Xiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Species Vectored
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939
Preferred Common Name
- dagger nematode
Other Scientific Names
- Dorylaimus (Longidorus) diversicaudatus Micoletzky, 1927
- Dorylaimus (Longidorus) elongatus apud Micoletzky, 1923
- Longidorus diversicaudatus (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne & Swanger, 1936
- Xiphinema (Diversiphinema) diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Cohn & Sher, 1972
- Xiphinema amarantum Macara, 1970
- Xiphinema basiri apud Javed, 1983
- Xiphinema israeliae apud Cohn, 1969, Cohn & Mordechai, 1969
- Xiphinema paraelongatum Altherr, 1958
- Xiphinema sahelense apud Riffle, 1968, 1970
- Xiphinema seredouense apud Luc, 1958
- XIPHDI (Xiphinema diversicaudatum)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Class: Adenophorea
- Order: Dorylaimida
- Family: Xiphinematidae
- Genus: Xiphinema
- Species: Xiphinema diversicaudatum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Micoletzky (1923) identified a single eggless female nematode recovered from alluvium in the Volga river, Russia, as Dorylaimus (Longidorus) elongatus. Subsequently, Micoletzky (1927) included this specimen with two male and one juvenile nematodes, obtained from alluvium dredged from the Obwa and Wjatka rivers near to where they join the Kama river, Russia, and used them to describe Dorylaimus (Sg. Longidorus) diversicaudatus nov. spec. Thorne and Swanger (1936) raised the subgenus to generic rank, thus Micoletzky's (1927) species became Longidorus diversicaudatus. Thorne (1939), in a monograph on the Dorylaimoidea, transferred the species to the Xiphinema genus and amended the specific name to X. diversicaudatum to make it comply with the correct gender of the genus.
Franz (1942) believed Dorylaimus cateri var. parvus f. rotundatus sf. diversicaudatus reported by Micoletzky (1922) to be X. diversicaudatum. However this species is synonymous with Eudorylaimus junctus (Andrassy, 1959). Also, Altherr (1958) originally described X. paraelongatum but subsequently Luc and Tarjan (1963) synonymized this species with X. diversicaudatum. Xiphinema diversicaudatum was redescribed by Goodey et al. (1960) and subsequently by Pitcher et al. (1974) who also designated a new lectotype male specimen and confirmed the presence of a Z-pseudo-organ in the genital tracts of females.
Thorne (1939), in his monograph on the Dorylaimoidea, provided a misleading figure when describing X. diversicaudatum. He identified specimens collected in the states of Utah and Virginia, USA, as being X. diversicaudatum and stated that the nematodes from Utah 'were practically identical (with type specimens from Russia) except for their slightly longer, more robust, tails'. Subsequently, Thorne (1961) noted that he used the specimens from Utah to amend the original description of the species. However, drawings of X. diversicaudatum presented in Thorne (1939) were prepared from the nematodes from Virginia. If these specimens were of a different species this might explain why they differed from the drawings provided by Micoletzky (1923, 1927). Goodey et al. (1960), noted the apparent differences in tail shape in the drawings provided by Thorne (1939) with those prepared by Micoletzky (1923, 1927) and also that the values for magnification given by Thorne (1939) were incorrect and that in a drawing of the anterior end of a specimen two basal rings were included for the guiding sheath. Therefore, Thorne (1939) possibly identified X. diversicaudatum only from Utah and the specimens from Virginia probably refer to another species.
Thorne (1939) correctly reported that X. diversicaudatum was described by Micoletzky (1923, 1927) from specimens from Russia. However, he subsequently reported (Thorne, 1961) that the specimens came from soil in Austria. Micoletzky was Austrian and Thorne probably confused the author's birthplace with the country of origin of the type specimens of X. diversicaudatum.
