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Datasheet

Xiphinema diversicaudatum
(dagger nematode)

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Datasheet

Xiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xiphinema diversicaudatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dagger nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Adenophorea
  •         Order: Dorylaimida
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.
TitleOdontophore region of X. diversicaudatum
CaptionA transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.
Odontophore region of X. diversicaudatumA transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.Derek J.F. Brown
An area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.
TitleSymptoms on raspberry plantation
CaptionAn area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
An area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.
Symptoms on raspberry plantationAn area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.Derek J.F. Brown
A 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
TitleSymptoms on barley plant
CaptionA 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
Symptoms on barley plantA 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.Derek J.F. Brown
'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
TitleSymptoms on barley crop
Caption'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
Symptoms on barley crop'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.Derek J.F. Brown
Necrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.
TitleNecrotic lesions in Nicotiana clevelandii
CaptionNecrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.
CopyrightScottish Crop Research Institute
Necrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.
Necrotic lesions in Nicotiana clevelandiiNecrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.Scottish Crop Research Institute
TitleA female Xiphinema diversicaudatum female
Caption
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A female Xiphinema diversicaudatum femaleDerek J.F. Brown
Vein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.
TitleVein yellowing in elderberry
CaptionVein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.
CopyrightScottish Crop Research Institute
Vein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.
Vein yellowing in elderberryVein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.Scottish Crop Research Institute

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939

Preferred Common Name

  • dagger nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Dorylaimus (Longidorus) diversicaudatus Micoletzky, 1927
  • Dorylaimus (Longidorus) elongatus apud Micoletzky, 1923
  • Longidorus diversicaudatus (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne & Swanger, 1936
  • Xiphinema (Diversiphinema) diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Cohn & Sher, 1972
  • Xiphinema amarantum Macara, 1970
  • Xiphinema basiri apud Javed, 1983
  • Xiphinema israeliae apud Cohn, 1969, Cohn & Mordechai, 1969
  • Xiphinema paraelongatum Altherr, 1958
  • Xiphinema sahelense apud Riffle, 1968, 1970
  • Xiphinema seredouense apud Luc, 1958

EPPO code

  • XIPHDI (Xiphinema diversicaudatum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Adenophorea
  •                 Order: Dorylaimida
  •                     Family: Xiphinematidae
  •                         Genus: Xiphinema
  •                             Species: Xiphinema diversicaudatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Micoletzky (1923) identified a single eggless female nematode recovered from alluvium in the Volga river, Russia, as Dorylaimus (Longidorus) elongatus. Subsequently, Micoletzky (1927) included this specimen with two male and one juvenile nematodes, obtained from alluvium dredged from the Obwa and Wjatka rivers near to where they join the Kama river, Russia, and used them to describe Dorylaimus (Sg. Longidorus) diversicaudatus nov. spec. Thorne and Swanger (1936) raised the subgenus to generic rank, thus Micoletzky's (1927) species became Longidorus diversicaudatus. Thorne (1939), in a monograph on the Dorylaimoidea, transferred the species to the Xiphinema genus and amended the specific name to X. diversicaudatum to make it comply with the correct gender of the genus.

Franz (1942) believed Dorylaimus cateri var. parvus f. rotundatus sf. diversicaudatus reported by Micoletzky (1922) to be X. diversicaudatum. However this species is synonymous with Eudorylaimus junctus (Andrassy, 1959). Also, Altherr (1958) originally described X. paraelongatum but subsequently Luc and Tarjan (1963) synonymized this species with X. diversicaudatum. Xiphinema diversicaudatum was redescribed by Goodey et al. (1960) and subsequently by Pitcher et al. (1974) who also designated a new lectotype male specimen and confirmed the presence of a Z-pseudo-organ in the genital tracts of females.

Thorne (1939), in his monograph on the Dorylaimoidea, provided a misleading figure when describing X. diversicaudatum. He identified specimens collected in the states of Utah and Virginia, USA, as being X. diversicaudatum and stated that the nematodes from Utah 'were practically identical (with type specimens from Russia) except for their slightly longer, more robust, tails'. Subsequently, Thorne (1961) noted that he used the specimens from Utah to amend the original description of the species. However, drawings of X. diversicaudatum presented in Thorne (1939) were prepared from the nematodes from Virginia. If these specimens were of a different species this might explain why they differed from the drawings provided by Micoletzky (1923, 1927). Goodey et al. (1960), noted the apparent differences in tail shape in the drawings provided by Thorne (1939) with those prepared by Micoletzky (1923, 1927) and also that the values for magnification given by Thorne (1939) were incorrect and that in a drawing of the anterior end of a specimen two basal rings were included for the guiding sheath. Therefore, Thorne (1939) possibly identified X. diversicaudatum only from Utah and the specimens from Virginia probably refer to another species.

