Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


(dagger nematode)



Xiphinema (dagger nematode)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xiphinema
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dagger nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Adenophorea
  •         Order: Dorylaimida

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C-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region.

CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleX. americanum - line drawings
CaptionC-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
CopyrightA.C. Tarjan, University of Florida, USA
C-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region.

CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
X. americanum - line drawingsC-G. Neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C. Anterior ends. D, E. Head ends, G, I, J, K. Tail ends. B. Posterior female gonad. F. Entire male. H. Vulval region. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|C-G: neotype male, remainder topotype females. A, C: Anterior ends. D, E: Head ends. G, I, J,K: Taile ends. B: posterior female gonad. F: entire male. H: vulval region. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.A.C. Tarjan, University of Florida, USA
TitleA female Xiphinema diversicaudatum female
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
A female Xiphinema diversicaudatum femaleDerek J.F. Brown


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xiphinema Cobb, 1913

Preferred Common Name

  • dagger nematode

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Älchen-Arten, Stilett-

EPPO code

  • XIPHSP (Xiphinema sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Adenophorea
  •                 Order: Dorylaimida
  •                     Family: Xiphinematidae
  •                         Genus: Xiphinema

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BhutanPresentSudershan et al., 2000
ChinaPresentLuo et al., 2001
-FujianPresentPan et al., 2000
-GuangxiPresentLuo et al., 2003
-NingxiaPresentLuo et al., 2003
-ShaanxiPresentLuo et al., 2003
-ShandongPresentLuo et al., 2003
-YunnanPresentZhou et al., 2007
-ZhejiangPresentWu et al., 2007
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresentChoudhury et al., 2004
-DelhiPresentSingh and Vinod, 2003
-Himachal PradeshPresentKhan, 2003
-Jammu and KashmirPresentZaki and Mantoo, 2003
-KeralaPresentReni and Kurup, 2005
-Madhya PradeshPresentTiwari et al., 2000
-ManipurPresentJoymati and Mema, 2007
-OdishaPresentNayak et al., 2004
-RajasthanPresentSonali et al., 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentCannayane et al., 2007
-TripuraPresentNath et al., 2008
-Uttar PradeshPresentPavan et al., 2010
-UttarakhandPresentSatya et al., 2003
-West BengalPresentKhan et al., 2007
IranPresentPedram et al., 2008
JapanPresentBilgrami et al., 2002
Korea, Republic ofPresentPark et al., 2002
LebanonPresentJawhar et al., 2006
NepalPresentSudershan et al., 2002
PakistanPresentKhan et al., 2004
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Yahya et al., 2001
Sri LankaPresentHirata et al., 2000
SyriaPresentHaidar et al., 2008
TaiwanPresentChen et al., 2004
VietnamPresentTrinh et al., 2009


Burkina FasoPresentSawadogo et al., 2001
CongoPresentBernhard-Reversat et al., 2001
Côte d'IvoirePresentCoyne et al., 2000
EgyptPresentYoussef and El-Nagdi, 2009; Ibrahim and Handoo, 2016
EthiopiaPresentMekete et al., 2008
GhanaPresentAmponsah et al., 2008
GuineaPresentCoyne et al., 2000
KenyaPresentBerg et al., 2001
NigeriaPresentAdegbite et al., 2008
SenegalPresentCadet et al., 2003
South AfricaPresentMarais and Swart, 2001

North America

MexicoPresentAdriano-Anaya et al., 2008
USAPresentCassida et al., 2005
-AlabamaPresentGazaway and McLean, 2003
-ArkansasPresentCassida et al., 2005
-CaliforniaPresentLuca et al., 2005
-FloridaPresentLuca et al., 2005
-GeorgiaPresentNyczepir and Lamberti, 2001
-HawaiiPresentZhang and Schmitt, 2001
-IllinoisPresentAllen et al., 2005
-MissouriPresentMilkus, 2001
-TexasPresentCassida et al., 2005
-WashingtonPresentPinkerton et al., 2008

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentWingChing-Jones et al., 2008
CubaPresentRodríguez and Sánchez, 2002

South America

ArgentinaPresentNome et al., 2000
BrazilPresentOliveira et al., 2003
-AcrePresentCavalcante et al., 2002
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva et al., 2008
-Minas GeraisPresentCosta et al., 2003
-ParanaPresentDias-Arieira et al., 2007
-Sao PauloPresentGarcia et al., 2003
ChilePresentAuger et al., 2009
ColombiaPresentBedoya et al., 2005
SurinamePresentSiddiqi, 2000
VenezuelaPresentCrozzoli et al., 2001