DescriptionTop of page X. diversicaudatum are long (4-6 mm), cylindrical (vermiform) nematodes assuming a J-shape when heat-killed and relaxed. Body cuticle smooth, 3-4 µm thick at mid-body. Lateral chords broad with body pores in a single line in the oesophageal region and irregular posterior, forming a single or double row. Cephalic region smoothly rounded, continuous with body contour. Lips fused with 6+10 circlets of papillae. Amphids stirrup-shaped with amphidial apertures broad slits extending for almost the entire lap widith. Odontostyle elongate, needle-shaped, heavily sclerotized. Guiding apparatus tubular with a strongly sclerotized posterior guide ring and a fold in the guiding sheath giving the appearance of a light sclerotized anterior ring. Guide ring located near the odontostyle/odonotphore junction. Proximal end of the odontostyle forked at its junction with the odontophore. Strongly developed odontophore with prominent posterior tripartite flanges to which the protractor muscles are attached.
Oesosphagus comprising anteriorly a narrow, cylindrical part, usually looped back on itself, and posteriorly an expanded, muscular, cylindrical (oesophageal) bulb containing glands. The dorsal gland nucleus situated at the same level of its orifice, which opens into the lumen of the oesophageal bulb, and more developed than the ventrosublateral nuclei. A short mucro resembling the spear tip present in the wall of the oeseophagus and situated slightly posterior to the base of the odontophore. Nerve ring encircling the anterior section of oesophagus situated slightly posterior to the base of the ondontophore. Oesophago-intestinal valve conoid-rounded. Hemizonid prominent. Intestine simple, pre-rectum well developed and several anal body widths long.
Anus a transverse slit. Tail short, dorsally convex-conoid, ventrally somewhat flattened usually with a short, terminal, digitate, bluntly-rounded peg. Inner cuticle layer with radial striations which do not extend into the digitate peg.
As described above but with genital tract comprising two testes, one out-stretched anteriorly and the other reflexed. Vas deferens usually filled with spindle-shaped sperm. Paired supplementary papillae slightly anterior to the anal opening followed by 2-5 well developed, occasionaly the final papillae is only rudimentary, ventromedian supplementary papillae extending along approximately 150-200 µm of body. Strong copulatory muscle present in region of the supplements; responsible for strong curvature of tail. Spicules robust, ventrally curved near middle; short, lateral guiding pieces present.
Morphometrics after Goodey et al., 1960; English specimens (n=33): L = 4.1-6.2 (4.9) mm; a = 57-96 (76); b = 7.4-11.3 (8.8); c = 55-100 (78); T% = 47-67 (58); odontostyle = 131-153 (143) µm; odontophore = 72-90 (83) µm; spicules = 69-81 (76) µm; lateral guiding pieces of spicules = 16.5-20.7 (18) µm.
As described above. Culva a transverse slit situated at about 40% of the body length from the anterior. Genital tracts amphidelphic, reflexed, symmetrical. Uteri adjacent to vagina forming a well developed ovijector. Each oviduct and uterus joined through a sphincter-Z. A prominent pseudo-Z organ containing 10-20 irregular globular bodies present in each uterus.
Morphometrics after Goodey et al., 1960; English speciments (n=43): L = 4.0-5.5 (4.9) mm; a = 57-92 (74); b = 6.6-11.4 (9.1); c = 61-134 (78); V% = 39.46 (43); odontostyle = 130-157 (143) µm; odontophore = 70-97 (85) µm.
Four juvenile stages which can be distinguished by the lengths of their body and functional and replacement odontostyles; replacement odontostyle length similar to functional odontostyle length of subsequent stage. Pre-adult stage juveniles have digitate tail similar to adult and younger stages have more tapering tails lacking a distinct digitate peg. First stage juvenile tail elongate conoid, ventrally arcuate, with terminal fifth being hyaline.
Morphometrics after Pitcher et al., 1974; Stage 1 (n=1), body length = 1.13 mm; functional odontostyle = 56 µm; replacement odontostyle 73 µm. Stage 2 (n=7), body length = 1.86 (1.44-2.33) mm; functional odontostyle = 80 (71-89) µm; replacement odontostyle 105 (85-120) µm. Stage 3 (n=11), body length = 2.53 (2.17-2.71) mm; functional odontostyle = 103 )98-106) µm; replacement odontostyle 127 (121-133) µm. Stage 4 (n=4), body length = 3.68 (3.44-4.06) mm; functional odontostyle = 123 (117-130) µm; relacement odontostyle 151 (142-158) µm.
