Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xiphinema diversicaudatum
(dagger nematode)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Xiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xiphinema diversicaudatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dagger nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Adenophorea
  •         Order: Dorylaimida
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.
TitleOdontophore region of X. diversicaudatum
CaptionA transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.
Odontophore region of X. diversicaudatumA transverse section of the odontophore region of Xiphinema diversicaudatum showing particles of strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus attached to the wall of the lumen, the site of retention in the vector.Derek J.F. Brown
An area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.
TitleSymptoms on raspberry plantation
CaptionAn area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
An area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.
Symptoms on raspberry plantationAn area of missing and severely stunted plants resulting from infection with strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum in a raspberry cv. Malling Jewel plantation in eastern Scotland.Derek J.F. Brown
A 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
TitleSymptoms on barley plant
CaptionA 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
Symptoms on barley plantA 'Yellow diseased' barley plant cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, showing the bright yellowing of the foliage caused by infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.Derek J.F. Brown
'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
TitleSymptoms on barley crop
Caption'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
Symptoms on barley crop'Yellow disease' in barley cv. Express growing in the Fribourg region, Switzerland, resulting from infection with arabis mosaic nepovirus transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum.Derek J.F. Brown
Necrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.
TitleNecrotic lesions in Nicotiana clevelandii
CaptionNecrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.
CopyrightScottish Crop Research Institute
Necrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.
Necrotic lesions in Nicotiana clevelandiiNecrotic local lesions in a leaf of N. clevelandii, 12 days after inoculation with ArMV.Scottish Crop Research Institute
TitleA female Xiphinema diversicaudatum female
Caption
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A female Xiphinema diversicaudatum femaleDerek J.F. Brown
Vein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.
TitleVein yellowing in elderberry
CaptionVein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.
CopyrightScottish Crop Research Institute
Vein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.
Vein yellowing in elderberryVein yellowing of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) leaf infected with ArMV.Scottish Crop Research Institute

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939

Preferred Common Name

  • dagger nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Dorylaimus (Longidorus) diversicaudatus Micoletzky, 1927
  • Dorylaimus (Longidorus) elongatus apud Micoletzky, 1923
  • Longidorus diversicaudatus (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne & Swanger, 1936
  • Xiphinema (Diversiphinema) diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Cohn & Sher, 1972
  • Xiphinema amarantum Macara, 1970
  • Xiphinema basiri apud Javed, 1983
  • Xiphinema israeliae apud Cohn, 1969, Cohn & Mordechai, 1969
  • Xiphinema paraelongatum Altherr, 1958
  • Xiphinema sahelense apud Riffle, 1968, 1970
  • Xiphinema seredouense apud Luc, 1958

EPPO code

  • XIPHDI (Xiphinema diversicaudatum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Adenophorea
  •                 Order: Dorylaimida
  •                     Family: Xiphinematidae
  •                         Genus: Xiphinema
  •                             Species: Xiphinema diversicaudatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Micoletzky (1923) identified a single eggless female nematode recovered from alluvium in the Volga river, Russia, as Dorylaimus (Longidorus) elongatus. Subsequently, Micoletzky (1927) included this specimen with two male and one juvenile nematodes, obtained from alluvium dredged from the Obwa and Wjatka rivers near to where they join the Kama river, Russia, and used them to describe Dorylaimus (Sg. Longidorus) diversicaudatus nov. spec. Thorne and Swanger (1936) raised the subgenus to generic rank, thus Micoletzky's (1927) species became Longidorus diversicaudatus. Thorne (1939), in a monograph on the Dorylaimoidea, transferred the species to the Xiphinema genus and amended the specific name to X. diversicaudatum to make it comply with the correct gender of the genus.

Franz (1942) believed Dorylaimus cateri var. parvus f. rotundatus sf. diversicaudatus reported by Micoletzky (1922) to be X. diversicaudatum. However this species is synonymous with Eudorylaimus junctus (Andrassy, 1959). Also, Altherr (1958) originally described X. paraelongatum but subsequently Luc and Tarjan (1963) synonymized this species with X. diversicaudatum. Xiphinema diversicaudatum was redescribed by Goodey et al. (1960) and subsequently by Pitcher et al. (1974) who also designated a new lectotype male specimen and confirmed the presence of a Z-pseudo-organ in the genital tracts of females.

Thorne (1939), in his monograph on the Dorylaimoidea, provided a misleading figure when describing X. diversicaudatum. He identified specimens collected in the states of Utah and Virginia, USA, as being X. diversicaudatum and stated that the nematodes from Utah 'were practically identical (with type specimens from Russia) except for their slightly longer, more robust, tails'. Subsequently, Thorne (1961) noted that he used the specimens from Utah to amend the original description of the species. However, drawings of X. diversicaudatum presented in Thorne (1939) were prepared from the nematodes from Virginia. If these specimens were of a different species this might explain why they differed from the drawings provided by Micoletzky (1923, 1927). Goodey et al. (1960), noted the apparent differences in tail shape in the drawings provided by Thorne (1939) with those prepared by Micoletzky (1923, 1927) and also that the values for magnification given by Thorne (1939) were incorrect and that in a drawing of the anterior end of a specimen two basal rings were included for the guiding sheath. Therefore, Thorne (1939) possibly identified X. diversicaudatum only from Utah and the specimens from Virginia probably refer to another species.