AustriaPresentHoschitz, 2004
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentBarsi and Lamberti, 2004
BulgariaPresentMincheva et al., 2008
CroatiaPresentIvezic et al., 2002
Czech RepublicPresentKumari, 2009
FrancePresentDemangeat et al., 2005
GreecePresentTzortzakakis et al., 2006
HungaryPresentRepasi et al., 2008
ItalyPresentCoiro et al., 2001
PolandPresentPrior et al., 2008
PortugalPresentAbrantes et al., 2008
SerbiaPresentBarsi and Lamberti, 2000; Barsi and Lamberti, 2004; Barsi and Lamberti, 2004
SerbiaPresentBarsi and Lamberti, 2000; Barsi and Lamberti, 2004; Barsi and Lamberti, 2004
SerbiaPresentBarsi and Lamberti, 2000; Barsi and Lamberti, 2004; Barsi and Lamberti, 2004
SlovakiaPresentLi?ková and Li?ka, 2000
SloveniaPresentUrek et al., 2005
SpainPresentAbelleira et al., 2004


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-South AustraliaPresentWalker, 2004
-Western AustraliaPresentSharma et al., 2003
New ZealandPresentSturhan and Wouts, 2008

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / galls at tip
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / proliferation roots in ball
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Mononchus aquaticus Parasite Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles
Pythium middletonii Pathogen Adults/Eggs/Juveniles


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Abelleira A; Mansilla P; Picoaga A; Salinero MC, 2004. Phytopathogenic nematodes associated with Camellia genus in Galicia (NW Spain). American Camellia Yearbook, 2004:71-75.

Abrantes IMde O; Santos MCVdos; Conceição ILPMda; Santos MSNde A; Vovlas N, 2008. Root-knot and other plant-parasitic nematodes associated with fig trees in Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 36(2):131-136.

Adegbite AA; Saka JO; Agbaje GO; Osuloye FO, 2008. Survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with yams in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 48(4):421-428.

Adriano-Anaya Mde L; Herrera-López D; Albores-Flores V; Salvador-Figueroa M; Velasco-Zebadua ME, 2008. Endorhizospheric nematodes of banana (Musa AAA. Subgroup Cavendish) clone "Grande Naine" in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 26(2):147-152.

Akopyan KV; Krall eL; Karapetyan DA, 1987. Pathogenicity of Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen, 1950 on grapevines in the Armenian SSR. Biologicheskii^breve~ Zhurnal Armenii, 40(9):730-734; 15 ref.

Allen JB; Bond JP; Schmidt ME, 2005. Incidence of Meloidogyne incognita and development of resistant soybean germplasm in Illinois. Plant Health Progress, June:1-9.

Al-Yahya FA; Ibrahim AAM; El-Sherbiny AA, 2001. Frequency and population density of plant parasitic nematodes associating date palm cultivars in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 46(2):127-137.

Amponsah NT; Nutsugah SK; Abudulai M; Oti-Boateng C; Brandenburg RL; Jordan DL, 2008. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with peanut, cowpea and soybean in Ghana and response of peanut cultivars to Pratylenchus species. International Journal of Nematology, 18(1):41-46.

Auger J; Aballay E E; Pinto C M; Pastenes V C, 1992. Effect of grape fanleaf virus (GFV) on growth and productivity of grapevine plants cv. Thompson Seedless. Fitopatologia, 27(2):85-89

Auger J; Leal G; Magunacelaya JC; Esterio M, 2009. Xiphinema rivesi from Chile transmits Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber. Plant Disease, 93(9):971.

Baines RC; Van Gundy SD; DuCharme EP, 1978. Nematodes attacking citrus. In: Reuther W, Calavan EC, Carman GE, ed. The citrus industry. Volume IV. Crop protection. University of California. California USA, 321-345

Barsi L; Lamberti F, 2000. Morphometric variation and juvenile stages of Xiphinema vuittenezi (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in Serbia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 28(1):3-12.

Barsi L; Lamberti F, 2004. Xiphinema parasimile sp. n. from Serbia and X. simile, first record from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Nematoda, Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea, 32(1):101-109.

Bedoya P CE; Campo A RO; Cabrales H EM, 2005. Diversity of nematodes in acid-sulfate soils from Sinu Valley, Cordoba, Colombia. (Diversidad de la nematofauna en los suelos sulfatados ácidos del Valle del Sinú - Córdoba, Colombia.) Suelos Ecuatoriales, 35(2):41-44.

Berg Evan den; Marais M; Kandji S; Mounport D; N'Diaye B; Cadet P, 2001. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with maize-bean intercropping systems in Kenya. African Plant Protection, 7(2):81-84.

