per le virosi - No. 105. Riv. Patol. Veg., 3:99-104.
Anwar SA; Van Gundy SD, 1989. Influence of four nematodes on root and shoot growth parameters in grape. Journal of Nematology, 21(2):276-283.
Azizova EP, 1970. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), a new parasite of the grapevine in Uzbekistan. Nauchnye Trudy Tashkentskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta (Trudy Aspirantov TashGU, Biologiya, Pochvovedenie), No. 378:36-44
Azizova EP, 1972. The pathogenic nematodes of grapevines. Gel'minty pishchevykh produktov. Tezisy dokladov mezhrespublikanskoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 22-25 Dekabrya 1972 goda. Samarkandskii Kooperativnyi Institut im. V.V. Kuibysheva. Samarkand USSR, 63-64
Bleve Zacheo T; Castellano MA; Lamberti F, 1976. Preliminary studies on the ultrastructure of the female gonad of Xiphinema index and X. mediterraneum (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Nematologia Mediterranea, 4(1):41-55
Boosalis MG; Mankau R, 1965. Parasitism and predation of soil microorganisms. In: Baker KF, Snyder WC, eds. Ecology of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press, pp. 374-391.
Boubals D; Pistre R; Dalmasso A; Bongiovani M, 1971. Aspects of the attack of vine roots by the nematode Xiphinema index, vector of court-noue disease of the vine. Progres Agricole et Viticole, 171(9):4 pp.
Bravo MA, 1983. Nemátodos vectores de viroses da Videira. Encontro de Técnicos de viticultura. Oeiras, Portugal: Ministério da Agricultura Florestas e Alimentatâo, 1-6.
Bravo MA; Lemos RM, 1997. Longidorus, Paralongidorus and Xiphinema in Portugal. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nemtodes and Their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 421-441.
Brown DJF; Trudgill DL, 1997. Longidorid Nematodes And Their Associated Viruses. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nematodes and their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Institute do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 1-40.
Catalano L; Savino V; Lamberti F; Martelli GP, 1991. Transmission of three isolates of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus to grapevine species and rootstock hybrids by two populations of Xiphinema index. Nematologia Mediterranea, 19(2):349-351
Chumakova AE, 1982. Occurrence of Xiphinema, vectors of viruses of grapevine. In: Venetskaya AL, Gus'kova LA, eds. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rasteneii Biologicheskie osnovy bor'by s Nematodami. Leningrad, USSR: VIZR, 35-37.
Cohn E, 1970. Observations on the feeding and symptomatology of Xiphinema and Longidorus on selected host roots. Journal of Nematology, 2:167-173.
Cohn E, 1975. Nematodes on grapevines. Scientific activities 1971-1974 of the Division of Nematology, Institute of Plant Protection, Bet Dagan, Israel. Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Organization. Bet Dagan, 129
Cohn E; Mordechai M, 1969. Investigations on the life cycles and host preference of some species of Xiphinema and Longidorus under controlled conditions. Nematologica, 15:295-302.
Cohn E; Mordechai M, 1970. The influence of some environmental and cultural conditions on rearing populations of Xiphinema and Longidorus species. Nematologica, 16:85-93.
Cohn E; Orion D, 1970. The pathological effect of representative Xiphinema and Longidorus species on selected host plants. Nematologica, 16:423-428.
Cohn E; Sher SA, 1972. A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Xiphinema. Journal of Nematology, 4:36-65.
Coiro MI, 1980. Influence of some environmental factors on reproduction of Xiphinema index. Atti Giornate Nematologiche 1980, Ascoli Piceno, Italy, 23-24 Ottobre 1980. Societa' Italiana di Nematologia. Italy, 75-79
Coiro MI; Brown DJF, 1984. The status of some plants as hosts for four populations of Xiphinema index (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Revue de Nematologie, 7(3):283-286.