Thorne (1939) correctly reported that X. diversicaudatum was described by Micoletzky (1923, 1927) from specimens from Russia. However, he subsequently reported (Thorne, 1961) that the specimens came from soil in Austria. Micoletzky was Austrian and Thorne probably confused the author's birthplace with the country of origin of the type specimens of X. diversicaudatum.

Description

Top of page X. diversicaudatum are long (4-6 mm), cylindrical (vermiform) nematodes assuming a J-shape when heat-killed and relaxed. Body cuticle smooth, 3-4 µm thick at mid-body. Lateral chords broad with body pores in a single line in the oesophageal region and irregular posterior, forming a single or double row. Cephalic region smoothly rounded, continuous with body contour. Lips fused with 6+10 circlets of papillae. Amphids stirrup-shaped with amphidial apertures broad slits extending for almost the entire lap widith. Odontostyle elongate, needle-shaped, heavily sclerotized. Guiding apparatus tubular with a strongly sclerotized posterior guide ring and a fold in the guiding sheath giving the appearance of a light sclerotized anterior ring. Guide ring located near the odontostyle/odonotphore junction. Proximal end of the odontostyle forked at its junction with the odontophore. Strongly developed odontophore with prominent posterior tripartite flanges to which the protractor muscles are attached.

Oesosphagus comprising anteriorly a narrow, cylindrical part, usually looped back on itself, and posteriorly an expanded, muscular, cylindrical (oesophageal) bulb containing glands. The dorsal gland nucleus situated at the same level of its orifice, which opens into the lumen of the oesophageal bulb, and more developed than the ventrosublateral nuclei. A short mucro resembling the spear tip present in the wall of the oeseophagus and situated slightly posterior to the base of the odontophore. Nerve ring encircling the anterior section of oesophagus situated slightly posterior to the base of the ondontophore. Oesophago-intestinal valve conoid-rounded. Hemizonid prominent. Intestine simple, pre-rectum well developed and several anal body widths long.

Anus a transverse slit. Tail short, dorsally convex-conoid, ventrally somewhat flattened usually with a short, terminal, digitate, bluntly-rounded peg. Inner cuticle layer with radial striations which do not extend into the digitate peg.

Male:
As described above but with genital tract comprising two testes, one out-stretched anteriorly and the other reflexed. Vas deferens usually filled with spindle-shaped sperm. Paired supplementary papillae slightly anterior to the anal opening followed by 2-5 well developed, occasionaly the final papillae is only rudimentary, ventromedian supplementary papillae extending along approximately 150-200 µm of body. Strong copulatory muscle present in region of the supplements; responsible for strong curvature of tail. Spicules robust, ventrally curved near middle; short, lateral guiding pieces present.

Morphometrics after Goodey et al., 1960; English specimens (n=33): L = 4.1-6.2 (4.9) mm; a = 57-96 (76); b = 7.4-11.3 (8.8); c = 55-100 (78); T% = 47-67 (58); odontostyle = 131-153 (143) µm; odontophore = 72-90 (83) µm; spicules = 69-81 (76) µm; lateral guiding pieces of spicules = 16.5-20.7 (18) µm.

Female:
As described above. Culva a transverse slit situated at about 40% of the body length from the anterior. Genital tracts amphidelphic, reflexed, symmetrical. Uteri adjacent to vagina forming a well developed ovijector. Each oviduct and uterus joined through a sphincter-Z. A prominent pseudo-Z organ containing 10-20 irregular globular bodies present in each uterus.

Morphometrics after Goodey et al., 1960; English speciments (n=43): L = 4.0-5.5 (4.9) mm; a = 57-92 (74); b = 6.6-11.4 (9.1); c = 61-134 (78); V% = 39.46 (43); odontostyle = 130-157 (143) µm; odontophore = 70-97 (85) µm.

Juveniles:
Four juvenile stages which can be distinguished by the lengths of their body and functional and replacement odontostyles; replacement odontostyle length similar to functional odontostyle length of subsequent stage. Pre-adult stage juveniles have digitate tail similar to adult and younger stages have more tapering tails lacking a distinct digitate peg. First stage juvenile tail elongate conoid, ventrally arcuate, with terminal fifth being hyaline.

Morphometrics after Pitcher et al., 1974; Stage 1 (n=1), body length = 1.13 mm; functional odontostyle = 56 µm; replacement odontostyle 73 µm. Stage 2 (n=7), body length = 1.86 (1.44-2.33) mm; functional odontostyle = 80 (71-89) µm; replacement odontostyle 105 (85-120) µm. Stage 3 (n=11), body length = 2.53 (2.17-2.71) mm; functional odontostyle = 103 )98-106) µm; replacement odontostyle 127 (121-133) µm. Stage 4 (n=4), body length = 3.68 (3.44-4.06) mm; functional odontostyle = 123 (117-130) µm; relacement odontostyle 151 (142-158) µm.

