Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xiphinema americanum
(dagger nematode)

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Datasheet

Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xiphinema americanum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dagger nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Adenophorea
  •         Order: Dorylaimida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region.

CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleX. americanum - line drawings
CaptionC-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Copyright©A.C. Tarjan, University of Florida, USA
C-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region.

CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
X. americanum - line drawingsC-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.©A.C. Tarjan, University of Florida, USA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913

Preferred Common Name

  • dagger nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Tylencholaimus americanus (Cobb, 1913) Micoletzky, 1922
  • Xiphinema californicum Lamberti & Bleve-Zacheo, 1979
  • Xiphinema taylori Lamberti et al., 1991

International Common Names

  • English: American dagger nematode; tobacco ring spot nematode
  • Spanish: nematodo daga americano; nematodo daga americano (Mexico); vector del virus en durano
  • French: anguillule xiphinème américain

Local Common Names

  • Japan: nami-ogata-hari-sentyu

EPPO code

  • XIPHAA
  • XIPHCA (Xiphinema californicum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Adenophorea
  •                 Order: Dorylaimida
  •                     Family: Xiphinematidae
  •                         Genus: Xiphinema
  •                             Species: Xiphinema americanum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 15 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentBabatola (1984)
SenegalPresentFaye et al. (2012)

Asia

ChinaPresentLuo ShuLan et al. (2003)
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadYin (1994); Yin et al. (1994)
-JiangsuPresentTeng WenFeng et al. (2013)
-SichuanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hu et al. (1991)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresentPhukan and Sanwal (1982)
-Himachal PradeshPresentKhan (2003)
-PunjabPresentSultan et al. (2010)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadSiddiqi (1959); Khan and Khan (1972); Rajneesh Thapa and Sundershan Ganguly (1990); Ganguly and Khan (1991); Khan et al. (1992); Thapa and Ganguly (1993)
-West BengalPresentSen et al. (2010)
JapanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); Mamiya (1969); Ohshima et al. (1971); Saigusa and Ando (1973); Iwaki and Komuro (1974)
-KyushuPresentGotoh (1965)
KazakhstanPresentSofrygina (1974)
North KoreaPresentLee and Han (1976)
OmanPresentWaller and Bridge (1978)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadSaeed and Ashrafi (1973); Saeed et al. (1988); Khan et al. (1989); Nasira and Maqbool (1994)
PhilippinesPresentValdez (1980)
Sri LankaPresentLoos (1949)
TajikistanPresentIvanova (1972)
TurkeyPresentBora (1970)
UzbekistanPresent, WidespreadBora (1970)

Europe

FranceAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
HungaryPresentStouffer and Mowery (1980)
NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted onlyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)Absent, intercepted only, confirmed by survey.
PolandPresentWASILEWSKA (1971)
RussiaPresent, WidespreadRomanenko (1971); Borzykh (1972); Metlitskii and Romanenko (1972); Lisetskaya (1973); Koev and Nesterov (1974); Boldyrev and Borzykh (1979)
-Russian Far EastPresentPolozov (1979)
SpainPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Weiland Ardaiz et al., 1995
United KingdomPresentDale and Brown (1973)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedHansen et al. (1974); Dias (1977); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentEPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentEPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Thorne & Shieber, 1962
MexicoPresentEPPO (2014)
PanamaPresentPinochet et al. (1986)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentRobbins et al. (1989); Wehunt et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadFrench et al. (1964); Lownsbery et al. (1969); Lownsbery et al. (1974); McKenry and Kretsch (1984); EPPO (2014)
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadMiller (1980)
-FloridaPresentMacGowan (1980); Mead (1988); Mead (1989); Mead (1990); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentCHURCHILL and RUEHLE (1971); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentHoltzmann (1964); EPPO (2014)
-IllinoisPresentFERRIS and BERNARD (1971); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentBergeson and Green (1979); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentNorton and Oard (1981); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentCrow and MacDonald (1978); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadFIELDING and HOLLIS (1956)
-MarylandPresentFeldmesser and Golden (1972); Wojtowicz et al. (1982); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Di and Sanzo Rohde (1969)
-MichiganPresentKNIERIM (1964); Bird and Ramsdell (1985); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentCrow and MacDonald (1978); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentEPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentEPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentWARD (1960); Wojtowicz et al. (1982); Georgi (1988); Georgi (1988a); Georgi (1988b); Norton and Edwards (1988); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentRuehle and Sasser (1962); Lucas et al. (1974); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentClarke and Smolik (1979); Krupinsky et al. (1983); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresent, WidespreadWilson and Hedden (1967)
-OklahomaPresentEPPO (2020)
-OregonPresent, LocalizedConverse (1981); Converse and Ramsdell (1982); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Jaffee et al. (1987)
-Rhode IslandPresentTarjan (1956); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentSammons and Barnett (1987); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentMALEK (1968); Malek and Smolik (1975); Krupinsky et al. (1983); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentPonchillia (1975); Niblack and Bernard (1985); Shamiyeh and Bernard (1995); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentEPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadSanto and Ponti (1981); EPPO (2014)
-WisconsinPresent, WidespreadGRIFFIN (1964); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadStirling (1975); Harris (1980)
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadANDERSON (1965); McLeod (1979)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBergna (1968)
BrazilPresentEPPO (2014)
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2014)
-Minas GeraisPresentCosta et al. (2001)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2014)
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO (2014)
ChilePresentJimenez Roco (1974); Guinez S. (1980); Auger (1989); EPPO (2014)
EcuadorPresentBridge (1976)
PeruPresentEPPO (2014)
UruguayPresent, WidespreadAlvarez Argudin (1970); CABI (Undated)
VenezuelaPresentCrozzoli P. et al. (1991)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / galls along length