Coiro MI; Lamberti F; Agostinelli A; Vindimian ME, 1989. Longidorid nematodes in the vineyards of the province of Trento. II: The genus Xiphinema Cobb. Nematologia Mediterranea, 17(2):139-148; 11 ref.
Cotten J; Flegg JJM; Popham AM, 1971. Population studies with Xiphinema diversicaudatum and X. index maintained under two temperature regimes. Nematologica, 16 (1970):584-590.
Dalmasso A, 1969. Méthodes de lutte contre un nématode vecteur du court noué de la vigne. Phytoma, 21:20-23.
Dalmasso A, 1970a. La gamétogenFse des genres Xiphinema et Longidorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). C. r. hebd. Seanne Acad. Sci. Paris, 270:824-827.
Dalmasso A, 1970b. Influence directe de quelques facteurs ecologiques sur l'activite biologique et la distribution des especes Francaises de la famille des Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie, Animale, 2:163-200.
Dalmasso A; Boubals D; Bonciovanni M; Pistre R, 1972. Distribution of nematode vectors of fan leaf virus in French Mediterranean vineyards. Progres Agricole et Viticole, No. 19:456-462.
Dalmasso A; Cuany A, 1969. Importance de la transmission par le sol de la `dégénérescence infectieuse' de la vigne dans l'Algérois. Plant Protection Bulletin FAO, 17:58-60.
Dalmasso A; Younes; T, 1969. OrogenFse et embryogenFse chez Xiphinema index (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Annls Zool.-Ecol. anim., 1:265-279.
Das S; Raski DJ, 1969. Effect of grapevine fanleaf virus on the reproduction and survival of its nematode vector, Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen. Journal of Nematology, 1:107-110.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Esmenjaud D; Walter B; Valentin G; Guo ZT; Cluzeau D, 1992. Vertical distribution and infectious potential of Xiphinema index (Thorne et Allen, 1950) (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in fields affected by grapevine fanleaf virus in vineyards in the Champagne region of France. Agronomie, 12(5):395-399
Fisher JM; Raski DJ, 1967. Feeding of Xiphinema index and X. diversicaudatum. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 34:68-72.
Garcia-Benavides P; L=pez-Robles J; Fresno J; Arias M, 1994. Correlation between Xiphinema index and the grapevine fanleaf virus disease in vineyards of Castilla Le=n (Central Spain). Nematologia Mediterranea, 22(1):21-24; 18 ref.
Glaser T; Skowronski Z, 1970. `Krzaczastosc winorosli' [A virus disease of grapevine]. Ochr. Roslin., 14:13-15.
González RH, 1970. Nuevas especies de nematodes que atacam la vid en Chile. Agricultura tec., 30:31-37.
González RH; Valenzuela BJ, 1968. Xiphinema index (Thorne et Allen) y Xiphinema americanum (Cobb) en vifiedos chilenos. Agricultura téc., 28(2):89.
Hewitt WB; Raski DJ; Goheen AC, 1958. Nematode vector of soil-borne fanleaf virus of grapevines. Phtopathology, 48:586-595.
Heyns J, 1971. Three Xiphinema species from the south western Cape Province (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Phytopathology, 3(3):107-114.
Ivanova TS, 1972. Ectoparasitic nematodes in Tadzhikistan. Zashchita Rastenii, 7:21.
Jiménez-Millán F; Arias M; Bello A; López Pedregal JM, 1965. [Catálogo de los nematodos fitoparásitos y peri-radiculares encontrados en Espána.] Boln. R. Soc. esp. Hist. nat. (Biol.), 63:47-104.
Kankina VK, 1977. Study of the population dynamics of the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen, 1950, on grapevine. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskie Nauki, 3:55-60
Kankina VK, 1978. Parasitic nematodes of grapevine from the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Tadzhikistan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR (Ahboroti Akademijai Fanhoi RSS Tocikoston), Biologicheskie Nauki, No.1 (70):36-41
Katcho ZA; Allow JM, 1968. Dagger nematodes, Xiphinema index, on grape-vines in Iraq. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:626-627.
