Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xestia c-nigrum
(spotted cutworm)

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Datasheet

Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xestia c-nigrum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted cutworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower.
TitleAdult
CaptionXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower.
AdultXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower.©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower.  Essex, UK. October 1994.
TitleAdult
CaptionXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower. Essex, UK. October 1994.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower.  Essex, UK. October 1994.
AdultXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); live adult on flower. Essex, UK. October 1994.©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm);adult (museum set specimen)
TitleAdult
CaptionXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm);adult (museum set specimen)
Copyright©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm);adult (museum set specimen)
AdultXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm);adult (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); mature larva.
TitleLarva
CaptionXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); mature larva.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); mature larva.
LarvaXestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); mature larva.©David Agassiz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xestia c-nigrum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted cutworm

Other Scientific Names

  • (Diarsia c-nigrum) Linnaeus
  • Agrotis c-nigrum (Linnaeus)
  • Agrotis c-nigrum ab. fritschi Culot, 1910
  • Agrotis c-nigrum ab. umbrata Schultz, 1908
  • Agrotis c-nigrum form maerens Dannehl, 1925
  • Agrotis c-nigrum form nigrescens Buresch, 1914
  • Agrotis c-nigrum var. depravata Bang-Haas, 1912
  • Agrotis degenerata Staudinger, 1889
  • Amathes c-nigrum (Linnaeus)
  • Amathes c-nigrum ab. albinotica Cockayne, 1952
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. brevipennis Lempke, 1962
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. confluens Lempke, 1939
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. cruda Lampke, 1962
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. immaculata Lempke, 1939
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. juncta Lempke, 1939
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. pallida Lempke, 1962
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. semiconfluens Lempke, 1962
  • Amathes c-nigrum f. signata Lempke, 1962
  • Amathes c-nigrum ignorata Eitschberger, 1972
  • Amathes e-nigrum f. fuscolimbata Lempke, 1962
  • Bombyx gothica var. nunatrum Esper [1786]
  • Bombyx gothica var. singularis Esper [1786]
  • Diarsia c-nigrum kurilana Bryk, 1942
  • Graphiphora c-nigrum (Linnaeus)
  • Noctua c-nigrum (Linnaeus)
  • Noctua c-nigrum ab. grisea Turner, 1939
  • Noctua c-nigrum var. rosea Tutt, 1892
  • Phalaena c-nigrum (Linnaeus)
  • Phalaena Noctua c-nigrum Linnaeus, 1758
  • Rhyacia c-nigrum (Linnaeus)
  • Xestia adela Franclemont, 1980

International Common Names

  • English: black c-moth; cutworm, spotted; setaceous hebrew character
  • French: noctuelle c-noir; ver-gris tachete

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: sort c
  • Finland: c-merkkinen maayökkönen
  • Germany: Erdraupen-art
  • Japan: siromon-yaga
  • Sweden: c-tecknet jordfly

EPPO code

  • AMATCN (Xestia c-nigrum)
  • RHYICN (Rhyacia c-nigrum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Xestia
  •                                 Species: Xestia c-nigrum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentAbdinbekova and Akhmedov, 1981; Abdinbekova et al., 1982; Guseinov, 1985
ChinaPresentHampson, 1903
-ShaanxiPresentBoursin, 1963
-ShanxiPresentBoursin, 1963
-YunnanPresentBoursin, 1963
-ZhejiangPresentBoursin, 1963
Georgia (Republic of)PresentLysenko et al., 1971
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Himachal PradeshPresentCotes and Swinhoe, 1887; Hampson, 1903
-Indian PunjabPresentCotes and Swinhoe, 1887; Hampson, 1903; Singh, 1977
-KarnatakaPresentSingh, 1982
-MaharashtraPresentCotes and Swinhoe, 1887
-MeghalayaPresentCotes and Swinhoe, 1887
-SikkimPresentHampson, 1903
-Tamil NaduPresentCotes and Swinhoe, 1887; Hampson, 1903; Chandramohan, 1996
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoWidespreadFujimura, 1976b; Goto et al., 1986a; Goto et al., 1986b; Tsutsui and Hayakawa, 1991
-HonshuPresentOku and Kobayashi, 1985
KazakhstanPresentShek, 1965
Korea, DPRPresentHampson, 1903
Korea, Republic ofPresentEguchi, 1926; APPPC, 1987
KyrgyzstanPresentIl'-ichev & Smolich, 1989
PakistanPresentHampson, 1903
TurkeyPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
UzbekistanPresentIl'-ichev & Komkov, 1987
VietnamPresentDe Joannis, 1928