Uterine eggs approximately 200 x 45 µm. Up to four eggs present in a uterus at one time.
For further information of the morphology of X. diversicaudatum see Goodey et al (1960), Pitcher et al., (1974) and Hunt (1993), and Brown and Topham (1984, 1985) provide information of morphometric variability between populations of the nematode.
DistributionTop of page X. diversicaudatum is widespread in western and eastern Europe and western Russia but has not been reported from Finland, Romania and southern Mediterranean countries (Brown, 1983; Brown and Taylor, 1987; Brown et al., 1990). Cohn (1969) reported that the species occurred in Israel, but susbsequently these nematodes were identified as X. israeliae (Luc et al., 1982). Also, X. paraelongatum is now recognized as a junior synonym of X. diversicaudatum (Luc and Tarjan, 1963). A report of X. diversicaudatum from the island of Kos, Greece (Terlidou, 1967) requires confirmation (Brown, 1983).
Outside Europe the species has been confirmed as being present only in New Zealand and California, USA (Brown, 1983). In California, the species was known to exist at three sites which were subsequently treated with soil sterilants. However, during the early 1980s specimens of X. diversicaudatum were recovered from one of these sites, from soil in a private garden in San Diego (Brown, 1983). Thorne (1939) reported X. diversicaudatum from Utah and Virginia, USA, but some of these specimens were probably incorrectly identified and only those from Utah may represent X. diversicaudatum (Brown, 1983). Also, Schindler (1957) reported X. diversicaudatum to be widespread in glasshouse roses in 14 states in northeastern USA but the species has probably been eradicated from these cultures (Brown, 1983). Riffle (1968, 1970) reported X. diversicaudatum associated with Pinus ponderosa in New Mexico, USA, but subsequently these nematodes were identified as X. sahelense (Brown, 1983).
In Ontario, Canada, X. diversicaudatum was reported associated with strawberry and glasshouse grown roses (Townshend, 1961; 1966) but sampling during the 1980s failed to detect the nematode. It is concluded that X. diversicaudatum has been eradicated from this region and thus no longer exists in Canada (Brown, 1983). In Australia, X. diversicaudatum was reported from Victoria and Queensland (Colbran, 1964; Stubbs, 1971) but specimens from the latter state were subsequently identified as representing X. basiri and the species has not been detected in Victoria since the first report. Therefore, X. diversicaudatum probably no longer exists in Australia (Brown, 1983). Specimens originally identified as X. diversicaudatum from Equatorial Guinea (Luc, 1958) and Malawi (Saka and Siddiqi, 1979) were subsequently used to describe X. seredouense from the former country (Luc, 1975) and X. limbeense and X. malawiense from Malawi (Brown et al., 1983). Reports of X. diversicaudatum occurring in countries outside Europe, for example Argentina, Guam, India and Trinidad (Reinking and Radewald, 1961; Moreno, 1968; Singh, 1968; Acharya et al., 1988), require the species identification to be confirmed, and probably refer to other species.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|India||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|-Delhi||Present||Singh and Vinod, 2003|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Adekunle et al., 2006|
|-Odisha||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|Israel||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|Turkey||Present||Kepenekci, 2014; Kepenekci et al., 2014|
|Equatorial Guinea||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|Malawi||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|South Africa||Restricted distribution||Heyns and Coomans, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Canada||Eradicated||Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Ontario||Eradicated||Townshend, 1961; Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Present, few occurrences||Brown, 1983; Robbins and Brown, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-California||Present, few occurrences||Pitcher et al., 1974; Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Indiana||Eradicated||Schindler, 1957; Brown, 1983|
|-New Mexico||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|-Utah||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|-Virginia||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
Central America and Caribbean
|Trinidad and Tobago||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|Argentina||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|Austria||Indigenous, localized||Brown and Taylor, 1987|
|Belgium||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Bulgaria||Restricted distribution||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Croatia||Present||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Czech Republic||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Denmark||Restricted distribution||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|France||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Corsica||Present||Brown and Taylor, 1987|