Kirkpatrick JD; Van Gundy SD; Martin JP, 1965. Effects of Xiphinema index on growth and abscission in Carignane grape, Vitis vinifera. Nematologica 11:41.
Koev GV; Polinkovskii AI, 1976. The use of nematicides against nematode vectors of viruses in Moldavia. VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 140-141
Kunde RM; Lider LA; Schmitt RV, 1968. A test of Vitis resistance to Xiphinema index. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 19:30-36.
La Red EC; Vega E, 1968. Identification and geographical distribution of the nematode Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen in the south of the Province of Mendoza. Idia, No. 246, 49-54.
La Red EC; Vega E, 1970. Control of nematodes in vineyards. Rev. Invest. Agrop., Ser. 5, 7:31-45.
Lamberti F; Jatala P; Agostinelli A, 1987. A report of some Xiphinema species occurring in Peru (Nematoda, Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea, 15(1):103-109.
Lamberti F; Vouyoukalou E; Agostinelli A, 1996. Longidorids (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea) occurring in the rhizosphere of olive trees in Western Crete, Greece. Nematologia Mediterranea, 24(1):79-85; 7 ref.
Lehmann H; Wyss U, 1978. The ultrastructure of modified root-tip cells induced by the feeding of an ectoparasitic nematode. In: Sturgess JM, ed. Electron Microscopy 1978. Volume II: Biology. (9th Internat. Congr. on "electron microscopy", 1-9 Aug. 1978, Toronto, Canada.) Microscopical Society of Canada. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 438-439
Lemos RM; Santos; MSN; Abrantes LMO, 1997. Control strategies for virus vector nematodes and their associated viruses. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nemtodes and Their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 381-420.
Lider LA; Kasimatis AN; Schmitt RV, 1967. Response of St. George rootstock vines to summer irrigation and to treatments with the nematicide DBCP. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 18:55-60.
MARTELLI G; SÂROSPATAKI G, 1969. Nematodes of the family Longidoridae (Thorne, 1935) Meyl, 1960 found in Hungarian vineyards and virus transmission trials with Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen. Phytopathology, 8(1):1-7.
Martelli GP; Raski DJ, 1963. Osservazione su Xiphinema index Thorne e Allen, fico e `degenerazione infettiva' della vite. Inftore Fitopatol., 13:416-420.
Meagher JW, 1969. Nematodes and their control in vineyards in Victoria, Australia. International Pest Control, 11(5):14-18.
Meagher JW; Brown RH; Taylor RH; Harris AR, 1976. The distribution of Xiphinema index and other parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines in north-eastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 16:932-936
Milkus BN, 1976. The pathogenicity of Xiphinema index in vineyards in the northern Black Sea area. VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 144
O'Bannon JH; Esser RP, 1987. Regulatory perspectives in Nematology, pp. 38-46. In: Veech JA, Dickson DW, eds. Vistas in Nematology. Hyattsville, USA: Society of Nematologists.
Pinochet J; Raski DJ; Goheen AC, 1976. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and in combination on growth of Vitis vinifera 'Thompson seedless'. Journal of Nematology, 8(4):300
Polinkovskaya AI, 1980. Study of the role of nematodes in the transmission of the principal diseases of grapevine in Moldavia. Virusnye, mikoplazmennye i bakterial'nye bolezni plodov, kul'tur i vinograda v Moldavii, Kishinev; USSR, 112-121.
Prota U, 1970. The effect of some soil properties and the age of vines on the distribution of Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen in Sardinia. Stidi sassar, sez. 3, 18:1-12.
Prota U; Garau R, 1973. Investigations on the biology of Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen in Sardinian vineyards. Nematologia Mediterranea, 1(1):36-54.
Qasim M; Hashmi S; Maqbool MA, 1988. Distribution of parasitic nematodes and their importance in fruit production of Baluchistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 6(1):17-22.