Africa

MoroccoPresentCayrol, 1972

North America

CanadaWidespreadJones, 1951; Lafontaine, 1998
-AlbertaWidespreadBowman, 1951; Lafontaine, 1998
-British ColumbiaWidespreadJones, 1951; Lafontaine, 1998
-ManitobaPresentWylie and Ayre, 1979; Lafontaine, 1998
-New BrunswickWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
-Newfoundland and LabradorWidespreadMorris, 1980; Lafontaine, 1998
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentLafontaine, 1998
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadFerguson, 1954; Lafontaine, 1998
-OntarioWidespreadRockburne and Lafontaine, 1976; Lafontaine, 1998
-QuebecWidespreadRockburne and Lafontaine, 1976; Handfield, 1997; Lafontaine, 1998
-SaskatchewanPresentLafontaine, 1998
-Yukon TerritoryPresentLafontaine and Wood, 1997; Lafontaine, 1998
MexicoWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaWidespreadOldroyd, 1947; Lafontaine, 1998
-ArizonaPresentLafontaine, 1998
-CaliforniaWidespreadDibble et al., 1979a; Lafontaine, 1998
-ColoradoWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
-IdahoWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
-MaineWidespreadBrower, 1974; Lafontaine, 1998
-MichiganWidespreadMoore, 1955; Marmor et al., 1981; Lafontaine, 1998
-MinnesotaWidespreadKnutson, 1944; Lafontaine, 1998
-MontanaWidespreadCook, 1930; Lafontaine, 1998
-NebraskaWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
-NevadaPresentLafontaine, 1998
-New HampshirePresentLafontaine, 1998
-New MexicoWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
-New YorkWidespreadForbes, 1954; Lafontaine, 1998
-North CarolinaPresentLafontaine, 1998
-OhioWidespreadRings et al., 1992; Lafontaine, 1998
-OregonWidespreadKieffer et al., 1983; Lafontaine, 1998
-PennsylvaniaPresentLafontaine, 1998
-UtahPresentLafontaine, 1998
-VermontWidespreadGrehan et al., 1995; Lafontaine, 1998
-WashingtonWidespreadHowell, 1979; Howell and George, 1979; Wright and Cone, 1980; Lafontaine, 1998
-West VirginiaPresentLafontaine, 1998
-WisconsinWidespreadLafontaine, 1998
-WyomingWidespreadLafontaine, 1998

Central America and Caribbean

El SalvadorPresentLafontaine, 1998

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
AustriaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
BelgiumPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
BulgariaWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996; Subchev et al., 1996
Czech RepublicWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
DenmarkWidespreadNordström et al., 1969; Karsholdt et al., 1985; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
EstoniaWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
FinlandWidespreadNordström et al., 1969; Mikkola and Jalas, 1977; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
FranceWidespreadRahn, 1983; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-CorsicaWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
GermanyWidespreadBlobner, 1984; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
GreeceWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
HungaryWidespreadSzeoke, 1976; Meszaros et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996; Subchev et al., 1996
IcelandPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
IrelandWidespreadBretherton et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
ItalyWidespreadGuda & Capizza, 1988; Pucci & Paparatti, 1987; Molinari et al., 1995
LatviaWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
LithuaniaWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
LuxembourgWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
MaltaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
NetherlandsWidespreadLempke, 1962; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
NorwayWidespreadNordström, 1969; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
PolandWidespreadLipa, 1976; Nowacki, 1992; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
PortugalWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-AzoresPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-MadeiraPresentWolff, 1977
RomaniaWidespreadIonescu, 1985; Ionescu, 1986; Rosca et al., 1986; Brudea and Rosca, 1992; Subchev et al., 1996
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaWidespreadIl'-ichev & Komkov, 1987; Tyshchenko and Tyshchenko, 1988
-Eastern SiberiaPresentHampson, 1903; Kononenko et al., 1989
-Russian Far EastWidespreadDashevskii and Rybakova, 1979
-Southern RussiaWidespreadBabchuk et al., 1978; Tyshchenko and Tyshchenko, 1988
-Western SiberiaPresentMusich, 1976
SlovakiaWidespreadCaputa, 1982; Panigaj, 1984; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
SpainWidespreadGarrido et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
SwedenWidespreadNordström et al., 1969; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
SwitzerlandWidespreadNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
UKWidespreadBretherton et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-Channel IslandsPresentBretherton et al., 1979
UkraineWidespreadKlyuchko & Koval', 1981; Babchuk et al., 1978; Klyuchko et al., 1981
Yugoslavia (former)PresentTradic, 1979; Vasic and Jodal, 1976