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphanomyces Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Lagenidium caudatum Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Leptolegnia Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Mononchoides fortidens Parasite Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Mononchoides longicaudatus Parasite Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Pseudomonas denitrificans Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesIn wet soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1984. Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913. Bulletin OEPP, 14(1):67-71

Adams RE; Eichenmuller JJ, 1964. Studies with Xiphinema americanum. Nematologica, 10:70.

Allen WR; Schagen JGVan; Ebsary BA, 1984. Comparative transmission of the peach rosette mosaic virus by Ontario populations of Longidorus diadecturus and Xiphinema americanum (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):29-32

Alpat'ev NM; Terent'eva TG; Shestiperova ZI, 1980. The causes of the thinness of lucerne stands in the northern Caucasus. In: Fadeev YN, ed. Zaschita kormovykh kul'tur ot vreditelei, boleznei i sornyakov. (Nauchnye Trudy VASKhNIL). Moscow, USSR: "Kolos", 61-63

Alvarez Argudin J, 1970. New information of nematodes of vine in Uruguay. Boletin Informativo, Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura, Uruguay, No. 1342:5-6

Anderson EJ, 1965. Plant-parasitic nematodes in fruit trees nurseries of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 90:225-230

Anon, 1988. Bureau of nematology. Tri-ology Technical Report, 27(10):5-6.

Auger J, 1989. Tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV) associated with brownline disease or prune trees in Chile. Acta Horticulturae, 235:197-204

Azizova EP, 1985. Nematode fauna of vineyards in southern Uzbekistan. Uzbekskii Biologicheskii Zhurnal, 2:42-46.

Babatola JO, 1984. Rice nematode problems in Nigeria: their occurrence, distribution and pathogenesis. Tropical Pest Management, 30(3):256-265

Barker KR; Griffin GD, 1965. The distribution of nematodes in jack and red pine plantations and the parasitism of Xiphinema americanum on jack pine. Nematologica 11:33-34.

Barsi L, 1994. Species of the Xiphinema americanum-group (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) on the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 22(1):25-34; 15 ref.

Bergeson GB; Green RJ Jr, 1979. Damage to cultivars of peppermint, Mentha piperita, by the lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans in Indiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(1):91-94

Bergna DA, 1968. Study of the parasitism of Xiphinema americanum Cobb: persistence on the roots of barley, tomatoes and vines. In: Informe Anual Centro Regional Rionegrense, 1968-1969. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria. Argentina, 161-171.

Bernard EC, 1980. Identification, distribution, and plant associations of plant-parasitic nematodes in Tennessee. Bulletin, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee, No. 594:18 pp

Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri MS, 1989. Resistance of prey to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida). Revue de Nématologie, 12(1):45-49; 12 ref.

Bird GW; Ramsdell DC, 1985. Population trends and vertical distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with Vitis labrusca L. in Michigan. Journal of Nematology, 17(2):100-107.

Bitterlin MW; Gonsalves D, 1987. Spatial distribution of Xiphinema rivesi and persistence of tomato ringspot virus and its vector in soil. Plant Disease, 71(5):408-411

Boldyrev MI; Borzykh GT, 1979. Development of agrotechnical methods of controlling nematodes -- carriers of viruses. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Sadovodstva (Sovershenstvovanie sortimenta i agrotekhnicheskikh priemov v sadovodstve), 29:84-88

Boldyrev MI; Borzykh GT, 1983. Plants in the control of nematodes. Zashchita Rastenii, Moscow, 9:30.