Bernhard-Reversat F; Laclau JP; Loubana PM; Loumeto JJ; Mboukou-Kimbatsa IMC; Reversat G, 2001. Changes in biological factors of fertility in managed Eucalyptus plantations on a savanna soil in Congo. In: Rehabilitation of degraded tropical forest ecosystems. Workshop Proceedings, Bogor, Indonesia, 2-4 November 1999 [ed. by Kobayashi, S.\Turnbull, J. W.\Toma, T.\Mori, T.\Majid, N. M. N. A.]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research, 179-189.

Bilgrami AL; Khan Z; Kondo E; Yoshiga T, 2002. Generic diversity and community analysis of nematodes with particular reference to predaceous nematodes in a deciduous forest of Northern Kyushu, Japan. International Journal of Nematology, 12(1):46-54.

Bravo MAC, 1977. Comparison of the Christie and Perry and the centrifugal flotation methods for extracting Xiphinema mediterraneum from soil. Agronomia Lusitana, 38(3):203-212

Bridge J; Page SLJ, 1975. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton in the lower Shire Valley and other cotton growing areas of Malawi. (ODM report on the visit to Malawi, 23 January to 28 April 1975). Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton in the lower Shire Valley and other cotton growing areas of Malawi. (ODM report on the visit to Malawi, 23 January to 28 April 1975). Ministry of Overseas Development. Ascot, Berks. UK, [ii] + 40 pp.

Brown DJF; Boag B, 1988. An examination of methods used to extract virus-vector nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae) from soil samples. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(1):93-99.

Brown DJF; Halbrendt JM; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1993. Transmission of nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):349-354; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 29 ref.

Cadet P; Pate E; Thioulouse J, 2003. Relationship of nematode communities to human demographics and environment in agricultural fields and fallow lands in Senegal. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19(3):279-290.

Cannayane I; Jonathan EI; Rajavel DS, 2007. Association of plant parasitic nematodes and antagonistic microbes in banana rhizosphere. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(2):449-453.

Cassida KA; Kirkpatrick TL; Robbins RT; Muir JP; Venuto BC; Hussey MA, 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown for biofuel in the South Central United States. Nematropica, 35(1):1-10.

Cavalcante Mde JB; Sharma RD; Valentim JF; Gondim TMS, 2002. Nematodes associated with forage peanuts and banana plantations in the State of Acre. (Nematóides associados ao amendoim forrageiro e a bananeira no Estado do Acre.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 27(1):107.

Chen DY; Ni HF; Yen JH; Cheng YH; Tsay TT, 2004. Variability within Xiphinema insigne populations in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 13(2):127-142.

Choudhury BN; Rahman MF; Bora A, 2004. Diversity of nematodes in four districts of Assam. Indian Journal of Nematology, 34(2):222-224.

Ciancio A; Mankau R, 1989. Note on Pasteuria sp. parasitic in longidorid nematodes. Nematropica, 19(1):105-109; 12 ref.

Cohn E, 1977. Xiphinema italip. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set 7, No. 95:3 pp.

Cohn E; Mordechai M, 1970. The influence of some environmental and cultural conditions on rearing populations of Xiphinema and Longidorus species. Nematologica, 16:85-93.

Coiro MI; Lamberti F; Borgo M; Agostinelli A; Radicci V, 2001. First record of Xiphinema coxi europaeum (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) in Italy. Nematologia Mediterranea, 29(2):231-233.

Coiro MI; Taylor CE; Borgo M; Lamberti F, 1990. Resistance of grapevine rootstocks to Xiphinema index. Nematologia Mediterranea, 18(2):119-121; 8 ref.

Converse RH; Ramsdell DC, 1982. Occurrence of tomato and tobacco ringspot viruses and of dagger and other nematodes associated with cultivated highbush blueberries in Oregon. Plant Disease, 66(8):710-712

Coolen WA; D'Herde CJ, 1977. Centrifugal separation of Longidorus and Xiphinema from soil using colloidal silica. Nematologia Mediterranea, 5(2):195-206

Costa MJN; Coelho SJ; Campos VP, 2003. Nematodes in ornamental and flowering plant roots at Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (Nematóides em plantas ornamentais e floríferas em Lavras (MG).) Revista Brasileira de Horticultura Ornamental, 9(2):183-186.

Coyne DL; Hunt DJ; Plowright RA; Darboe MLK, 2000. Further observations on nematodes associated with rice in Côte d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Guinea and Togo. International Journal of Nematology, 10(2):123-130.