|Germany||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Greece||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|Ireland||Restricted distribution||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Moldova||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Norway||Restricted distribution||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Poland||Present||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Portugal||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; Bravo and Lemos, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Azores||Present||Bravo and Lemos, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Madeira||Restricted distribution||Brown et al., 1992; Bravo and Lemos, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Russian Federation||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Central Russia||Widespread||Brown et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Southern Russia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Slovakia||Restricted distribution||Liskova et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Slovenia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2014|
|Spain||Restricted distribution||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Sweden||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Switzerland||Present||Brown and Taylor, 1987; Brown et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|UK||Widespread||Brown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Channel Islands||Indigenous, localized||Brown and Taylor, 1987|
|Ukraine||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Yugoslavia (former)||Indigenous, localized||Barsi, 1989|
|Australia||Eradicated||CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|-Queensland||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|-Victoria||Eradicated||Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
|Guam||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|New Zealand||Restricted distribution||Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page X. diversicaudatum is not a quarantine organism but arabis mosaic nepovirus, which it transmits, is of quarantine significance for the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) and, although not listed by the European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) as a quarantine pest, it is listed by the European Community Plant Health Directive and given an Annex designation of II/A2 (Smith et al., 1992).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page X. diversicaudatum has an extensive host range. It is most frequently associated with plant species growing in temperate arable, permanent pasture and deciduous woodland soils and much less frequently with coniferous, scrubland and moorland plants. (Thomas, 1970; Pitcher et al., 1974; Taylor and Brown, 1976, 1997).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)||Aceraceae||Wild host|
|Allium porrum (leek)||Liliaceae||Wild host|
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)||Brassicaceae||Wild host|
|Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar)||Cupressaceae||Wild host|
|Chamomilla suaveolens (Rounded chamomile)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Chrysanthemum coronarium (garland chrysanthemum)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus laevigata||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Cucumis sativus (cucumber)||Cucurbitaceae||Wild host|
|Daucus carota (carrot)||Apiaceae||Wild host|
|Fagus sylvatica (common beech)||Fagaceae||Wild host|
|Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Fraxinus excelsior (ash)||Oleaceae||Wild host|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Humulus lupulus (hop)||Cannabaceae||Habitat/association|
|Lactuca sativa (lettuce)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)||Lamiaceae||Wild host|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Wild host|
|Prunus domestica (plum)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus spinosa (blackthorn)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Pyrus communis (European pear)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Rosa canina (Dog rose)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Rubus idaeus (raspberry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Sambucus nigra (elder)||Caprifoliaceae||Wild host|
|Senecio vulgaris||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Wild host|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Wild host|
|Trifolium pratense (red clover)||Fabaceae||Wild host|
|Tussilago farfara (Colt's-foot)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Veronica (Speedwell)||Scrophulariaceae||Wild host|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Feeding by X. diversicaudatum causes characteristic root-tip galling which can result in dwarfing of the whole plant. This reduction in growth can reduce plant crop yield. Indirect damage can result from the nematodes ability to transmit arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses (SLRSV) (Pitcher et al., 1974; Taylor and Brown, 1997).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / galls at tip|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
Species VectoredTop of page Arabis mosaic virus (hop bare-bine)
Strawberry latent ringspot virus (latent ring spot of strawberry)
Biology and EcologyTop of page X. diversicaudatum has six stages: the egg, four juvenile stages and the adult. The female deposits eggs in the soil and hatching occurs when development of the first juvenile stage is complete. The juveniles are separated by a moult in which the cuticle separates from the underlying hypodermis (apolysis), the new cuticle is formed, and the old cuticle is shed (ecdysis), including the lining of the oesophagus together with the odontostyle. The juvenile stages can be distinguished by measurement of the functional odontostyle and the replacement odontostyle which is located in the oesophagus.