Eggs:
Uterine eggs approximately 200 x 45 µm. Up to four eggs present in a uterus at one time.

For further information of the morphology of X. diversicaudatum see Goodey et al (1960), Pitcher et al., (1974) and Hunt (1993), and Brown and Topham (1984, 1985) provide information of morphometric variability between populations of the nematode.

Distribution

Top of page X. diversicaudatum is widespread in western and eastern Europe and western Russia but has not been reported from Finland, Romania and southern Mediterranean countries (Brown, 1983; Brown and Taylor, 1987; Brown et al., 1990). Cohn (1969) reported that the species occurred in Israel, but susbsequently these nematodes were identified as X. israeliae (Luc et al., 1982). Also, X. paraelongatum is now recognized as a junior synonym of X. diversicaudatum (Luc and Tarjan, 1963). A report of X. diversicaudatum from the island of Kos, Greece (Terlidou, 1967) requires confirmation (Brown, 1983).

Outside Europe the species has been confirmed as being present only in New Zealand and California, USA (Brown, 1983). In California, the species was known to exist at three sites which were subsequently treated with soil sterilants. However, during the early 1980s specimens of X. diversicaudatum were recovered from one of these sites, from soil in a private garden in San Diego (Brown, 1983). Thorne (1939) reported X. diversicaudatum from Utah and Virginia, USA, but some of these specimens were probably incorrectly identified and only those from Utah may represent X. diversicaudatum (Brown, 1983). Also, Schindler (1957) reported X. diversicaudatum to be widespread in glasshouse roses in 14 states in northeastern USA but the species has probably been eradicated from these cultures (Brown, 1983). Riffle (1968, 1970) reported X. diversicaudatum associated with Pinus ponderosa in New Mexico, USA, but subsequently these nematodes were identified as X. sahelense (Brown, 1983).

In Ontario, Canada, X. diversicaudatum was reported associated with strawberry and glasshouse grown roses (Townshend, 1961; 1966) but sampling during the 1980s failed to detect the nematode. It is concluded that X. diversicaudatum has been eradicated from this region and thus no longer exists in Canada (Brown, 1983). In Australia, X. diversicaudatum was reported from Victoria and Queensland (Colbran, 1964; Stubbs, 1971) but specimens from the latter state were subsequently identified as representing X. basiri and the species has not been detected in Victoria since the first report. Therefore, X. diversicaudatum probably no longer exists in Australia (Brown, 1983). Specimens originally identified as X. diversicaudatum from Equatorial Guinea (Luc, 1958) and Malawi (Saka and Siddiqi, 1979) were subsequently used to describe X. seredouense from the former country (Luc, 1975) and X. limbeense and X. malawiense from Malawi (Brown et al., 1983). Reports of X. diversicaudatum occurring in countries outside Europe, for example Argentina, Guam, India and Trinidad (Reinking and Radewald, 1961; Moreno, 1968; Singh, 1968; Acharya et al., 1988), require the species identification to be confirmed, and probably refer to other species.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentSingh and Vinod, 2003
-Himachal PradeshPresentAdekunle et al., 2006
-OdishaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
IsraelAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentKepenekci, 2014; Kepenekci et al., 2014

Africa

Equatorial GuineaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
MalawiAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionHeyns and Coomans, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaEradicatedBrown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioEradicatedTownshend, 1961; Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
USAPresent, few occurrencesBrown, 1983; Robbins and Brown, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresent, few occurrencesPitcher et al., 1974; Brown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaEradicatedSchindler, 1957; Brown, 1983
-New MexicoAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-UtahAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-VirginiaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaIndigenous, localizedBrown and Taylor, 1987
BelgiumWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distributionBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkRestricted distributionBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentBrown and Taylor, 1987
GermanyWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GreeceAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
IrelandRestricted distributionBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NorwayRestricted distributionBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; Bravo and Lemos, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentBravo and Lemos, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraRestricted distributionBrown et al., 1992; Bravo and Lemos, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaWidespreadBrown et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaRestricted distributionLiskova et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentBrown and Taylor, 1987; Brown et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsIndigenous, localizedBrown and Taylor, 1987
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)Indigenous, localizedBarsi, 1989