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Seeds / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Athrycia trepida Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Banchus flavescens Parasite Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Carcelia gnava Parasite Larvae
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae
Cotesia congregata Parasite Larvae
Cotesia xylinus Parasite Larvae
Cotesia yakutatensis Parasite Larvae
Dibrachys cavus Parasite Larvae
Dicrocheles scedastes Parasite
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen Larvae
Entomophthora inexpectatum Pathogen Larvae
Erynia gammae Pathogen Larvae
Erynia radicans Pathogen Larvae
Euphorocera claripennis Parasite Larvae
Euplectrus bicolor Parasite Larvae
Euplectrus frontalis Parasite Larvae
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Ichneumon melanotis Parasite Larvae
Linnaemya picta Parasite Larvae
Linnaemya picta Parasite Larvae
Meloboris leucaniae Parasite Larvae
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Larvae
Meteorus gyrator Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla floralis Parasite Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Panzeria rudis Parasite Larvae
Phorocera assimilis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Ramonda spathulata Parasite Larvae
Sorosporella uvella Pathogen Larvae
Tachina fera Parasite Larvae
Trichogramma Parasite
Turanogonia chinensis Parasite Larvae
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae
Winthemia quadripustulata Parasite Larvae

References

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Abdinbekova AA, Akhmedov RM, 1981. Features of the photoperiodic adaptation of some species of owlet moths (Noctuidae, Agrotinae) in Azerbaijan. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskogo Obshchestva, 63:166-168

Abdinbekova AA, Akhmedov RM, Guseinov SI, 1982. Analysis of the phenology of some species of owlet moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Azerbaijan. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 61(6):949-953

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Arnaud PH Jr, 1978. A host-parasite catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). Miscellaneous Publication, Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 1319:[4 +] 860 pp

Babchuk IV, Klyuchko ZF, Koval' EZ, 1978. Mass reproduction of the black-c moth. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 12:35

Beck H, 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen ( Noctuidae). In: Sachtleben H, Stammer HJ, eds. Abhandlungen zur Larvalsystematik der Insekten. Berlin, Germany: Akademie - Verl., 406 pp

Boursin C, 1963. Die Noctuinae-Arten (Agrotinae vulgo sensu) aus Dr. h.c. H. Höne's China-Ausbeuten (Beitrag zur Fauna Sinica). Forschungsberichte des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, 1170:1-108

Bowman K, 1951. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 29:121-165

Bretherton RF, Goater B, Lorimer RI, 1979. Noctuidae. In: Heath J, Emmet JM, eds. The Butterflies and Moths of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 9. London, UK: Curwen Books, 120-278

Brower AE, 1974. A list of the Lepidoptera of Maine. Part 1. The Macrolepidoptera. Technical Bulletin, Life Sciences and Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Maine, No. 66:136pp

Brudea V, Rosca I, 1992. Identification of the best synthetic pheromones fur use in forecasting and indicating the need for chemical treatment. Cerceta^breve~ri Agronomice i^circumflex~n Moldova, 25(4):95-100; 6 ref

Caputa A, 1982. Occurrence of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in the Gader region and Blatnicky Valley in the Vel'ka Fatra. Entomologicke Problemy, 17:159-249

Carter DJ, 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe, with special reference to the British Isles. Series Entomologica, Volume 31

Carter DJ, Hargreaves B (Illustrator), 1986. A field guide to caterpillars of butterflies and moths in Britain and Europe. London, UK: Collins, 296 pp