Thorne (1939) correctly reported that X. diversicaudatum was described by Micoletzky (1923, 1927) from specimens from Russia. However, he subsequently reported (Thorne, 1961) that the specimens came from soil in Austria. Micoletzky was Austrian and Thorne probably confused the author's birthplace with the country of origin of the type specimens of X. diversicaudatum.

Description

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X. diversicaudatum are long (4-6 mm), cylindrical (vermiform) nematodes assuming a J-shape when heat-killed and relaxed. Body cuticle smooth, 3-4 µm thick at mid-body. Lateral chords broad with body pores in a single line in the oesophageal region and irregular posterior, forming a single or double row. Cephalic region smoothly rounded, continuous with body contour. Lips fused with 6+10 circlets of papillae. Amphids stirrup-shaped with amphidial apertures broad slits extending for almost the entire lap widith. Odontostyle elongate, needle-shaped, heavily sclerotized. Guiding apparatus tubular with a strongly sclerotized posterior guide ring and a fold in the guiding sheath giving the appearance of a light sclerotized anterior ring. Guide ring located near the odontostyle/odonotphore junction. Proximal end of the odontostyle forked at its junction with the odontophore. Strongly developed odontophore with prominent posterior tripartite flanges to which the protractor muscles are attached.

Oesosphagus comprising anteriorly a narrow, cylindrical part, usually looped back on itself, and posteriorly an expanded, muscular, cylindrical (oesophageal) bulb containing glands. The dorsal gland nucleus situated at the same level of its orifice, which opens into the lumen of the oesophageal bulb, and more developed than the ventrosublateral nuclei. A short mucro resembling the spear tip present in the wall of the oeseophagus and situated slightly posterior to the base of the odontophore. Nerve ring encircling the anterior section of oesophagus situated slightly posterior to the base of the ondontophore. Oesophago-intestinal valve conoid-rounded. Hemizonid prominent. Intestine simple, pre-rectum well developed and several anal body widths long.

Anus a transverse slit. Tail short, dorsally convex-conoid, ventrally somewhat flattened usually with a short, terminal, digitate, bluntly-rounded peg. Inner cuticle layer with radial striations which do not extend into the digitate peg.

Male:
As described above but with genital tract comprising two testes, one out-stretched anteriorly and the other reflexed. Vas deferens usually filled with spindle-shaped sperm. Paired supplementary papillae slightly anterior to the anal opening followed by 2-5 well developed, occasionaly the final papillae is only rudimentary, ventromedian supplementary papillae extending along approximately 150-200 µm of body. Strong copulatory muscle present in region of the supplements; responsible for strong curvature of tail. Spicules robust, ventrally curved near middle; short, lateral guiding pieces present.

Morphometrics after Goodey et al., 1960; English specimens (n=33): L = 4.1-6.2 (4.9) mm; a = 57-96 (76); b = 7.4-11.3 (8.8); c = 55-100 (78); T% = 47-67 (58); odontostyle = 131-153 (143) µm; odontophore = 72-90 (83) µm; spicules = 69-81 (76) µm; lateral guiding pieces of spicules = 16.5-20.7 (18) µm.

Female:
As described above. Culva a transverse slit situated at about 40% of the body length from the anterior. Genital tracts amphidelphic, reflexed, symmetrical. Uteri adjacent to vagina forming a well developed ovijector. Each oviduct and uterus joined through a sphincter-Z. A prominent pseudo-Z organ containing 10-20 irregular globular bodies present in each uterus.

Morphometrics after Goodey et al., 1960; English speciments (n=43): L = 4.0-5.5 (4.9) mm; a = 57-92 (74); b = 6.6-11.4 (9.1); c = 61-134 (78); V% = 39.46 (43); odontostyle = 130-157 (143) µm; odontophore = 70-97 (85) µm.