Oceania

AustraliaEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaEradicatedBrown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GuamAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
New ZealandRestricted distributionBrown, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page X. diversicaudatum is not a quarantine organism but arabis mosaic nepovirus, which it transmits, is of quarantine significance for the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) and, although not listed by the European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) as a quarantine pest, it is listed by the European Community Plant Health Directive and given an Annex designation of II/A2 (Smith et al., 1992).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page X. diversicaudatum has an extensive host range. It is most frequently associated with plant species growing in temperate arable, permanent pasture and deciduous woodland soils and much less frequently with coniferous, scrubland and moorland plants. (Thomas, 1970; Pitcher et al., 1974; Taylor and Brown, 1976, 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeWild host
Allium porrum (leek)LiliaceaeWild host
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeWild host
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar)CupressaceaeWild host
Chamomilla suaveolens (Rounded chamomile)AsteraceaeWild host
Chrysanthemum coronarium (garland chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeWild host
Crataegus laevigataRosaceaeWild host
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeWild host
Fagus sylvatica (common beech)FagaceaeWild host
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeWild host
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeWild host
Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeHabitat/association
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeWild host
Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)RosaceaeWild host
Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)LamiaceaeWild host
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeWild host
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeMain
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus spinosa (blackthorn)RosaceaeMain
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeWild host
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
Rosa canina (Dog rose)RosaceaeMain
Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)RosaceaeMain
Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeMain
Sambucus nigra (elder)CaprifoliaceaeWild host
Senecio vulgarisAsteraceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeWild host
Trifolium pratense (purple clover)FabaceaeWild host
Tussilago farfara (Colt's-foot)AsteraceaeWild host
Veronica (Speedwell)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
Viburnum tinusCaprifoliaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Feeding by X. diversicaudatum causes characteristic root-tip galling which can result in dwarfing of the whole plant. This reduction in growth can reduce plant crop yield. Indirect damage can result from the nematodes ability to transmit arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses (SLRSV) (Pitcher et al., 1974; Taylor and Brown, 1997).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / galls at tip
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing

Biology and Ecology

Top of page X. diversicaudatum has six stages: the egg, four juvenile stages and the adult. The female deposits eggs in the soil and hatching occurs when development of the first juvenile stage is complete. The juveniles are separated by a moult in which the cuticle separates from the underlying hypodermis (apolysis), the new cuticle is formed, and the old cuticle is shed (ecdysis), including the lining of the oesophagus together with the odontostyle. The juvenile stages can be distinguished by measurement of the functional odontostyle and the replacement odontostyle which is located in the oesophagus.

The first stage juvenile is readily distinguished by the position of the replacement odontostyle which lies within the odontophore, with its anterior tip just posterior to the base of the functional odontostyle. The length of the replacement odontostyle is similar to that of the functional odontostyle of the subsequent life-stage. In southeastern England X. diversicaudatum was considered to take 2 years to develop from egg to adult and the adult to have a life-span of 3-5 years (Flegg, 1968). However, under temperate conditions this species probably completes its life-cycle within the growing season.

Under laboratory conditions at 18°C, with strawberry as the host, X. diversicaudatum females survived for ca 60 weeks. The nematodes had a reproductive span of 54 weeks and produced ca 180-200 progeny, which was equivalent to one egg every 21 day degrees above a threshold temperature of 5°C. Development from egg to adult took ca 12 weeks, being equivalent to 1092 day degrees above 5°C (Brown and Coiro, 1983).

In a comprehensive survey of the geographical distribution of longidorid nematodes in the British Isles, Taylor and Brown (1976) reported X. diversicaudatum to be associated with soils with an average sand particle fraction of 53%. Similarly, in Spain the species was associated with sandy soils (Arias et al., 1986). In Switzerland, X. diversicaudatum was found associated with soils derived from siliceous rock and not in soils originating from calcareous rock (Klingler et al., 1983).

Distribution of X. diversicaudatum in the soil profile is associated with that of the host plant species with soil depth apparently having little effect on the nematodes life-cycle or the proportion of life-stages (Flegg, 1968). In England, X. diversicaudatum occurs to a depth of 60-100 cm, but numbers decrease below a depth of ca 20 cm (Harrison and Winslow, 1961; Flegg, 1968; Taylor and Thomas, 1968). At two sites in southern England and eastern Scotland, in undisturbed soil and at a cultivated site, respectively, the horizontal distribution of X. diversicaudatum remained largely unchanged for 30 and 24 years, respectively. At both sites the populations levels of the nematode had significantly reduced during these periods, probably as a result of climatic conditions providing drier habitats (Taylor et al., 1994). X. diversicaudatum frequently occurs in association with other longidorid species and in Britain was positively associated with Longidorus caespiticola, especially in Wales (Taylor and Brown, 1976).

Feeding by X. diversicaudatum, when the nematode occurs in large numbers, can cause direct damage to crop plant species. However, the economic impact of the nematode results from it being the natural vector of a range of serological and symptomatological variants of arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot (SLRSV) nepoviruses which cause diseases in a wide range of crops. These viruses affect a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops and recently in the Fribourg region of Switzerland a variant of ArMV, naturally transmitted by X. diversicaudatum was identified causing a yellowing disease of barley cv. Express (Ramel et al., 1995). This is the first record of a nepovirus causing a disease in a graminaceous crop.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Predacious nematodes are present in the Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Aphelenchoididae and Diplogasterida, but little information is available concerning their predation of X. diversicaudatum (Taylor and Brown, 1997). The endospore-forming bacterial parasite Pasteuria penetrans is widely distributed in agricultural soils and in a peach orchard in Italy was the principal antagonist affecting X. diversicaudatum. However, the parasitism rates were low and infected nematodes survived infection, with some specimens able to reproduce (Ciancio, 1995). The fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was isolated from X. diversicaudatum in southern Italy and in in vitro tests juveniles and adults became parasitized by the fungus (Ciancio et al., 1986).