Cayrol RA, 1972. Famille des Noctuidae. Sous-famille des Melicleptriinae. Helicoverpa armigera Hb. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Entomologie appliquée à l'agriculture, Vol. 2, Paris, France: Masson et Cie, 1431-1444

Chandramohan N, 1996. Light trap catches of cutworms in the Nilgiris. Madras Agricultural Journal, 83(1):62; 1 ref

CIE, 1979. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 400. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cook WC, 1930. An ecologically annotated list of the Phalaenidae of Montana (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist, 62:257-277

Cotes EC, Swinhoe C, 1887. A Catalogue of the Moths of India, Part 1. Sphinges. Calcutta, India: Trustees of the Indian Museum

Covell CV Jr, 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Co

Crumb SE, 1929. Tobacco cutworms. Technical Bulletin No. 88. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture

Crumb SE, 1932. The more important climbing cutworms. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, 27:73-100

Crumb SE, 1956. The Larvae of the Phalaenidae. Technical Bulletin No. 1135. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture

Dashevskii SV, Rybakova NA, 1979. A test on the control of cutworms. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:34-35

De Joannis J, 1928. LépidoptFres HétérocFres du Tonkin. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 97:241-368

Dibble JE, Joose J, LaVine P, Haire S, Bearden BE, 1979. Climbing cutworms; early-season pests of grapes. California Agriculture, 33(2):14-15

Dibble JE, Joose JL, LaVine PD, Haire SM, Bearden BE, 1979. These worms can be turned. American Fruit Grower, 99:10

Eguchi M, 1926. Noctuidae infesting Sugar-beet. Korea Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin, 3:257-263

Ferguson DC, 1954. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 23 (part 3)

Fibiger M, 1993. Noctuidae Europaeae. Volume 2, Noctuinae II. Soro, Denmark: Entomological Press

Fibiger M, 1997. Noctuidae Europaeae. Volume 3, Noctuinae III. Soro, Denmark: Entomological Press

Forbes WTM, 1954. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part 3 Noctuidae. Cornell, USA: Cornell University Agriculture Experiment Station, Memoir 329

Forster W, Wohlfahrt TA, 1971. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas. Band IV Eulen (Noctuidae). Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung

Franclemont JG, 1980. 'Noctua c-nigrum' in eastern North America, the description of two new species of Xestia Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinp). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 82(4):576-586

Fujimura T, 1976. Mating behaviour and sex attractant of the spotted cutworm moth, Amathes c-nigrum L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology and Zoology, 20(3):133-138

Fujimura T, 1976. Oviposition and host selection by the spotted cutworm, Amathes c-nigrum L. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, No.113:79-85

Fujimura T, 1976. The hibernation of the spotted cutworm, Amathes C-nigrum L. in Tokachi, Hokkaido. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 113:87-93

Garrido A, Lacasa A, Rivero JMdel, 1979. Light-traps at the service of entomological research. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that qualitatively and quantitatively influenced the catches and the species of lepidoptera taken in rice-fields in 1975. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Proteccion Vegetal, No. 10:105-126

Godfrey GL, 1987. Noctuidae (Noctuoidea). In: Stehr FW, ed. Immature Insects. Dubuque, Iowa, USA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 549-578

Goto C, 1990. Enhancement of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) infection by a granulosis virus (GV) isolated from the spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 25(1):135-137

Goto C, Tsutsui H, 1989. Epizootic of Entomophaga aulicp in lepidopterous pests of lucerne. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 33(1):35-38

Goto C, Tsutsui H, Hayakawa H, 1986. Parasites of some noctuid larvae in Hokkaido. I. Parasitic flies. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30(3):204-205

Goto C, Tsutsui H, Hayakawa H, 1986. Parasites of some noctuid larvae in Hokkaido. II. Parasitic wasps. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30(3):205-207

Goto C, Tsutsui H, Honma K, Iizuka T, Nakashima T, 1985. Studies on nuclear polyhedrosis and granulosis viruses of the spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 29(2):102-106

Grehan JR, Parker BL, Nielsen GR, Miller DH, Hedbor JD, Sabourin M, Griggs MS, 1995. Moths and butterflies of Vermont (Lepidoptera. A faunal checklist.) Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Vermont, Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, State of Vermont, Miscellaneous Publication, 116