Radewald JD; Raski DJ, 1962. A study of the life cycle of Xiphinema index. Phytopathology, 52:748.
Raski DJ; Goheen AC, 1988. Comparison of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl bromide for control of Xiphinema index and grapevine fanleaf degeneration complex. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 39(4):334-336; 6 ref.
Raski DJ; Hewitt WB, 1960. Experiments with Xiphinema index as a vector of fanleaf of grapevines. Nematologica, 5:166-170.
Raski DJ; Hewitt WB; Goheen AC; Taylor CE; Taylor RH, 1965. Survival of Xiphinema index and reservoirs of fanleaf virus in fallowed vineyard soil. Nematologica, 11:349-352.
Raski DJ; Hewitt WB; Schmitt RV, 1971. Controlling fanleaf virus-dagger nematode disease complex in vineyards by soil fumigation. California Agriculture, 25(4):11-14.
Roca F; Lamberti F; Agostinelli A, 1988. The Longidoridae (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) of the Italian regions VII. Piedmont and Aosta Valley. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(1):35-51.
Romascu E; Zinca N, 1972. Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen, 1950. A new damaging pest of grapevine in Romania (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). Analele Institutului de Cercetari Pentru Protectia Plantelor, 10:273-283
Rumbos I; Sikora RA; Nienhaus F, 1977. Rickettsia-like organisms in Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen found associated with yellows disease of grapevine. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 84(4):240-243
Scotto La Massese C; Minot JC; Voisin R; Castaing LRM; Fabre A, 1988. Relationship between soil type, previous crop and age of plantation on the composition and the distribution of the nematofauna associated with vineyards of the south-east of France. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 9(2):137.
Sikora RA; Rumbos I, 1977. The nematode fauna associated with yellows disease of grapevines and the possible role Xiphinema index plays as a vector of Rickettsia-like organisms. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 42(2, Part 1):1253-1260
Sivakumar M; Poornima K; Mani MP; Maheswari RU, 2003. Diversity of plant parasitic nematodes in western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Biodiversity and Management of Nematodes in Cropping Systems for Sustainable Agriculture, Jaipur, India, 11-13 November, 2002 [ed. by Singh, R. V.\Pankaj\Dhawan, S. C.\Gaur, H. S.]. New Delhi, India: Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 15-18.
South Africa, Department of Agricultural Technical Services. , 1979. Annual report of the Secretary for Agricultural Technical Services for the period 1 July, 1977 to 30 June, 1978. Annual report of the Secretary for Agricultural Technical Services for the period 1 July, 1977 to 30 June, 1978. Pretoria. South Africa, vi + 241 pp.
Southey JF, 1973a. In: The Longidoridae. Harpenden, UK: Rothamsted Experimental Station, 37-58.
Southey JF, 1973b. The identification and biology of Longidorus, Paralongidorus and Xiphinema species found in the British Isles with observations on the oesophageal ultrastructure of some species. Harpenden, UK: Rothamsted Experimental Station, pp. 37-58, 59-63.
Stubbs LL, 1971. Plant pathology in Australia. Review of Plant Pathology, 50:461-478.
Sturhan D, 1985. Studies on distribution and hosts of Bacillus penetrans parasitic in nematodes. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No.226:75-93; 22 ref.
Switzerland; Station Federale de Recherches Agronomiques de Changins, 1978. Report of research in 1976-1977 of the Federal Station for Agricultural Research, Changins. Publication, Station Federale de Recherches Agronomiques de Changins, No. 1200:442 pp.
Taylor CR; Raski DJ, 1964. On the transmission of grape fanleaf by Xiphinema index. Nematologica, 10:489-4950.
Tekinel N; Dolar MS; Naz Z; Bilgin N; Salih H; Salcan Y, 1971. A study of infectious degeneration (fanleaf) in vineyards of the Mediterranean region. Bitki Koruma Bull., 11(4):225-246.