Juveniles:
Four juvenile stages which can be distinguished by the lengths of their body and functional and replacement odontostyles; replacement odontostyle length similar to functional odontostyle length of subsequent stage. Pre-adult stage juveniles have digitate tail similar to adult and younger stages have more tapering tails lacking a distinct digitate peg. First stage juvenile tail elongate conoid, ventrally arcuate, with terminal fifth being hyaline.

Morphometrics after Pitcher et al., 1974; Stage 1 (n=1), body length = 1.13 mm; functional odontostyle = 56 µm; replacement odontostyle 73 µm. Stage 2 (n=7), body length = 1.86 (1.44-2.33) mm; functional odontostyle = 80 (71-89) µm; replacement odontostyle 105 (85-120) µm. Stage 3 (n=11), body length = 2.53 (2.17-2.71) mm; functional odontostyle = 103 )98-106) µm; replacement odontostyle 127 (121-133) µm. Stage 4 (n=4), body length = 3.68 (3.44-4.06) mm; functional odontostyle = 123 (117-130) µm; relacement odontostyle 151 (142-158) µm.

Eggs:
Uterine eggs approximately 200 x 45 µm. Up to four eggs present in a uterus at one time.

For further information of the morphology of X. diversicaudatum see Goodey et al (1960), Pitcher et al., (1974) and Hunt (1993), and Brown and Topham (1984, 1985) provide information of morphometric variability between populations of the nematode.

Distribution

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X. diversicaudatum is widespread in western and eastern Europe and western Russia but has not been reported from Finland, Romania and southern Mediterranean countries (Brown, 1983; Brown and Taylor, 1987; Brown et al., 1990). Cohn (1969) reported that the species occurred in Israel, but susbsequently these nematodes were identified as X. israeliae (Luc et al., 1982). Also, X. paraelongatum is now recognized as a junior synonym of X. diversicaudatum (Luc and Tarjan, 1963). A report of X. diversicaudatum from the island of Kos, Greece (Terlidou, 1967) requires confirmation (Brown, 1983).

Outside Europe the species has been confirmed as being present only in New Zealand and California, USA (Brown, 1983). In California, the species was known to exist at three sites which were subsequently treated with soil sterilants. However, during the early 1980s specimens of X. diversicaudatum were recovered from one of these sites, from soil in a private garden in San Diego (Brown, 1983). Thorne (1939) reported X. diversicaudatum from Utah and Virginia, USA, but some of these specimens were probably incorrectly identified and only those from Utah may represent X. diversicaudatum (Brown, 1983). Also, Schindler (1957) reported X. diversicaudatum to be widespread in glasshouse roses in 14 states in northeastern USA but the species has probably been eradicated from these cultures (Brown, 1983). Riffle (1968, 1970) reported X. diversicaudatum associated with Pinus ponderosa in New Mexico, USA, but subsequently these nematodes were identified as X. sahelense (Brown, 1983).

In Ontario, Canada, X. diversicaudatum was reported associated with strawberry and glasshouse grown roses (Townshend, 1961; 1966) but sampling during the 1980s failed to detect the nematode. It is concluded that X. diversicaudatum has been eradicated from this region and thus no longer exists in Canada (Brown, 1983). In Australia, X. diversicaudatum was reported from Victoria and Queensland (Colbran, 1964; Stubbs, 1971) but specimens from the latter state were subsequently identified as representing X. basiri and the species has not been detected in Victoria since the first report. Therefore, X. diversicaudatum probably no longer exists in Australia (Brown, 1983). Specimens originally identified as X. diversicaudatum from Equatorial Guinea (Luc, 1958) and Malawi (Saka and Siddiqi, 1979) were subsequently used to describe X. seredouense from the former country (Luc, 1975) and X. limbeense and X. malawiense from Malawi (Brown et al., 1983). Reports of X. diversicaudatum occurring in countries outside Europe, for example Argentina, Guam, India and Trinidad (Reinking and Radewald, 1961; Moreno, 1968; Singh, 1968; Acharya et al., 1988), require the species identification to be confirmed, and probably refer to other species.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Equatorial GuineaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
MalawiAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresent, Localized

Asia

IndiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-DelhiPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-OdishaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent, LocalizedNative
BelgiumPresent, Widespread
BulgariaPresent, Localized
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent, Localized
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, LocalizedNative
FrancePresent, Widespread
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreeceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
IrelandPresent, Localized
ItalyPresent, Widespread
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
NorwayPresent, Localized
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent, Widespread
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent, Localized
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Central RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Southern RussiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent, Localized
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Localized
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-Channel IslandsPresent, LocalizedNative