Guseinov SI, 1985. The effect of photothermic conditions on the development of the spotted cutworm. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 1:23-27

Hampson GF, 1903. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. Volume 4. London, UK

Handfield L, 1997. Liste des LépidoptFres du Québec et du Labrador. Frabreries, Supplément 7

Heppner JB, Inoue H, eds, 1992. Checklist Lepidoptera of Taiwan. Gainesville, USA: Scientific Publishers, 1(2):276 pp

Herting B, 1960. Biology of the westpalaearctic tachina Dipt., Tachinidae. Monographien ang. Ent. 16 (Beihefte Z. ang. Ent.), 1-188

Hinz R, 1991. Investigations on the biology of some species of Ichneumonini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 64(1-2):190-114

Hirai Y, 1977. cis-7-Tetradecen-1-ol acetate: a sex pheromone component of the spotted cutworm moth, Amathes c-nigrum L. In: Kono T, Ishii S, (Chairmen). Proceedings of a symposium on insect pheromones and their applications. Nagaoka and Tokyo, December 8-11, 1976. Japan, Tokyo: Japan Plant Protection Association, 165

Honek A, 1979. Regulation of diapause, number of instars, and body growth in the moth species Amathes c-nigrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomologia Generalis, 5(3):221-229

Howell JF, 1979. Phenology of the adult spotted cutworm in the Yakima Valley. Environmental Entomology, 8(6):1065-1069

Howell JF, George DA, 1979. Spotted cutworm: control in apple orchards with chlorpyrifos. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(1):27-29

Hudson A, Lefkovitch LP, 1982. Allozyme variation in four Ontario populations of Xestia adela and Xestia dolosa and in a British population of Xestia c-nigrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 75(3):250-256

Il'ichev AL, Komkov DYa, 1987. Tests on the sex attractants of polyphagous noctuids. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 6:49

Il'ichev AL, Smolich IP, 1989. Testing the sex pheromones of cutworms. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:39

Inoue H, Sugi S, Kuroko H, Moriuti S, Kawabe A, 1982. Moths of Japan. Vol. 2: Plates and Synonymic Catalogue. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha Co. Ltd

Ionescu C, 1985. Frequency and population dynamics of species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) collected in light traps from the Bucharest area in the period 1979-1984. II. Hadeninp. Buletinul de Protectia Plantelor, No. 1-2:53-60

Ionescu C, 1986. Distribution range, structure and seasonal dynamics, in the year 1982, of the principal species of Lepidoptera Noctuidae of economic importance in Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 19:121-136

Ionescu C, Pasol P, 1987. The structure, distribution and seasonal dynamics of the main noctuid species injurious to crop plants in Romania in 1984. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institutul Agronomic 'Nicolp', Balcescu Bucuresti, Seria A, Agronomie, 30(1):49-57

Karsholdt O, Kristensen NP, Kaaber S, Larsen K, Nielsen ES, Palm E, Schnack K, Skou P, Skule B, 1985. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Denmark. Entomologiske Meddelelser, 52:1-163

Kieffer JN, Shanks CH Jr, Turner WJ, 1983. Populations and control of insects and spiders contaminating mechanically harvested red raspberries in Washington and Oregon. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(3):649-653

Kimball CP, 1965. The Lepidoptera of Florida. An Annotated Checklist. Gainsville, Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture

Klyuchko ZF, Koval' EZ, 1981. The fluctuation of numbers of some mass species of moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) as affected by entomopathogenic fungi in the Ukraine. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 60(4):754-760

Klyuchko ZF, Koval' eZ, 1981. The mass multiplication and abundance dynamics of the black c-moth in the Ukraine in 1978. Noveishie dostizheniya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VeO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.), 93-95

Knutson H, 1944. Minnesota Phalaenidae (Noctuidae): The seasonal history and economic importance of the more common and destructive species. University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin, 165

Kononenko VS, Lafonten DzhD, Mikkola KEF, 1989. Annotated list of owlet moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) of Beringia. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 68(3):549-567

Kovalev BG, Bolgar' TS, Konyukhov VP, 1980. Identification of a component of the sex pheromone of the moth Amathes c-nigrum L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Khemoretseptsiya Nasekomykh, No. 5:48-53

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