Thorne G; Allen MW, 1951. Paratylenchus hamatus n. sp. and Xiphinema index n. sp., two nematodes associated with fig roots, with a note on Paratylenchus anceps Cobb. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 17(1), 27-35.
Treskova VS; Venetskaya AL, 1982. Vectors of disease. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5, 35.
Trudgill DL; Brown DJF, 1980. Effect of the bait plant on transmission of viruses by Longidorus and Xiphinema spp. Annual Report for 1979, Scottish Crop Research Institute. Invergowrie, UK: Scottish Crop Research Institute.
Vanek G; Sárospataki G; Lehoczky J, 1972. Recent experimental evidence of the transmission of grapevine yellow mosaic virus by the nematode Xiphinema index. (In Hungarian.) Szölö-és Gyümölcstermesztés, 7:253-260.
Verma RR, 1987. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with citrus. Indian Journal of Nematology, 17(1):138.
Voss B; Yyss U, 1990. Variation between strains of the nematophagous endoparasitic fungus Catenaria anguillulae Sorokin 1. Factors affecting parasitism in vitro. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 97(4):416-430
Vovlas N; Inserra RN; Martelli GP, 1978. Anatomical changes induced by Xiphinema index and Meloidogyne incognita in the roots of a Vitis vinifera X V. rotundifolia hybrid. Nematologia Mediterranea, 6(1):67-75
Vuittenez A; Legin R, 1964. Recherches sur les vecteurs naturels de la dégénérescence infectieuse. Confirmation de la transmission du virus par Xiphinema index (Thorne et Allen) et de l'activité parasitaire de ce nématode sur la vigne. C. r. hebd. Seannc Acad. Agric. Fr., 50:286-304.
Weiner A; Raski DJ, 1966. New host records for Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen, 1959. Plant Disease Reporter, 50:27-28.
Weischer B, 1980. Pathogenicity of Xiphinema index on different species of grapevine. European Society of Nematologists: Abstracts of the 15th International Nematology Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists, Bari, Italy, 24-30 August, 1980. Bari. Italy, 72
Wyss U, 1977b. Xiphinema index (Nematoda) - feeding on roots of seedlings (fig). Publikationen zu Wissenschaftlichen Filmen, Biologie, Ser. 10 Institut fur den Wissenschaftlichen Film. Gottingen Germany, No. 61/E.2375:20 pp.
Wyss U, 1987. Video Assessment of Root Cell Responses to Dorylaimid and Tylenchid Nematodes. In: Veetch JA, Dickson DW, eds. Vistas on Nematology: A Commemoration of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Society of Nematologists. Hyattsville, Maryland, USA: Society of Nematologists, 211-220.
Yamashita TT; Viglierchio DR; Schmitt RV, 1986. Responses of nematodes to nematicidal applications following extended exposures to subnematicidal stress. Revue de Nematologie, 9(1):49-60.
Abrantes I M de O, Santos M C V dos, Conceição I L P M da, Santos M S N de A, Vovlas N, 2008. Root-knot and other plant-parasitic nematodes associated with fig trees in Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea. 36 (2), 131-136. http://www.edizioniets.com
Alfaro Garcia A, 1971. The presence in Spain of the 'fanleaf' virus on vines. (Presencia en Espana del virus del 'fanleaf' de la vid.). Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Serie Proteccion Vegetal. 71-80.
Andrade E R de, Peruzzo E L, 1993. Grape viruses: characterization and production of plant material free from the main viruses. (Viroses da videira: caracterização e obtenção de matrizes livres dos principais vírus.). Agropecuária Catarinense. 6 (3), 10-13.
Auger J, Aballay E E, Pinto C M, Pastenes V C, 1992. Effect of grape fanleaf virus (GFV) on growth and productivity of grapevine plants cv. Thompson Seedless. (Efecto del virus de la hoja en abanico (VHA) en el desarrollo y productividad de plantas de vid cv. Thompson Seedless.). Fitopatología. 27 (2), 85-89.