Bora A, 1970. Studies on plant-parasitic nematodes in the Black Sea region and their distribution and possibilities for chemical control. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 10(1):53-71

Borzykh GT, 1972. Raspberry leaf curl disease. Sbornik Nauchnykh Rabot, Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Zonal'nyogo Instituta Sadovodstva Nechernozemnoi Polosy (Vyrashchivanie bezvirusnogo posadochnogo materiala plodovykh i yagodnykh kul'tur) Moscow. USSR, 5:65-69

Bridge J, 1976. Plant parasitic nematodes from the lowlands and highlands of Ecuador. Nematropica, 6(1):18-23

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Jones AT; Vrain TC; Robbins RT, 1994. Transmission of three North American nepoviruses by populations of four distinct species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Phytopathology, 84(6):646-649

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1993. Transmission of nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):349-354; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 29 ref.

Burlando TM; Nyland G; Lownsbery BF; Ross NW, 1978. Control of peach yellow bud mosaic with deep placement and high rates of 1,3-dichloropropene fumigants. Journal of Nematology, 10(4):282-283

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Xiphinema californicum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 983. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carter RF; Wright KA, 1984. Formation of the odontostyle during molting of the nematode Xiphinema americanum (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 87(3):221-241.

Cho MR; Robbins RT, 1991. Morphological variation among 23 Xiphinema americanum populations. Journal of Nematology, 23(1):134-144; 28 ref.

Churchill RC Jr; Ruehle JL, 1971. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Journal of Nematology, 3:189-196.

Clark JR; Robbins RT, 1994. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in Arkansas. Journal of Nematology, 26(4 Supp.):761-766; 12 ref.

Clarke DC; Smolik JD, 1979. Nematode population dynamics in first year western wheatgrass. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science, 33(April):16

Cobb NA, 1913. New nematode genera found inhabiting fresh water and non-brackish soils. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 3:432-444.

Converse RH, 1981. Infection of cultivated strawberries by tomato ringspot virus. Phytopathology, 71(11):1149-1152

Converse RH; Ramsdell DC, 1982. Occurrence of tomato and tobacco ringspot viruses and of dagger and other nematodes associated with cultivated highbush blueberries in Oregon. Plant Disease, 66(8):710-712

Costa MJNda; Oliveira S; Coelho SJ; Campos VP, 2001. Nematodes in ornamental plant roots. (Nematóides em plantas ornamentais.) Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 25(5):1127-1132.

Crow RV; MacDonald DH, 1978. Phytoparasitic nematodes adjacent to established strawberry plantations. Journal of Nematology., 10(2):204-207

Crozzoli PR; Casassa PM; Rivas GD; Matheus CJ, 1991. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with guava plantations in Zulia State, Venezuela. Fitopatologia Venezolana, 4(1):2-6; 24 ref.

Dale WT; Brown EB, 1973. NEPO viruses in raspberries in the West Midlands. Plant Pathology, 22(2):65-66

Dalmasso A, 1969. Etude anatomique et taxonomique des genres Xiphinema, Longidorus et Paralongidorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). Mem. MusTum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 61(2):33-82.

de Man GJ, 1876. Onderzoekingen over vrij in de aarde levende Nematoden. Tijdschrift neder. dierk. Ver., 2:78-196.

Di Sanzo CP, 1982. Effect of foliar application of carbofuran and a related compound on plant-parasitic nematodes under microplot and field conditions. Journal of Nematology, 14(2):208-212

Di Sanzo CP; Rohde RA, 1969. Xiphinema americanum associated with maple decline in Massachusetts. Phytopathology, 59:279-284.

Dias HF, 1977. Incidence and geographic distribution of tomato ringspot virus in DeChaunac vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(1):24-28

Dickerson OJ; Franz TJ; Lash LD, 1978. Influence of crop rotation on nematode populations in Kansas. Journal of Nematology, 10(4):284

Douthit LB; McGuire JM, 1976. Transmission of tobacco ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum to a range of hosts. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3:335

Douthit LB; McGuire JM, 1978. Transmission of tobacco ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum to a range of hosts. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(2):164-166

Ebsary BA; Potter JW; Allen WR, 1984. Redescription and distribution of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 and Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913 in Canada with a description of Xiphinema occiduum n.sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62(9):1696-1702.

Elmiligy IA; Norton DC, 1973. Survival and reproduction of some nematodes as affected by muck and organic acids. Journal of Nematology, 5(1):50-54.

EPPO, 1982. Recommendations on new quarantine measures. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, Special Issue.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2009. PM 7/95(1): Xiphinema americanum sensu lato. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 39(3):382-392. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faye M; Barsi L; Decraemer W, 2012. Description of Xiphinema mounporti sp. n., with new data on two other species from Senegal (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):119-127. http://www.edizioniets.com

Feldmesser J; Golden AM, 1972. Control of nematodes damaging home lawngrasses in two counties in Maryland. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(6):476-480.