North America

CanadaAbsent, Eradicated
-OntarioAbsent, Eradicated
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
United StatesPresent, Few occurrences
-CaliforniaPresent, Few occurrences
-IndianaAbsent, Eradicated
-New MexicoAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-UtahAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-VirginiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, Eradicated
-QueenslandAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-VictoriaAbsent, Eradicated
GuamAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
New ZealandPresent, Localized

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Risk of Introduction

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X. diversicaudatum is not a quarantine organism but arabis mosaic nepovirus, which it transmits, is of quarantine significance for the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) and, although not listed by the European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) as a quarantine pest, it is listed by the European Community Plant Health Directive and given an Annex designation of II/A2 (Smith et al., 1992).

Hosts/Species Affected

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X. diversicaudatum has an extensive host range. It is most frequently associated with plant species growing in temperate arable, permanent pasture and deciduous woodland soils and much less frequently with coniferous, scrubland and moorland plants. (Thomas, 1970; Pitcher et al., 1974; Taylor and Brown, 1976, 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeWild host
    Allium porrum (leek)LiliaceaeWild host
      Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
        Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeWild host
          Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar)CupressaceaeWild host
            Chamomilla suaveolens (Rounded chamomile)AsteraceaeWild host
              Chrysanthemum coronarium (garland chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeWild host
                Crataegus laevigataRosaceaeWild host
                  Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeWild host
                    Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeWild host
                      Fagus sylvatica (common beech)FagaceaeWild host
                        Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                          Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeWild host
                            Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeWild host
                              Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeHabitat/association
                                Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeWild host
                                  Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)RosaceaeWild host
                                    Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)LamiaceaeWild host
                                      Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeWild host
                                        Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeUnknown
                                        Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeMain
                                          Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                            Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
                                              Prunus spinosa (blackthorn)RosaceaeMain
                                                Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeWild host
                                                  Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
                                                    Rosa canina (Dog rose)RosaceaeMain
                                                      Rosa chinensis (China rose)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                      Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                        Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                          Sambucus nigra (elder)CaprifoliaceaeWild host
                                                            Senecio vulgarisAsteraceaeWild host
                                                              Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                  Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeWild host
                                                                    Tussilago farfara (Colt's-foot)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                      Veronica (Speedwell)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
                                                                        Viburnum tinusCaprifoliaceaeOther
                                                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain

                                                                            Growth Stages

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                                                                            Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                            Symptoms

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                                                                            Feeding by X. diversicaudatum causes characteristic root-tip galling which can result in dwarfing of the whole plant. This reduction in growth can reduce plant crop yield. Indirect damage can result from the nematodes ability to transmit arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses (SLRSV) (Pitcher et al., 1974; Taylor and Brown, 1997).

                                                                            List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                            SignLife StagesType
                                                                            Roots / galls at tip
                                                                            Roots / reduced root system
                                                                            Whole plant / dwarfing

                                                                            Biology and Ecology

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                                                                            X. diversicaudatum has six stages: the egg, four juvenile stages and the adult. The female deposits eggs in the soil and hatching occurs when development of the first juvenile stage is complete. The juveniles are separated by a moult in which the cuticle separates from the underlying hypodermis (apolysis), the new cuticle is formed, and the old cuticle is shed (ecdysis), including the lining of the oesophagus together with the odontostyle. The juvenile stages can be distinguished by measurement of the functional odontostyle and the replacement odontostyle which is located in the oesophagus.

                                                                            The first stage juvenile is readily distinguished by the position of the replacement odontostyle which lies within the odontophore, with its anterior tip just posterior to the base of the functional odontostyle. The length of the replacement odontostyle is similar to that of the functional odontostyle of the subsequent life-stage. In southeastern England X. diversicaudatum was considered to take 2 years to develop from egg to adult and the adult to have a life-span of 3-5 years (Flegg, 1968). However, under temperate conditions this species probably completes its life-cycle within the growing season.

                                                                            Under laboratory conditions at 18°C, with strawberry as the host, X. diversicaudatum females survived for ca 60 weeks. The nematodes had a reproductive span of 54 weeks and produced ca 180-200 progeny, which was equivalent to one egg every 21 day degrees above a threshold temperature of 5°C. Development from egg to adult took ca 12 weeks, being equivalent to 1092 day degrees above 5°C (Brown and Coiro, 1983).