Crozzoli R; Lamberti F; Greco N; Rivas D, 2001. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with cocoa in Choroní, Cumboto and Cuyagua, Aragua State. (Nematodos fitoparasíticos asociados al cultivo del cacao en Choroní, Cumboto y Cuyagua, estado Aragua.) Fitopatología Venezolana, 14(1):5-12.

Demangeat G; Voisin R; Minot JC; Bosselut N; Fuchs M; Esmenjaud D, 2005. Survival of Xiphinema index in vineyard soil and retention of Grapevine fanleaf virus over extended time in the absence of host plants. Phytopathology, 95(10):1151-1156.

Dias-Arieira CR; Morita DAS; Machado MH, 2007. Nematodes associated with ornamental plants in a greenhouse from Paraná state, Brazil. (Nematoides associados a plantas ornamentais em viveiros do Paraná.) Nematologia Brasileira, 31(1):46-53.

FERRIS VR; BERNARD RL, 1971. Effect of soil type on population densities of nematodes in soybean rotation fields. Journal of Nematology, 3:123-128.

Garcia MJDM; Almeida AM; Sanches MM; Silva MF, 2003. Nematodes of plants detected by the Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Bauru from different host plants. (Nematóides de plantas detectados pela Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Bauru, em diferentes espécies hospedeiras. No período de julho de 1999 a julho de 2003.) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 70(Suplemento 3):067.

Gazaway WS; McLean KS, 2003. A survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton in Alabama. Journal of Cotton Science, 7(1):1-7.

Gupta MC; Singh RS; Sitaramaiah K, 1979. A new endoparasitic fungus on Xiphinema and cultivation of Rhabditis spp. and Aphelenchus avenae on same fungus. Nematologica, 25(1):142

Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez C; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C; Remesal E; Palomares-Rius JE; Navas-Cortés JA; Castillo P, 2013. New insight into the identification and molecular phylogeny of dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with description of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 169(3):548-579.

Haidar A; Al-Assas K; Al-Ashkar K, 2008. Survey of phytoparasitic nematode and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi genera associating eggplant in Reef Damascus governorate, Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 26(2):123-128.

Halbrendt JM; Brown DJF, 1993. Aspects of biology and development of Xiphinema americanum and related species. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):355-360; [^italic~Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists, 2-6 August 1992, Vancouver, BC, Canada.^roman~]; 33 ref.

Halbrendt JM; Jing G, 1994. Nematode suppressive rotation crops for orchard renovation. Acta Horticulturae, No.363:49-56; 8 ref.

Halbrendt JM; Shaffer RL, 1989. Effect of Brom-O-Gas and Nemacur 3 on dagger nematodes and plum replants, 1985-88. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 44(143):USA.

Harrison MB; Lamb RC, 1981. The influence of summer fallow on the survival of Xiphinema americanum in a peach orchard. Phytopathology, 71(5):561

Hirata K; Fernando KGI; Hewage LC, 2000. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with crops in Sri Lanka. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 36:61-66.

Hooper DJ, 1990. Extraction and processing of plant and soil nematodes. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 45-68.

Hoschitz M, 2004. Community and trophic structure of soil nematodes associated with Vitis spp. in Austria. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 141:97-107.

Hunt DJ, 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics., xx + 352 pp.; 46 pp. of ref.

Ibrahim IKA; Handoo ZA, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 34(2):163-169.

Ivezic M; Raspudic E; Lamberti F; Pribetic DJ, 2002. Xiphinema spp. in vineyards of Istra Peninsula in Croatia. Helminthologia, 39(2):119-120.

Jaffee BA; Shaffer RL, 1987. Parasitism of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi by Catenaria anguillulp and other zoosporic fungi in soil solution, Bprmann funnels, or soil. Nematologica, 33(2):220-231

Jain SK; Saxena R, 1993. Evaluation of the nematicidal potential of Mangifera indica. Indian Journal of Nematology, 23(1):131-132; 3 ref.

Jawhar J; Vovlas N; Digiaro M, 2006. Occurrence of Xiphinema index in Lebanese vineyards. Journal of Plant Pathology, 88(1):117-119.

Joymati L; Mema W, 2007. Association of Moloidogyne incognita and other plant parasitic nematodes with different crops of Manipur. Zoos' Print Journal, 22(12):2933-2934.

Khan A; Khatoon N; Aleemuddin N; Shaukat SS, 2004. Nematodes associated with jujube, Zizyphus mauritania, in the lower Sindh Province of Pakistan. Nematologia Mediterranea, 32(2):155-157.

Khan ML, 2003. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with strawberry in Himachal Pradesh and varietal screening. Indian Journal of Nematology, 33(1):83-84.