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesIn soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page

X. diversicaudatum, frequently in association with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) and Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV), is widespread throughout Europe, Eastern Europe and western regions of the former Soviet Union. The nematode and ArMV are present in localized areas of New Zealand (Taylor and Brown, 1997). The nematode causes direct damage by feeding on a wide range of fruit, ornamental and vegetable crops. However, X. diversicaudatum is of most economic importance due to its ability to transmit ArMV and SLRSV, with these viruses able to render some infected crops as unmarketable and in some instances to kill infected plants directly, or through subsequent infection by secondary pathogens.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Reliable detection of X. diversicaudatum requires their recovery from moist soil samples. Several methods are available to achieve this, for example, decanting and sieving, centrifugal flotation, elutriation (Southey, 1986; Brown and Boag, 1988). A polytomous identification for Xiphenema species prepared by Loof and Luc (1990) can be used to confirm correct identification of specimens recovered from a soil sample. This is available on floppy disk from Dr P. Baujard, MNHN, Paris, France.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In their revised polytomous key for the identifiction of Xiphinema species Loof and Luc (1990) established several groups of Xiphinema species based on morphological similarities of the species. X. diversicaudatum was placed in Group 5, comprised of those species with a pseudo-Z organ. Several species in this group are morphologically similar to X. diversicaudatum, such as X. coxi europaeum and X. artemisiae. Several species in Group 8, comprised of species without a pseudo-Z organ, are morphologically, but not anatomically, similar to X. diversicaudatum, for example, X. index. However, this identification key, and subsequent supplements (Loof and Luc, 1993; Loof et al., 1996), provide detailed information for readily distinguishing X. diversicaudatum from other morphologically similar species.

Most longidorid and trichodorid nematodes, but apparently not members of the Xiphinema americanum-group (Cohn, 1975), induce root tip galls or swellings when feeding. These symptoms of nematode feeding, and the resulting affects to plant growth are similar to those caused by X. diversicaudatum. Also, disease symptoms in plants caused by nepoviruses transmitted by longidorid virus-vector species can be similar to, and may be confused with those caused by arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses transmitted by X. diversicaudatum (Brown, 1997; Brown and Trudgill, 1997; Duarte and Brown, 1997; Taylor and Brown, 1997).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Cultural Control

As a result of the extensive plant host range of X. diversicaudatum little evidence is available of the satisfactory control of the nematode by cultural methods.

Biological Control

Little information is available of the satisfactory biological control of X. diversicaudatum (see Natural Enemies).

Host-Plant Resistance

Little information is available of plant resistance directly affecting X. diversicaudatum, although some work has been successful in developing transgenic resistance to arabis mosaic (ArMV) and strawberry latent ringspot (SLRSV) nepoviruses (Brown et al., 1995; Kreiah et al., 1996; Taylor and Brown, 1997).

Chemical Control

The application of chemical nematicides has proved effective in controlling virus-vector nematodes, including X. diversicaudatum, with commercial application rates of nematicides achieving an 80-90% reduction of nematodes in the upper 40-60 cm of soil (Thomason and McKenry, 1975). As a result of the long life-cycles and slow reproduction rates of virus-vector nematodes such chemical treatments provide protection to annual and short term perennial crops from direct damage by these nematodes. However, control is much shorter when the crop is affected by either of the nepoviruses transmitted by X. diversicaudatum, as even very small numbers of the vector species are sufficient for efficient transmission of these viruses.

Fumigant nematicides such as 1,3 dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane-1,3 dichloropropene mixture (DD); methyl isothiocyanate precursor compounds such as dazomet and metham sodium; and methyl isothiocyanate mixtures have been reported to give good control of X. diversicaudatum (Harrison et al., 1963; Peachey and Brown, 1965; Peachey et al., 1965; Thresh et al., 1972; McNamara et al., 1973; Pitcher and McNamara, 1973; Scotto la Massese et al., 1973). Virus transmission by X. diversicaudatum has been prevented in pot experiments by application of carbamate chemicals probably as a result of the temporary nematostasis induced by these chemicals (Taylor and Gordon, 1970).

The phytoalexin rishitin, produced in potato tissue challenged by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, has been shown to have repellent and nematicidal effects against X. diversicaudatum in laboratory tests (Alphey et al., 1988). Also, the plant-derived sugar analogue (2R, 3R, 4R, 5R)-2, 5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine-3, 4-diol, also known as DMDP (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3, 4-dihydroxypyrrolidine), from tropical legumes in the genera Lonchocarpus and Derris, applied as a soil drench to pots inhibited virus acquisition, transmission and root galling by X. diversicaudatum (Birch et al., 1992, 1993).

References

Top of page

Acharya A; Padhi NN; Swain PK; Dash SC, 1988. Occurrence of nematodes on betelvine in Orissa. Indian Journal of Nematology, 18(2):363; 1 ref.

Adekunle OK; Saurabh Kulshrestha; Ramdeen Prasad; Vipin Hallan; Gaurav Raikhy; Neeraj Verma; Raja Ram; Sanjay Kumar; Zaidi AA, 2006. Plant parasitic and vector nematodes associated with Asiatic and Oriental hybrid lilies. Bioresource Technology, 97(3):364-371. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09608524

Alphey TJW; Robertson WM; Lyon GD, 1988. Rishitin a natural plant product with nematicidal activity. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 11(4):399-404; 22 ref.