Ferris H; McKenry MV, 1975. Relationship of grapevine yield and growth to nematode densities. Journal of Nematology, 7(3):295-304

Ferris H; McKenry MW, 1974. Observations on the spatial distribution of Xiphinema americanum in California vineyard soils. Journal of Nematology, 6(4):140

Ferris VR; Bernard RL, 1971. Crop rotation effects on population densities of ectoparasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 3(2):119-122.

Fielding M; Hollis JP, 1956. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes in Louisiana soils. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:403-405.

Forer LB, 1981. Xiphinema rivesi associated with tomato ringspot virus-incited diseases in Pennsylvania. Phytopathology, 71(7):767

Forer LB; Stouffer RF, 1982. Xiphinema spp. associated with tomato ringspot virus infection of Pennsylvania fruit crops. Plant Disease, 66(8):735-736

French AM; Lownsbery BF; Ayoub SM; Weiner AC; El-Gholl N, 1964. Pithiaceous fungi and plant-parasitic nematodes in Californian peach orchards. Hilgardia, 35(21):603-610.

Funt RC; Krusberg LR; Ross DS; Goulart BL, 1982. Effect of post-plant nematicides and trickle irrigation on newly planted peach trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 107(5):891-895

Ganguly S; Khan E, 1991. Association of Xiphinema americanum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) with root-tip galls of rangoon creeper (Quisqualis indica Linn.). Current Nematology, 2(2):183-184.

Georgi LL, 1987. Journal of Nematology, 20:47-57.

Georgi LL, 1988. Morphological and biological variation in Xiphinema americanum and Xiphinema rivesi from apple orchards in New York State. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47:3192.

Georgi LL, 1988. Morphological variation in Xiphinema americanum spp. from New York orchards. Journal of Nematology, 20:47-50.

Georgi LL, 1988. Transmission of tomato ringspot virus by Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi from New York apple orchards. Journal of Nematology, 20(2):304-308

Good JM, 1968. Relation of plant parasitic nematodes to soil management practices. In: Smart GC Jr., Perry VG, eds. Tropical Nematology. Gainsville, USA: Florida University Press, 113-138.

Gotoh A, 1965. The plant parasitic nematodes found mainly in sugar cane fields in the Satsunan Island, South Kyushu. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 11:105-110.

Griesbach JA; Maggenti AR, 1989. Vector capability of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in California. Journal of Nematology, 21(4):517-523; 23 ref.

Griesbach JA; Maggenti AR, 1990. The morphometrics of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in California. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 13(1):93-103; 24 ref.

Griffin GD, 1964. Association of nematodes with corn in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter, 48(6):458-459.

Griffin GD, 1996. Importance of soil texture to the pathogenicity of plant-parasitic nematodes on rangeland grasses. Nematropica, 26(1):27-37; 26 ref.

Griffin GD; Asay KH; Horton WH, 1996. Factors affecting population trends of plant-parasitic nematodes on rangeland grasses. Journal of Nematology, 28(1):107-114; 33 ref.

Griffin GD; Barker KR, 1966. Effect of soil temperature and moisture on the survival and activity of Xiphinema americanum. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 33(2):126-130.

Griffin GD; Darling HM, 1964. An ecological study of Xiphinema americanum Cobb in an ornamental spruce nursery. Nematologica, 10(3):471-479.

Griffin GD; Epstein AH, 1964. Association of dagger nematode, Xiphinema americanum, with stunting and winterkill of ornamental spruce. Phytopathology, 54(2):177-180.

Guinez SA, 1980. Comparative efficacy of organic amendments and 4 nematicides for the control of nematodes on tomato. Agricultura Tecnica, 40(4):143-146

Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez C; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C; Decraemer W; Vovlas N; Prior T; Palomares Rius JE; Castillo P, 2012. Phylogeny, diversity, and species delimitation in some species of the Xiphinema americanum-group complex (Nematoda: Longidoridae), as inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 134(3):561-597. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Halbrendt JM, 1993. Evaluation of rotational crops for nematode management in orchards. Pennsylvania Fruit News, 73(4):62-66; [^italic~Proceedings of the 134th Annual Meeting of the State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania in conjunction with the Horticultural Society of Maryland and New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 26-28 Jan. 1993.^roman~]; 10 ref.

Halbrendt JM, 1993. Virus-vector Longidoridae and their associated viruses in the Americas. Russian Journal of Nematology, 1(1):65-68

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