Khan MR; Hassan A; Ghosh B; Das B; Ghosh S; Ray SK, 2007. Diversity and community analyses of soil nematodes associated with guava from West Bengal, India. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 1st International Guava Symposium, Lucknow, India, 5-8 December 2005.], No.735:483-487.

Kumari S, 2009. Morphometrics of Xiphinema dentatum Sturhan, 1978 from the Czech Republic. Helminthologia, 46(3):201-204.

Lamberti F, 1989. Nematode parasites of grapevine and their control. EUR Publication, EUR 11548:163-172; [In ^italic~Plant-protection problems and prospects of integrated control in viticulture, proceedings of the CEC/10BC International Symposium, Lisboa-Vila Real, Portugal, 6-9 June 1988, [edited by Cavalloro, R.]^roman~]; 59 ref.

Lamberti F; Ciancio A; Boiboi JB; Tuopay DK; Bleve-Zacheo T; Elia F, 1992. Pathogenicity and reproduction of two species of Xiphinema on selected vegetable crops in Liberia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 20(1):113-123; 3 ref.

Lamberti F; Ciancio A; Tuopay DK; Boiboi JB; Vovlas N; Bleve-Zacheo T; Elia F, 1991. Nematode threats to rice in Liberia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 19(2):291-303; 8 ref.

Lamberti F; Siddiqi MR, 1977. Xiphinema pachtaicum [= X. mediterraneum]. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 7, No. 94. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 3 pp.

Li?ková M; Li?ka M, 2000. Ecological notices to the occurrence of Xiphinema dentatum Sturhan 1978 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in the Slovak Republic. Ekológia (Bratislava), 19(2):151-156.

Loof PAA; Luc M, 1990. A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with exclusion of the X. americanum-group. Systematic Parasitology, 16(1):35-66; 142 ref.

Lownsbery BF; Maggenti AR, 1963. Some effects of soil temperature and soil moisture on population levels of Xiphinema americanum. Phytopathology, 53(6):667-668.

Luca Fde; Reyes A; Agostinelli A; Coiro MI; Giorgi Cde; Lamberti F, 2005. Characterization of longidorid nematodes by PCR-RFLP and ribosomal DNA sequencing. (Caratterizzazione di nematodi longidoridi mediante PCR-RFLP e sequenza del DNA ribosomiale.) Nematologia Mediterranea [Atti dell' VIII Congresso della Società Italiana di Nematologia, Ragusa Ibla, Sicily, Italy, 27-29 Ottobre 2004.], 33(Supplemento):111-114.

Lucas GB, 1975. Diseases of tobacco. 3rd edn. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: Biological Consulting Associates.

Luo ShuLan; Zhangsun DongTing; He PuChao, 2003. Identification of Xiphinema and Paratylenchus nematode species from four provinces of China. Plant Protection, 29(4):15-18.

Luo SuLan; Zhangsun DongTing; He PuChao, 2001. Investigation of Xiphinema species around grape roots from four provinces of China. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 28(5):451-452.

Malik Z; Jairajpuri MS, 1983. Population dynamics and life cycle of Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913. Indian Journal of Parasitology, 7(1):21-28.

Marais M; Swart A, 2001. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 3. Douglas area, Northern Cape Province. African Plant Protection, 7(1):33-38.

Martelli GP; Taylor CE, 1990. Distribution of viruses and their nematode vectors. Advances in Disease Vector Research, 6:151-189

Martelli GP; Taylor CE, 1990. Distribution of viruses and their nematode vectors. Advances in Disease Vector Research, 6:151-189

Mekete T; Sikora RA; Kiewnick S; Hallmann J, 2008. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with coffee (Coffea arabica L., Rubiaceae) in Ethiopia. Nematropica, 38(2):177-186.

Milkus BN, 2001. Incidence of four nepoviruses in Missouri vineyards. American Journal of Etiology and Viticulture, 52(1):56-57.

Mincheva Y; Lazarova S; Peneva V, 2008. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail. Systematic Parasitology, 70(3):215-222.

Nath RC; Sinha BC; Mukherjee B; Dasgupta MK, 2008. Occurrence, distribution and importance of plant parasitic nematodes associated with litchi plantations in North Tripura district. Indian Journal of Nematology, 38(1):75-80.

Navas A; Bello A; Arias M, 1988. Ecology and potential distribution of Xiphinema diversicaudatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in continental Spain. Nematologica, 34(3):314-330; 42 ref.

Nayak DK; Sahoo NK; Mohanty KC, 2004. Association of phytonematodes in forest nurseries around Bhubaneswar. Indian Journal of Nematology, 34(2):212-213.

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