Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Xanthosoma sagittifolium
(elephant ear)



Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)


  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xanthosoma sagittifolium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • elephant ear
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • X. sagittifolium is a fast-growing herbaceous plant widely cultivated for underground stems, but also included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (

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Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf and inflorescence
TitleLeaf and inflorescence
CaptionXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf and inflorescence
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf and inflorescence
Leaf and inflorescenceXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf and inflorescence©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf.
CaptionXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf.
LeafXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); leaf.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); inflorescence.
CaptionXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); inflorescence.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); inflorescence.
InflorescenceXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); inflorescence.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); close-up of inflorescence.
CaptionXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); close-up of inflorescence.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); close-up of inflorescence.
InflorescenceXanthosoma sagittifolium (arrowleaf elephant's ear); close-up of inflorescence.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

Preferred Common Name

  • elephant ear

Other Scientific Names

  • Alocasia talihan Elmer ex.Merr.
  • Arum sagittifolium L.
  • Arum xanthorrhizon Jacq.
  • Caladium edule G.Mey.
  • Caladium mafaffa Engl.
  • Caladium sagittifolium (L.) Vent.
  • Caladium utile Engl.
  • Caladium xanthorrhizon (Jaqu.) Willd.
  • Xanthosoma appendiculatum Schott
  • Xanthosoma atrovirens K.Koch & C.D.Bouché
  • Xanthosoma blandum Schott
  • Xanthosoma edule (G. Mey.) Schott
  • Xanthosoma ianthinum K.Koch & C.D.Bouché
  • Xanthosoma jacquinii Schott
  • Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott
  • Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld
  • Xanthosoma peregrinum Griseb.
  • Xanthosoma roseum Schott
  • Xanthosoma utile K.Koch & C.D.Bouché
  • Xanthosoma violaceum Schott
  • Xanthosoma xantharrhizon (Jacq.) K. Koch

International Common Names

  • English: arrowleaf elephant ear; cocoyam; dryland taro; Hawaiian taro; malanga; new cocoyam; new world taro; tania; tannia; taro; yellow ocumo; yellow yautia
  • Spanish: malanga; malanga amarilla; mangaras; mangarito; ocumo; otoy; tanier; taro; tiquisque blanco; yautia; yautia amarilla; yautía blanca
  • French: chou Caraïbe; malanga marron; tannie; taye; tayove

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: gualuza
  • Brazil: adao; batata-de-taxola; costela-de-adao; mangarás; mangareto; mangarito; rascadera; taioba
  • Colombia: mafafa; malangay
  • Cook Islands: taro tarua; tarotarua; tarua
  • Costa Rica: tiquisque
  • Cuba: ania al; diahutia; guagüi; malanga amarilla; malanga blanca; yahibías; yantas
  • Dominican Republic: ania; tahia; tayo; yautía morada
  • Fiji: ghuya; ndalo ni kana; ndalo ni tana
  • Germany: Goldnarbe; Okumo
  • Guatemala: quequeque
  • Haiti: caraibe; malanga thiote; tayo blanc; tayo marrón; tayo noir
  • Honduras: quiscamote
  • Lesser Antilles: calau
  • Mexico: macal
  • Nicaragua: malanga blanca
  • Palau: bisech ra ruk; eball
  • Panama: otó
  • Peru: uncucha
  • Tuvalu: talo palagi
  • Venezuela: ocumo cuman; okumo

EPPO code

  • XATSA (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

Summary of Invasiveness

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X. sagittifolium is a fast-growing herbaceous plant widely cultivated for underground stems, but also included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This species can form mature plants from corms within 14-20 weeks. Once established, mature plants can produce large amount of foliage in the first 6-9 months, and may also produce up to 10 or more corms within 10 months (Valenzuela et al. 1991; Langeland et al., 2008).

X. sagittifolium has been intentionally introduced in many regions to be used as a food crop and fodder (Manner, 2011; FAO, 2013; Prota4U, 2013), and subsequently it has escaped from cultivated areas into natural areas where it becomes invasive (Langeland et al., 2008). It is currently listed as invasive in Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, the Galápagos Islands, Micronesia, and French Polynesia (Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Chacón and Saborío, 2012; PIER, 2013). X. sagittifolium has several adaptations that help it survive and spread. It has the ability to reproduce both sexually by seeds and vegetatively by corms, tubers, and root suckers, and it is also adapted to grow in a great variety of substrates and habitats ranging from full sun to deep shaded areas beneath the canopy of natural forests (Langeland et al., 2008; Manner, 2011).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arales
  •                         Family: Araceae
  •                             Genus: Xanthosoma
  •                                 Species: Xanthosoma sagittifolium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Araceae comprises about 117 genera and 4095 species distributed mostly in tropical areas in the New World, but also in Australia, Africa, and north temperate regions (Stevens, 2012). The genus Xanthosoma includes 50-60 species (Stevens, 2012). The original range of this genus is unclear although most authorities suggest that it is native to the Neotropics, mainly northern South America (Manner, 2011). Most authorities agree that this genus originates in tropical rainforest ecosystems and species have been widely naturalized in wet and humid ecosystems (Manner, 2011).