Altherr E, 1958. Nematodes du bassin inferieur de la Weser et des dunesd'Heligoland. Especes nouvelles ou incompletement decrites. Memoires de la Societe vaudoise des Sciences naturelles, 74:45-63.

Andrassy, 1959. Neue und wenig bekannte Nematoden aus Jugoslawein. Annles historico-naturales Musei nationalis Hungarici, 51: 259-275.

Arias M; Navas A; Bello A, 1986. Analysis of the geographical distribution of Xiphinema diversicaudatum and X. pachtaicum in relation to the environmental factors in Spain. Nematologia Mediterranea, 14:7-13.

Barsi L, 1989. The Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylamida) in Yugoslavia. I. Nematologia Mediterranea, 17(2):97-108; 39 ref.

Birch ANE; Robertson WM; Geoghegan IE; McGavin WJ; Alphey TJW; Fellows LE; Watson AA; Simmonds MSJ; Porter EA, 1992. Activity of the natural plant product (2R, 3R, 4R, 5R)-2, 5-bis (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidine-3, 4-diol (DMDP) as an anti-nematode agent. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference Pest and Diseases, Volume 1, Brighton, November 23-26, 1992, 67-72.

Birch ANE; Robertson WM; Geoghegan IE; McGavin WJ; Alphey TJW; Phillips MS; Fellows LE; Watson AA; Simmonds MSJ; Porter EA, 1993. DMDP - a plant-derived sugar analogue with systemic activity against plant parasitic nematodes. Nematologica, 39(4):521-535; 14 ref.

Bravo MA; Lemos RJ, 1997. Longidorus, Paralongidorus and Xiphinema in Portugal. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nematodes and their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Instituto do Ambiente e Vida (IAV), Universidade de Coimbra, 421-441.

Brown DJF, 1983. The distribution of Longidoridea (Nematoda) in Europe and variation in the morphology, biology and virus transmission of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939. Ph.D. Thesis. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University.

Brown DJF, 1997. The Nematode Transmitted Viruses. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nematodes and their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Institute do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 274-311.

Brown DJF; Boag B, 1988. An examination of methods used to extract virus-vector nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae) from soil samples. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(1):93-99.

Brown DJF; Coiro MI, 1983. The total reproductive capacity and longevity of individual female Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea, 11(1):87-92

Brown DJF; Faria A; Lamberti F; Halbrendt JM; Agostinelli A; Jones AT, 1992. A description of Xiphinema madierense sp. n. and the occurrence and virus vector potential of X. diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Santana, Maderia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 20(2):251-259; 23 ref.

Brown DJF; Luc M; Saka VW, 1983. Two new species of Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from Malawi, East Africa. Bulletin Museum Nationale Historie Natural Paris 4e,, 5(2):521-529

Brown DJF; Robertson WM; Trudgill DL, 1995. Transmission of viruses by plant nematodes. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 33:223-249; 177 ref.

Brown DJF; Taylor CE, 1987. Comments on the occurrence and geographical distribution of longidorid nematodes in Europe and the mediterranean region. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15:333-373.

Brown DJF; Taylor CE; Choleva B; Romanenko ND, 1990. The occurrence of Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in western USSR with further comments on longidorid nematodes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Nematologia Mediterranea, 18(2):199-207; 123 ref.

Brown DJF; Topham PB, 1984. A comparison of reported variation in the morphometrics of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) and the effects of some methods of preparing specimens for examination by optical microscopy. Nematologia Mediterranea, 12: 169-186.

Brown DJF; Topham PB, 1985. Morphometric variability between populations of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Revue de Nematolgie, 8: 15-26.

Brown DJF; Trudgill DL, 1997. Longidorid Nematodes And Their Associated Viruses. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nematodes and their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Institute do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 1-40.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 846, edition 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ciancio A, 1995. Density-dependent parasitism of Xiphinema diversicaudatum by Pasteuria penetrans in a naturally infested field. Phytopathology, 85(2):144-149

Ciancio A; Logrieco A; Lamberti F, 1986. Parasitism of Xiphinema diversicaudatum by the fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. Nematologia Mediterranea, 14(2):187-192

Cohn E, 1969. The occurrence and distribution of species of Longidorus and Xiphinema in Israel. Nematologica, 15:179-192.

Cohn E, 1975. Relations between Xiphinema and Longidorus and their host plants. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London, UK, 365-385

Cohn E; Mordechai M, 1969. Investigations on the life cycles and host preference of some species of Xiphinema and Longidorus under controlled conditions. Nematologica, 15:295-302.

Cohn E; Sher SA, 1972. A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Xiphinema. Journal of Nematology, 4:36-65.

Colbran RC, 1964. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 7. Queensland records of the Order Tylenchida and genera Trichodorus and Xiphinema. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 21:77-123.