The first stage juvenile is readily distinguished by the position of the replacement odontostyle which lies within the odontophore, with its anterior tip just posterior to the base of the functional odontostyle. The length of the replacement odontostyle is similar to that of the functional odontostyle of the subsequent life-stage. In southeastern England X. diversicaudatum was considered to take 2 years to develop from egg to adult and the adult to have a life-span of 3-5 years (Flegg, 1968). However, under temperate conditions this species probably completes its life-cycle within the growing season.
Under laboratory conditions at 18°C, with strawberry as the host, X. diversicaudatum females survived for ca 60 weeks. The nematodes had a reproductive span of 54 weeks and produced ca 180-200 progeny, which was equivalent to one egg every 21 day degrees above a threshold temperature of 5°C. Development from egg to adult took ca 12 weeks, being equivalent to 1092 day degrees above 5°C (Brown and Coiro, 1983).
In a comprehensive survey of the geographical distribution of longidorid nematodes in the British Isles, Taylor and Brown (1976) reported X. diversicaudatum to be associated with soils with an average sand particle fraction of 53%. Similarly, in Spain the species was associated with sandy soils (Arias et al., 1986). In Switzerland, X. diversicaudatum was found associated with soils derived from siliceous rock and not in soils originating from calcareous rock (Klingler et al., 1983).
Distribution of X. diversicaudatum in the soil profile is associated with that of the host plant species with soil depth apparently having little effect on the nematodes life-cycle or the proportion of life-stages (Flegg, 1968). In England, X. diversicaudatum occurs to a depth of 60-100 cm, but numbers decrease below a depth of ca 20 cm (Harrison and Winslow, 1961; Flegg, 1968; Taylor and Thomas, 1968). At two sites in southern England and eastern Scotland, in undisturbed soil and at a cultivated site, respectively, the horizontal distribution of X. diversicaudatum remained largely unchanged for 30 and 24 years, respectively. At both sites the populations levels of the nematode had significantly reduced during these periods, probably as a result of climatic conditions providing drier habitats (Taylor et al., 1994). X. diversicaudatum frequently occurs in association with other longidorid species and in Britain was positively associated with Longidorus caespiticola, especially in Wales (Taylor and Brown, 1976).
Feeding by X. diversicaudatum, when the nematode occurs in large numbers, can cause direct damage to crop plant species. However, the economic impact of the nematode results from it being the natural vector of a range of serological and symptomatological variants of arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot (SLRSV) nepoviruses which cause diseases in a wide range of crops. These viruses affect a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops and recently in the Fribourg region of Switzerland a variant of ArMV, naturally transmitted by X. diversicaudatum was identified causing a yellowing disease of barley cv. Express (Ramel et al., 1995). This is the first record of a nepovirus causing a disease in a graminaceous crop.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Predacious nematodes are present in the Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Aphelenchoididae and Diplogasterida, but little information is available concerning their predation of X. diversicaudatum (Taylor and Brown, 1997). The endospore-forming bacterial parasite Pasteuria penetrans is widely distributed in agricultural soils and in a peach orchard in Italy was the principal antagonist affecting X. diversicaudatum. However, the parasitism rates were low and infected nematodes survived infection, with some specimens able to reproduce (Ciancio, 1995). The fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was isolated from X. diversicaudatum in southern Italy and in in vitro tests juveniles and adults became parasitized by the fungus (Ciancio et al., 1986).
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page
X. diversicaudatum, frequently in association with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) and Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV), is widespread throughout Europe, Eastern Europe and western regions of the former Soviet Union. The nematode and ArMV are present in localized areas of New Zealand (Taylor and Brown, 1997). The nematode causes direct damage by feeding on a wide range of fruit, ornamental and vegetable crops. However, X. diversicaudatum is of most economic importance due to its ability to transmit ArMV and SLRSV, with these viruses able to render some infected crops as unmarketable and in some instances to kill infected plants directly, or through subsequent infection by secondary pathogens.