The FAO datasheet for X. sagittifolium says: “The taxonomic position of the Xanthosoma species cultivated for their underground stems is unclear. The cultivated varieties have been allocated to four species: X. atrovirens, X. caracu, X. nigrum (X. violaceum) and X. sagittifolium, but some cultivars are not assignable to any of these” (FAO, 2013). The recent tendency has been to give the name of X. sagittifolium to all cultivated clones of Xanthosoma until a modern revision of the genus clarifies the taxonomic situation of the species mentioned (FAO, 2013).


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X. sagittifolium is a glabrous, erect, herb up to 2 m tall, acaulescent when young, mature plants with a thick, erect, fleshy stem up to 1 m long, these with numerous leaf scars and sometimes with aerial roots, the base enlarged, ovoid, producing lateral, elongated subterranean, edible tubers or corms. Leaves several, nearly in a rosette in acaulescent plants, or in a distal crown in mature plants; blades horizontal to slightly nodding, with the posterior lobes ascending, 40-100 × 40-70 cm, simple, upper surface dark green with light green primary and secondary veins, lower surface light green, with dark green venation, the apex obtuse, ending in an acute point, the base cordate with non-overlapping lobes, the lowest pair of secondary veins surrounded by marginal tissue at their insertion with the petiole, the margins undulate; petioles erect, 1-1.5 m long, green, invaginate on lower 2/3 , with straight, wavy or sometimes involute margins. Inflorescences 1-3, axillary, ascending; peduncles up to 20 cm long; spathe chartaceous, 13-15 cm long, the tube 6-7 cm long, grayish green, oblong-ovoid, the blade elliptic, erect, concave, adaxially cream to white, shortly acuminate at apex; spadix slightly shorter than the spathe, the pistillate zone cylindrical, the sterile staminate zone conical, pinkish, the fertile staminate zone elongated, ellipsoid, cream. Fruit a small, yellow berry (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Langeland et al., 2008).


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The native distribution range of X. sagittifolium is unclear, but it is suggested that it is native to northern South America including Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela (Manner, 2011; Govaerts, 2013). It is widely naturalized in the West Indies, Central America, tropical Africa, tropical Asia and islands in the Pacific Ocean (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2013; PIER, 2013; Prota4U, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroducedSwarbrick, 1997
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013


BeninPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
GabonPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Langeland et al., 2008
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
BrazilPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EcuadorPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
PeruPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
VenezuelaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013


American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013Cultivated
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1979
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Lorence and Wagner, 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987
KiribatiPresentIntroducedThaman et al., 1994Cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedWagner et al., 2013
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Lorence and Flynn, 2010
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroducedSykes and West, 1996
NiuePresentIntroducedSykes, 1970
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Orchard, 1994
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987Cultivated
PalauPresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2009
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Hancock et al., 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

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According to the FAO (2013), the cultivation of X. sagittifolium must be very old in the New World. It may have originated in the northern part of South America and spread through the West Indies and Mesoamerica. When the Europeans arrived to America, the cultivation of this plant species was known from Central America to Bolivia, but more intensive in the West Indies (FAO, 2013). For instance, in 1881 it is listed as a common species in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico (Bello Espinosa, 1881). In Florida (USA), where it is listed as invasive, it has been cultivated commercially since 1963, but may have been introduced earlier for ornamental purposes (Morton 1972). From the Americas, X. sagittifolium reached West Africa probably during the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries, associated with the slave trade. In Africa, this species has traditionally been a subsistence crop (FAO, 2013; Prota4U, 2013).

Risk of Introduction

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X. sagittifolium is a fast-growing herb that has escaped from cultivation and become invasive in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2013). Plants produce underground corms and stems which can produce new plants very quickly. In addition, corms may remain dormant in very heavy shade and resprout when a light gap is formed (Langeland et al., 2008). In consequence, the probability of invasion of this species, especially in areas near to cultivated fields, remains high.


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X. sagittifolium is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world. It grows best in humid tropical rainforest climates and can be found naturalized along stream banks and in moist shady areas (Manner, 2011). In Florida, it can be found in disturbed wetlands, mesic pinelands, wet ditches, and adjacent to freshwater swamps and springs (Langeland et al., 2008). In the West Indies, it is cultivated and naturalized in moist or wet, disturbed areas (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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The chromosome number reported for X. sagittifolium is 2n = 26 (Kuruvilla et al., 1989). 

Reproductive Biology

In Xanthosoma, the inflorescence is an erect spathe with the basal area forming a tube that surrounds the spadix. The spadix includes female flowers at the base, male flowers towards the tip, and sterile flowers in between, in the region compressed by the neck of the spathe. Flowers are visited and probably pollinated by euglossine bees, beetles and flies (Gibernau, 2003). 