                                                                            In a comprehensive survey of the geographical distribution of longidorid nematodes in the British Isles, Taylor and Brown (1976) reported X. diversicaudatum to be associated with soils with an average sand particle fraction of 53%. Similarly, in Spain the species was associated with sandy soils (Arias et al., 1986). In Switzerland, X. diversicaudatum was found associated with soils derived from siliceous rock and not in soils originating from calcareous rock (Klingler et al., 1983).

                                                                            Distribution of X. diversicaudatum in the soil profile is associated with that of the host plant species with soil depth apparently having little effect on the nematodes life-cycle or the proportion of life-stages (Flegg, 1968). In England, X. diversicaudatum occurs to a depth of 60-100 cm, but numbers decrease below a depth of ca 20 cm (Harrison and Winslow, 1961; Flegg, 1968; Taylor and Thomas, 1968). At two sites in southern England and eastern Scotland, in undisturbed soil and at a cultivated site, respectively, the horizontal distribution of X. diversicaudatum remained largely unchanged for 30 and 24 years, respectively. At both sites the populations levels of the nematode had significantly reduced during these periods, probably as a result of climatic conditions providing drier habitats (Taylor et al., 1994). X. diversicaudatum frequently occurs in association with other longidorid species and in Britain was positively associated with Longidorus caespiticola, especially in Wales (Taylor and Brown, 1976).

                                                                            Feeding by X. diversicaudatum, when the nematode occurs in large numbers, can cause direct damage to crop plant species. However, the economic impact of the nematode results from it being the natural vector of a range of serological and symptomatological variants of arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot (SLRSV) nepoviruses which cause diseases in a wide range of crops. These viruses affect a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops and recently in the Fribourg region of Switzerland a variant of ArMV, naturally transmitted by X. diversicaudatum was identified causing a yellowing disease of barley cv. Express (Ramel et al., 1995). This is the first record of a nepovirus causing a disease in a graminaceous crop.

                                                                            Natural enemies

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                                                                            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                            Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen

                                                                            Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                            Predacious nematodes are present in the Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Aphelenchoididae and Diplogasterida, but little information is available concerning their predation of X. diversicaudatum (Taylor and Brown, 1997). The endospore-forming bacterial parasite Pasteuria penetrans is widely distributed in agricultural soils and in a peach orchard in Italy was the principal antagonist affecting X. diversicaudatum. However, the parasitism rates were low and infected nematodes survived infection, with some specimens able to reproduce (Ciancio, 1995). The fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was isolated from X. diversicaudatum in southern Italy and in in vitro tests juveniles and adults became parasitized by the fungus (Ciancio et al., 1986).

                                                                            Pathway Vectors

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                                                                            VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                            Land vehiclesIn soil. Yes
                                                                            Soil, sand and gravel Yes

                                                                            Plant Trade

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                                                                            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                            Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                            Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                            Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                            Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                            Bark
                                                                            Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                            Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                            Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                            Leaves
                                                                            Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                            True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                            Wood

                                                                            Impact

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                                                                            X. diversicaudatum, frequently in association with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) and Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV), is widespread throughout Europe, Eastern Europe and western regions of the former Soviet Union. The nematode and ArMV are present in localized areas of New Zealand (Taylor and Brown, 1997). The nematode causes direct damage by feeding on a wide range of fruit, ornamental and vegetable crops. However, X. diversicaudatum is of most economic importance due to its ability to transmit ArMV and SLRSV, with these viruses able to render some infected crops as unmarketable and in some instances to kill infected plants directly, or through subsequent infection by secondary pathogens.

                                                                            Detection and Inspection

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                                                                            Reliable detection of X. diversicaudatum requires their recovery from moist soil samples. Several methods are available to achieve this, for example, decanting and sieving, centrifugal flotation, elutriation (Southey, 1986; Brown and Boag, 1988). A polytomous identification for Xiphenema species prepared by Loof and Luc (1990) can be used to confirm correct identification of specimens recovered from a soil sample. This is available on floppy disk from Dr P. Baujard, MNHN, Paris, France.