Azizova E P, 1970. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), a new parasite of the grapevine in Uzbekistan. Nauchnye Trudy Tashkentskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta (Trudy Aspirantov TashGU, Biologiya, Pochvovedenie). 36-44.
Azizova E P, 1972. The pathogenic nematodes of grapevines. In: Gel'minty pishchevykh produktov. Tezisy dokladov mezhrespublikanskoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 22-25 Dekabrya 1972 goda. Samarkand, USSR: Samarkandskii Kooperativnyi Institut im. V.V. Kuibysheva. 63-64.
Bercks R, Bruckbauer H, Querfurth G, Rudel M, 1977. Investigations on virus diseases of grapevine with special regards to 'atypical forms' of fanleaf disease. (Untersuchungen uber die Viruskrankheiten der Rebe unter besonderer Berucksichtigung "atypischer Formen" der Reisigkrankheit.). Weinberg und Keller. 24 (4), 133-180.
Bravo MA, 1983. (Nemátodos vectores de viroses da Videira). In: Encontro de Técnicos de viticultura, Oeiras, Portugal: Ministério da Agricultura Florestas e Alimentatâo. 1-6.
Bravo MA, Lemos RJ, 1997. Longidorus, Paralongidorus and Xiphinema in Portugal. In: An Introduction to Virus Vector Nematodes and their Associated Viruses, [ed. by Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM]. Coimbra, Portugal: Instituto do Ambiente e Vida (IAV), Universidade de Coimbra. 421-441.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cohn E, 1975. Nematodes on grapevines. In: Scientific activities 1971-1974 of the Division of Nematology, Institute of Plant Protection, Bet Dagan, Israel. Bet Dagan, Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Organization. 129.
Coiro M I, Lamberti F, Agostinelli A, Vindimian M E, 1989. Longidorid nematodes in the vineyards of the province of Trento. II: The genus Xiphinema Cobb. (I Longidoridae nei vigneti del Trentino. II: Il genera Xiphinema Cobb.). Nematologia Mediterranea. 17 (2), 139-148.
Dalmasso A, Boubals D, Bonciovanni M, Pistre R, 1972. Distribution of nematode vectors of fan leaf virus in French Mediterranean vineyards. (Distribution des nematodes propagateurs du court-noue dans les vignobles mediterraneens francais.). Progres Agricole et Viticole. 456-462.
DALMASSO A, CUANY A, 1969. Importance of soil transmission of 'infectious degeneration' of vines in Algiers. (Importance de la transmission par le sol de la 'dégénérescence infectieuse' de la vigne dans l'Algérois.). Plant Protection Bulletin, F.A.O. 17 (3), 58-60.
Esmenjaud D, Walter B, Valentin G, Guo Z T, Cluzeau D, 1992. Vertical distribution and infectious potential of Xiphinema index (Thorne et Allen, 1950) (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in fields affected by grapevine fanleaf virus in vineyards in the Champagne region of France. Agronomie. 12 (5), 395-399. DOI:10.1051/agro:19920505
Fiore N, Prodan S, Montealegre J, Aballay E, Pino A M, Zamorano A, 2008. Survey of grapevine viruses in Chile. Journal of Plant Pathology. 90 (1), 125-130. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html
Heyns J, 1971. Three Xiphinema species from the south western Cape Province (Nematoda: Longidoridae). In: Phytopathology, 3 (3) 107-114.
Kankina V K, 1977. Study of the population dynamics of the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen, 1950, on grapevine. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskie Nauki. 55-60.
Koev G V, Polinkovskii A I, 1976. The use of nematicides against nematode vectors of viruses in Moldavia. In: VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Kishinev, USSR: Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". 140-141.