Duarte IMN da RD; Brown DJF, 1997. Sampling, Detection and Identification of Nematode Transmitted Viruses. In: Santos MSN de A, Abrantes IM de O, Brown DJF, Lemos RM, eds. An Introduction to Virus Vector Nematodes and their Associated Viruses. Coimbra, Portugal: Institute do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 313-353.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.

Flegg JJM, 1968. The occurrence and depth distribution of Xiphinema and Longidorus species in southeastern England. Nematologica 14:189-196.

Franz H, 1942. Untersuchungen uber die Kleintierwelt. I. Die Freilebenden Erdnematoden. Zoologische Jahrbucker (Systematik), 75: 365-546.

Goodey JB; Peacock FC; Pitcher RS, 1960. A redescription of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1923& 1927) Thorne, 1939 and observations on its larval stages. Nematologica, 5:127-135.

Harrison BD; Peachey JE; Winslow RD, 1963. The use of nematicides to control the spread of arabis mosaic virus by Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micol). Annals of Applied Biology, 52:243-255.

Harrison BD; Winslow RD, 1961. Laboratory and field studies on the relation of arabis mosaic virus to its nematode vector, Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky). Annals of Applied Biology, 49:621-633.

Heyns J; Coomans A, 1984. The genus Xiphinema in South Africa. VIII. Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939. Phytophylactica, 16:117-120.

Hunt DJ, 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics., xx + 352 pp.; 46 pp. of ref.

Javed R, 1983. Two new species of the superfamily Longidoroidea (Dorylaimida: Nematoda) from Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Nematology, 13(1):26-31

Kepenekci I, 2014. A new genus Trichodorus Cobb (stubby root nematode) (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) and preliminary list of virus vector nematodes associated in Turkey. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 9(1):227-244. http://www.munisentzool.org

Kepenekci I; Toktay H; Evlice E, 2014. Plant Parasitic and virus vector nematodes associated with vineyards in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46(3):866-870. http://www.zsp.com.pk/pdf46/863-887%20_34_%20SHORT%20COMMUNICATIONS%2046%20_3_%202014.pdf

Klinger J; Kunz P; Buser A, 1983. Der Vektornematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum und dasArabismosaikvirus der Erdbeere in Schweizer Mittland. Viertelj. schrift Naturforsch. Ges Zurich, 135:89-96.

Kreiah S; Edwards ML; Hawes WS; Jones AT; Brown DJF; McGavin WJ; Cooper JI, 1996. Some coat protein constituents from strawberry latent ringspot virus expressed in transgenic tobacco protect plants against systematic invasion following root inoculation by nematode vectors. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(3):297-303; 47 ref.

Liskovß M; Brown DJF; Taylor CE, 1995. The occurrence and distribution of Longidoridae and Trichodoridae in the Slovak Republic. Russian Journal of Nematology, 3(1):49-60; 30 ref.

Loof PAA; Luc M, 1990. A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with exclusion of the X. americanum-group. Systematic Parasitology, 16(1):35-66; 142 ref.

Loof PAA; Luc M, 1993. A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with exclusion of the X. americanum-group: Supplement 1. Systematic Parasitology, 24(3):185-189; 30 ref.

Loof PAA; Luc M; Baujard P, 1996. A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with exclusion of the X. americanum-group: Supplement 2. Systematic Parasitology, 33(1):23-29; 26 ref.

Luc M, 1958. Xiphinema de l'ouest africain: description de cinq nouvelles especes (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). Nematologica, 3:57-72.

Luc M, 1975. Three new species of Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 with rounded, mucronate tails. Cahiers O.R.S.T.O.M., Serie Biologie, nematologie, 10(3):293-302

Luc M; Brown DJF; Cohn E, 1982. Xiphinema Israelip n.sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Revue de Nematologie, 5(2):233-239

Luc M; Tarjan AC, 1963. Note systematique sur le genre Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologica, 9:111-115.

Macara AM, 1970. Xiphinema amarantum sp. nov. (Neamtoda: Dorylaimidae). Revista Iberica de Parasitologia, 30:649-658.

McNamara DG; Ormerod DG; Pitcher RS; Thresh JM, 1973. Fallowing and fumigation experiments on the control of nettlehead and related virus diseases of hop. Proceedings of the 7th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference, 597-602.

Micoletzky H, 1922. Die freilebenden Erd-Nematoden mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Steiermark und der Bukowina, zugleich mit einer Revision samtlicher nicht mariner, freilebender Nematoden in Form von Genus - Beschreibunger und Bestimmungsschlusseln. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin 87 (1921).

Micoletzky H, 1923. Freilebende Nematoden der Wolga mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Umbefung von Saratwo. Rabory Volzhskoi Biologischeskoi Stantsii, 7:3-29.

Micoletzky H, 1927. 3. Neue und seltene freilebende Nematoden aus dem Wolgagebeit (Kama). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 73:113-123.

Moreno AF, 1968. Nematodos transmisores de virus en tabaco y citrus. CNIA, Istituto de Patologia Vegetal-INTA: Hoja Informativa No. 19.

Peachey JE; Brown EB, 1965. Ridding a glass-house soil of dagger nematodes before planting with roses. Experimental Horticulture, 13:45-48.