Detection and InspectionTop of page Reliable detection of X. diversicaudatum requires their recovery from moist soil samples. Several methods are available to achieve this, for example, decanting and sieving, centrifugal flotation, elutriation (Southey, 1986; Brown and Boag, 1988). A polytomous identification for Xiphenema species prepared by Loof and Luc (1990) can be used to confirm correct identification of specimens recovered from a soil sample. This is available on floppy disk from Dr P. Baujard, MNHN, Paris, France.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page In their revised polytomous key for the identifiction of Xiphinema species Loof and Luc (1990) established several groups of Xiphinema species based on morphological similarities of the species. X. diversicaudatum was placed in Group 5, comprised of those species with a pseudo-Z organ. Several species in this group are morphologically similar to X. diversicaudatum, such as X. coxi europaeum and X. artemisiae. Several species in Group 8, comprised of species without a pseudo-Z organ, are morphologically, but not anatomically, similar to X. diversicaudatum, for example, X. index. However, this identification key, and subsequent supplements (Loof and Luc, 1993; Loof et al., 1996), provide detailed information for readily distinguishing X. diversicaudatum from other morphologically similar species.
Most longidorid and trichodorid nematodes, but apparently not members of the Xiphinema americanum-group (Cohn, 1975), induce root tip galls or swellings when feeding. These symptoms of nematode feeding, and the resulting affects to plant growth are similar to those caused by X. diversicaudatum. Also, disease symptoms in plants caused by nepoviruses transmitted by longidorid virus-vector species can be similar to, and may be confused with those caused by arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses transmitted by X. diversicaudatum (Brown, 1997; Brown and Trudgill, 1997; Duarte and Brown, 1997; Taylor and Brown, 1997).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
As a result of the extensive plant host range of X. diversicaudatum little evidence is available of the satisfactory control of the nematode by cultural methods.
Little information is available of the satisfactory biological control of X. diversicaudatum (see Natural Enemies).
Little information is available of plant resistance directly affecting X. diversicaudatum, although some work has been successful in developing transgenic resistance to arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot (SLRSV) nepoviruses (Brown et al., 1995; Kreiah et al., 1996; Taylor and Brown, 1997).
The application of chemical nematicides has proved effective in controlling virus-vector nematodes, including X. diversicaudatum, with commercial application rates of nematicides achieving an 80-90% reduction of nematodes in the upper 40-60 cm of soil (Thomason and McKenry, 1975). As a result of the long life-cycles and slow reproduction rates of virus-vector nematodes such chemical treatments provide protection to annual and short term perennial crops from direct damage by these nematodes. However, control is much shorter when the crop is affected by either of the nepoviruses transmitted by X. diversicaudatum, as even very small numbers of the vector species are sufficient for efficient transmission of these viruses.
Fumigant nematicides such as 1,3 dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane-1,3 dichloropropene mixture (DD); methyl isothiocyanate precursor compounds such as dazomet and metham sodium; and methyl isothiocyanate mixtures have been reported to give good control of X. diversicaudatum (Harrison et al., 1963; Peachey and Brown, 1965; Peachey et al., 1965; Thresh et al., 1972; McNamara et al., 1973; Pitcher and McNamara, 1973; Scotto la Massese et al., 1973). Virus transmission by X. diversicaudatum has been prevented in pot experiments by application of carbamate chemicals probably as a result of the temporary nematostasis induced by these chemicals (Taylor and Gordon, 1970).
The phytoalexin rishitin, produced in potato tissue challenged by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, has been shown to have repellent and nematicidal effects against X. diversicaudatum in laboratory tests (Alphey et al., 1988). Also, the plant-derived sugar analogue (2R, 3R, 4R, 5R)-2, 5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine-3, 4-diol, also known as DMDP (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3, 4-dihydroxypyrrolidine), from tropical legumes in the genera Lonchocarpus and Derris, applied as a soil drench to pots inhibited virus acquisition, transmission and root galling by X. diversicaudatum (Birch et al., 1992, 1993).
ReferencesTop of page
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