Meagher J W, Brown R H, Taylor R H, Harris A R, 1976. The distribution of Xiphinema index and other parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines in north-eastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. 932-936.
Milkus B N, 1976. The pathogenicity of Xiphinema index in vineyards in the northern Black Sea area. In: VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Kishinev, USSR: Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". 144.
Palomares-Rius J E, Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez C, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Castillo P, 2012. Prevalence and diversity of Grapevine fanleaf virus in southern Spain. Plant Pathology. 61 (6), 1032-1042. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02599.x
Polinkovskaya AI, 1980. Study of the role of nematodes in the transmission of the principal diseases of grapevine in Moldavia. In: Virusnye, mikoplazmennye i bakterial'nye bolezni plodov, kul'tur i vinograda v Moldavii, Kishinev, USSR. 112-121.
Poornima K, Sivakumar M, Subramanian S, Ramaraju K, 2017. Incidence of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp. in mango (Mangifera indica) and citrus (Citrus aurantifolia) in Tamil Nadu - a first record. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 23 (2), 182-184. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/812/726
Roca F, Lamberti F, Agostinelli A, 1988. The Longidoridae (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) of the Italian regions VII. Piedmont and Aosta Valley. In: Nematologia Mediterranea, 16 (1) 35-51.
Roca F, Lamberti F, Elia F, 1991. The Longidoridae (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) of the Italian regions, XII. Umbria. (I Longidoridae (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) delle regioni Italiane XII. l'Umbria.). Nematologia Mediterranea. 19 (2), 279-289.
Samaali B M, Toumi A, Hamdane A M, Kallel S, 2019. Study of distribution and analysis of the transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus in northern Tunisian vineyards. Journal of New Sciences. 4040-4047. http://www.jnsciences.org/index.php?option=com_attachments&task=download&id=559
Sivakumar M, Poornima K, Mani M P, Maheswari R U, 2003. Diversity of plant parasitic nematodes in western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Biodiversity and Management of Nematodes in Cropping Systems for Sustainable Agriculture, Jaipur, India, 11-13 November, 2002. [ed. by Singh R V, Pankaj, Dhawan S C, Gaur H S]. New Delhi, India: Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute. 15-18.
TEKINEL N, DOLAR M S, NAS Z, BILGIN N, SALIH H, SALCAN Y, 1971. A study of infectious degeneration (fanleaf) in vineyards of the Mediterranean region. (Akdeniz bolgesi baglarmda bulasik soysuzlasma (fanleaf) 'nin arastinlmasi.). Bitki Koruma Bulteni. 11 (4), 225-246.
Troncoso A, Cantos M, Paneque P, Paneque G, Weiland C, Perez-Camacho F, 2004. GFLV-infection and in vitro behaviour of infected plant material of three typical Andalusian grapevine cultivars. Acta Horticulturae. 359-365. http://www.actahort.org
Vallotton R, Perrier J J, 1990. Nematode vectors of viruses from the vineyards in Romansh Switzerland and Tessin. (Les nématodes vecteurs de virus dans vignobles de Suisse romande et du Tessin.). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture. 22 (1), 53-58.
Venetskaya A L, 1982. Occurrence of Xiphinema, vectors of viruses of grapevine. In: Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rasteneiĭ (Biologicheskie osnovy bor'by s nematodami). [ed. by : Gus'kova LA, Chumakova AE]. Leningrad, USSR: VIZR. 35-37.
Villate L, Fievet V, Hanse B, Delemarre F, Plantard O, Esmenjaud D, Helden M van, 2008. Spatial distribution of the dagger nematode Xiphinema index and its associated Grapevine fanleaf virus in French vineyard. Phytopathology. 98 (8), 942-948. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-98-8-0942
Walter B, Demangeat G, 1995. Grapevine nepoviruses. II. Modes of contamination. (Les virus du court-noué de la vigne. II. Les voies de la contamination.). Progrès Agricole et Viticole. 112 (13/14), 295-303.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/