Peachey JE; Green CD; Greet DN, 1965. Effects of D-D and Nemagon on eight-year-pld rose bushes infested with dagger nematodes. Experimental Horticulture, 13:49-50.

Pitcher RS, 1975. Factors influencing the movement of nematodes in soil. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London, UK, 389-406

Pitcher RS; McNamara DG, 1973. The control of Xiphinema diversicaudatum, the vector of arabis mosaic virus in hops. Annals of Applied Biology, 75(3):468-469

Pitcher RS; Siddiqi MR; Brown DJF, 1974. Xiphinema diversicaudatum. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 4, No. 60:4 pp.

Ramel M-E; Brown DJF; Vallotton R; McGavin W; Gugerli P, 1995. Occurrence of infection by a strain of arabis mosaic nepovirus of barley (cv. Express) and viruliferous Xiphinema diversicaudatum in fields near Fribourg in Switzerland. Nematologica, 41:332-333.

Reinking OA; Radewald JD, 1961. Cadang-Cadang disease of coconuts in Guam may be caused by a soil-borne plant virus spread by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema sp.). Plant Disease Reporter, 45:411-412.

Riffle JW, 1968. Plant-parasitic nematodes in marginal Pinus ponderosastands in central New Mexico. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:52-55.

Riffle JW, 1970. Nematodes parasitic on Pinus ponderosa. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:752-754.

Robbins RT; Brown DJF, 1991. Comments on the taxonomy, occurrence and distribution of Longidoridae (Nematoda) in North America. Nematologica, 37(4):395-419; 149 ref.

Saka VW; Siddiqi MA, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with plants in Malawi. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(11):945-948

Schindler AF, 1957. Parasitism and pathogenicity of Xiphinema diversicaudatum, an ectoparasitic nematode. Nematologica, 2:25-31.

Scotto La Massese C; Merenaud C; Dunez J, 1973. Analyse d'un phenomene de degenerescence du pecher dans la Vallee de l'eyrieux. Academie D'Agriculture de France. Extrait du proces-verbal de la Seance du 7 Mars 1973, 327-339.

Singh ND, 1968. Preliminary report of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with important crops in Trinidad. Nematropica, 3:56-61.

Singh RV; Vinod Kumar, 2003. Biodiversity of nematodes associated with roses, Rosa indica in and around Delhi Region. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Biodiversity and Management of Nematodes in Cropping Systems for Sustainable Agriculture, Jaipur, India, 11-13 November, 2002 [ed. by Singh, R. V.\Pankaj\Dhawan, S. C.\Gaur, H. S.]. New Delhi, India: Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 29-31.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Harris KM(Editors), 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe: data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Communities and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, ix + 1032 pp.

Southey JF, 1986. Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Norwich, NR3 1PD, Norfolk, UK: H.M.S.O. Books, vii + 202pp.

Stubbs LL, 1971. Plant pathology in Australia. Review of Plant Pathology, 50:461-478.

Taylor CE; Brown DJF, 1976. The geographical distribution of Xiphinema and Longidorus nematodes in the British Isles and Ireland. Annals of Applied Biology, 84(3):383-402

Taylor CE; Brown DJF, 1997. Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, (In press).

Taylor CE; Brown DJF; Neilson R; Jones AT, 1994. The persistence and spread of Xiphinema diversicaudatum in cultivated and uncultivated biotopes. Annals of Applied Biology, 124(3):469-477; 16 ref.

Taylor CE; Gordon SC, 1970. A comparison of four nematicides for the control of Longidorus elongatus and Xiphinema diversicaudatum and the viruses they transmit. Horticultural Research, 10:133-141.

Taylor CE; Thomas PR, 1968. The association of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky) with strawberry latent ringspot and arabis mosaic viruses in a raspberry plantation. Annals of Applied Biology, 62:147-157.

Terlidou MC, 1967. Nematodes attacking grapevines and their control. Lykovryssi, Kiffisias, Greece: Vine Institute.

Thomas PR, 1970. Host status of some plants for Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micol.) and their susceptibility to viruses transmitted by this species. Annals of Applied Biology, 65:169-178.

Thomason IJ; McKenry M, 1975. Chemical control of nematode vectors of plant viruses. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London, UK, 423-438

Thorne G, 1939. A monograph of the nematodes of the superfamily Dorylaimoidea. Capita Zoologica, 8:1-261.

Thorne G, 1961. Principles of Nematology. London, UK: McGraw Hill.

Thorne G; Swanger HH, 1936. A monograph of the nematode genera Dorylaimus Dujardin, Aporcelaimus n.g., Dorylaimoides n.g. and Pungentus n.g. Capita Zoologica, 6:1-223.

Thresh JM; Pitcher RS; McNamara DG; Ormerod PJ, 1972. The spread and control of nettlehead and related diseases of hop. Report of the East Malling Research Station for 1971, 155-162.

Townshend JL, 1961. Strawberry nematodes in Ontario. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 39:152-153.

Townshend JL, 1966. Economically important nematodes in Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 96:15-16

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map