                                                                            Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                            In their revised polytomous key for the identifiction of Xiphinema species Loof and Luc (1990) established several groups of Xiphinema species based on morphological similarities of the species. X. diversicaudatum was placed in Group 5, comprised of those species with a pseudo-Z organ. Several species in this group are morphologically similar to X. diversicaudatum, such as X. coxi europaeum and X. artemisiae. Several species in Group 8, comprised of species without a pseudo-Z organ, are morphologically, but not anatomically, similar to X. diversicaudatum, for example, X. index. However, this identification key, and subsequent supplements (Loof and Luc, 1993; Loof et al., 1996), provide detailed information for readily distinguishing X. diversicaudatum from other morphologically similar species.

                                                                            Most longidorid and trichodorid nematodes, but apparently not members of the Xiphinema americanum-group (Cohn, 1975), induce root tip galls or swellings when feeding. These symptoms of nematode feeding, and the resulting affects to plant growth are similar to those caused by X. diversicaudatum. Also, disease symptoms in plants caused by nepoviruses transmitted by longidorid virus-vector species can be similar to, and may be confused with those caused by arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses transmitted by X. diversicaudatum (Brown, 1997; Brown and Trudgill, 1997; Duarte and Brown, 1997; Taylor and Brown, 1997).

                                                                            Prevention and Control

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                                                                            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                            Cultural Control

                                                                            As a result of the extensive plant host range of X. diversicaudatum little evidence is available of the satisfactory control of the nematode by cultural methods.

                                                                            Biological Control

                                                                            Little information is available of the satisfactory biological control of X. diversicaudatum (see Natural Enemies).

                                                                            Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                            Little information is available of plant resistance directly affecting X. diversicaudatum, although some work has been successful in developing transgenic resistance to arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot (SLRSV) nepoviruses (Brown et al., 1995; Kreiah et al., 1996; Taylor and Brown, 1997).

                                                                            Chemical Control

                                                                            The application of chemical nematicides has proved effective in controlling virus-vector nematodes, including X. diversicaudatum, with commercial application rates of nematicides achieving an 80-90% reduction of nematodes in the upper 40-60 cm of soil (Thomason and McKenry, 1975). As a result of the long life-cycles and slow reproduction rates of virus-vector nematodes such chemical treatments provide protection to annual and short term perennial crops from direct damage by these nematodes. However, control is much shorter when the crop is affected by either of the nepoviruses transmitted by X. diversicaudatum, as even very small numbers of the vector species are sufficient for efficient transmission of these viruses.

                                                                            Fumigant nematicides such as 1,3 dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane-1,3 dichloropropene mixture (DD); methyl isothiocyanate precursor compounds such as dazomet and metham sodium; and methyl isothiocyanate mixtures have been reported to give good control of X. diversicaudatum (Harrison et al., 1963; Peachey and Brown, 1965; Peachey et al., 1965; Thresh et al., 1972; McNamara et al., 1973; Pitcher and McNamara, 1973; Scotto la Massese et al., 1973). Virus transmission by X. diversicaudatum has been prevented in pot experiments by application of carbamate chemicals probably as a result of the temporary nematostasis induced by these chemicals (Taylor and Gordon, 1970).

                                                                            The phytoalexin rishitin, produced in potato tissue challenged by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, has been shown to have repellent and nematicidal effects against X. diversicaudatum in laboratory tests (Alphey et al., 1988). Also, the plant-derived sugar analogue (2R, 3R, 4R, 5R)-2, 5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine-3, 4-diol, also known as DMDP (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3, 4-dihydroxypyrrolidine), from tropical legumes in the genera Lonchocarpus and Derris, applied as a soil drench to pots inhibited virus acquisition, transmission and root galling by X. diversicaudatum (Birch et al., 1992, 1993).

                                                                            References

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                                                                            Wang XinRong, Bosselut, N., Castagnone, C., Voisin, R., Abad, P., Esmenjaud, D., 2003. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction identification of single individuals of the longidorid nematodes Xiphinema index, X. diversicaudatum, X. vuittenezi, and X. italiae using specific primers from ribosomal genes. Phytopathology, 93(2), 160-166. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.2.160

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                                                                            Adekunle O K, Saurabh Kulshrestha, Ramdeen Prasad, Vipin Hallan, Gaurav Raikhy, Neeraj Verma, Raja Ram, Sanjay Kumar, Zaidi A A, 2006. Plant parasitic and vector nematodes associated with Asiatic and Oriental hybrid lilies. Bioresource Technology. 97 (3), 364-371. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09608524 DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.012

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                                                                            GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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