Physiology and Phenology

X. sagittifolium is a fast-growing perennial herb and new mature plants can be produced from a small portion of corm or stem. Root formation and rapid root growth take place immediately after planting, followed by rapid growth of the shoot, and after 14-20 weeks it is possible to have complete mature plants. Corms can remain viable underground and survive through unfavorable environmental conditions such as drought. Corms can also be stored for up to 18 weeks or more in dry conditions, but unplanted corms can sprout within a few weeks in hot, humid conditions (Langeland et al., 2008; Manner, 2011). 

Environmental Requirements

X. sagittifolium is best suited to humid tropical rainforest climates from sea level up to 1500 m of elevation and with temperatures ranging from 13°C to 30°C and annual precipitations greater than 150 cm (Manner, 2011). It is well adapted to grow in shaded conditions and for that reason it is common to find this species growing under coconut, cocoa, banana or coffee plantations (Manner, 2011). X. sagittifolium grows in a wide range of soils except hard clay or pure sands. It does not tolerate waterlogged soils and does best in moist, well-drained organic soil with pH of 5.5 – 6.5 (Langeland et al., 2008; Manner, 2011). Leaves may die back, but corms can continue to grow in water-stressed conditions (Langeland et al., 2008).


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Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 13 29


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall15003000mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Achatina fulica Herbivore All Stages to genus N
Erwinia Pathogen Seedlings to genus N
Pseudomonas Pathogen Seedlings to genus N
Pythium Pathogen All Stages to genus N
Rhizoctonia Pathogen All Stages to genus N

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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X. sagittifolium spreads by seeds, underground corms, tubers, root suckers, and stems. Seeds in this species are uncommon. Tubers, corms, and root suckers easily re-spread producing new plants. In addition, corms can remain on the ground for several months waiting for suitable environmental conditions to sprout (Langeland et al., 2008).

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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X. sagittifolium is an invasive fast-growing herb with the potential to displace native vegetation. It has become naturalized outside its native distribution range and can form dense thickets along rivers, lake shores, and wetlands (Langeland et al., 2008; PIER, 2013). It is also displacing native vegetation mainly in moist secondary forests and in disturbed areas along roadsides where dense populations are able to emerge near cultivation areas.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately


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X. sagittifolium is mainly cultivated for its starchy tubers and corms, but the leaves are also consumed. Tubers and leaves are cooked for human consumption. The corms are mostly used to feed animals or are dried, peeled and ground to produce flour. Corms are also used to produce starch (Manner, 2011). In Africa, X. sagittifolium is also medicinally applied against burns (Prota4U, 2013). Sometimes the species is used as an intercrop in cocoa and coffee plantations.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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X. sagittifolium can be distinguished from Colocasia esculenta (taro), by the place where the petiole meets the leaf. In Xanthosoma, the petiole attachment is at the margin of the leaf while in Colocasia, the petiole attachment is peltate or more middle-leaf (Manner, 2011).


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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 52:1-416.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies.

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

FAO, 2013. FAO Species profile: Xanthosoma sagittifolium.

Fosberg FR; Sachet M-H; Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia 20: 1-2, 19-129.

Gibernau M, 2003. Pollinators and visitors of aroid inflorescences. Aroideana, 26:73-91.

Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Araceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station.

Kuruvilla KM; Dutt B; Boy RP, 1989. Karyomorphological investigations on aroids of North-Eastern Hills. Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 24:13-22.

Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.

Lorence DH; Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 26 pp.

Lorence DH; Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Manner HI, 2011. Farm and forestry production and marketing profile for Tannia (Xanthosoma spp). In: Specialty crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry [ed. by Elevitch, C. R.]. Holualoa, Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), 1-16.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.

Morton JF; 1972, publ. 1973. Cocoyams (Xanthosoma caracu, X. atrovirens and X. nigrum), ancient root- and leaf-vegetables, gaining in economic importance. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 85:85-94.

Orchard AE, 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.

Prota4U, 2013. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp.

Smith AC, 1979. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji. Hawaii, Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1:495.

Space JC; Lorence DH; LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 227.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. J.T. Swarbrick, Weed Science Consultancy, 131 pp.

Sykes WR, 1970. Contributions to the Flora of Niue. Bulletin. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, 200:321 pp.

Sykes WR; West CJ, 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 34(4):447-462.

Thaman RR, 1987. Plants of Kiribati: a listing and analysis of vernacular names. Atoll Research Bulletin, 296:1-42.

Thaman RR; Fosberg FR; Manner HI; Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392:1-223.

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Valenzuela HR; O'Hair SK; Schaffer B, 1991. Developmental light environment and net gas exchange of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116(2):372-375.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Weitzman A; Lorence DH, 2013. Flora of Micronesia. Washington, DC, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa


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11/02/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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