Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni
(bacterial canker of stone fruit)

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Datasheet

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (bacterial canker of stone fruit)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial canker of stone fruit
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Xanthomonadales
  •         Family: Xanthomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bacterial spot on apricot.
TitleSymptoms on apricot
CaptionBacterial spot on apricot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Bacterial spot on apricot.
Symptoms on apricotBacterial spot on apricot.©Alan L. Jones
Stanley plum with bacterial spot. Note purple lesions on the fruit.
TitleSymptoms on plum
CaptionStanley plum with bacterial spot. Note purple lesions on the fruit.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Stanley plum with bacterial spot. Note purple lesions on the fruit.
Symptoms on plumStanley plum with bacterial spot. Note purple lesions on the fruit.©Alan L. Jones
Pitting of the flesh of peach due to bacterial spot.
TitleSymptoms on peach fruit
CaptionPitting of the flesh of peach due to bacterial spot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Pitting of the flesh of peach due to bacterial spot.
Symptoms on peach fruitPitting of the flesh of peach due to bacterial spot.©Alan L. Jones
Yellowing and tip burning of peach leaves with bacterial spot.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionYellowing and tip burning of peach leaves with bacterial spot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Yellowing and tip burning of peach leaves with bacterial spot.
Symptoms on leavesYellowing and tip burning of peach leaves with bacterial spot.©Alan L. Jones
Bacterial spot cankers on peach twigs at bud break in spring.
TitleSymptoms on peach twigs
CaptionBacterial spot cankers on peach twigs at bud break in spring.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Bacterial spot cankers on peach twigs at bud break in spring.
Symptoms on peach twigsBacterial spot cankers on peach twigs at bud break in spring.©Alan L. Jones
Pitting and gumming on nectarines with bacterial spot.
TitleSymptoms on nectarine
CaptionPitting and gumming on nectarines with bacterial spot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Pitting and gumming on nectarines with bacterial spot.
Symptoms on nectarinePitting and gumming on nectarines with bacterial spot.©Alan L. Jones
Symptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni on cherry fruits.
TitleSymptoms on cherry
CaptionSymptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni on cherry fruits.
CopyrightGiorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni on cherry fruits.
Symptoms on cherrySymptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni on cherry fruits.Giorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on tree.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on tree.
CopyrightGiorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on tree.
SymptomsSymptoms of X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on tree.Giorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms on X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms on X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on leaves.
CopyrightGiorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms on X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on leaves.
SymptomsSymptoms on X. arboricola pv. pruni infection on leaves.Giorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Smith) Vauterin, Hoste, Kersters & Swings

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial canker of stone fruit

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus pruni (Smith) Holland 1920
  • Bacterium cerasi wraggi (Sackett) Elliott 1930
  • Bacterium pruni (Smith) Smith 1905
  • Phytomonas cerasi wraggi Sackett 1925
  • Phytomonas pruni (Smith) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas cerasi wraggi Sackett 1925
  • Pseudomonas pruni Smith 1903
  • Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye
  • Xanthomonas pruni (Smith) Dawson

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial leaf spot of stone fruit; bacterial shot-hole of stone fruit; bacterial spot of stone fruit; black spot of stone fruit
  • Spanish: manchas bacterianas de los arboles de hueso; manchas negras bacterianas de los arboles de hueso
  • French: bactériose des arbres fruitiers à noyau; tache bactérienne des arbres fruitiers à noyau

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattfleckenbakteriose: Steinobst; Fruchtfleckenbakteriose: Steinobst

EPPO code

  • XANTPR (Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Xanthomonadales
  •                 Family: Xanthomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Xanthomonas
  •                         Species: Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent, Localized

Asia

ChinaPresent, Widespread
-AnhuiPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
IranAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
JordanPresent, Localized
LebanonPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Localized
TajikistanPresent

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
BelgiumPresent, Few occurrences
BulgariaAbsent, Formerly present
CyprusAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
FrancePresent, Localized
GermanyPresent, Few occurrences
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences
ItalyPresent, Localized
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Localized
NorwayPresent
RomaniaPresent, Localized
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent, Localized
SlovakiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
SloveniaPresent, Localized
SpainPresent, Localized
-Balearic IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent, Few occurrences
UkrainePresent
United KingdomAbsent, Eradicated

North America

BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent, Localized
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresent, Localized
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent, Localized
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent, Localized
-QueenslandPresent, Localized
-VictoriaPresent, Localized
-Western AustraliaPresent, Localized
New ZealandPresent, Few occurrences

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
UruguayPresent, Widespread

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / malformed skin
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark

References

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===, 1978. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 1. Bulletin, Organisation Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes, 8(2)

Anderson HW, 1956. Diseases of Fruit Crops. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 206-215

Battilani P, Rossi V, Saccardi A, 1999. Development of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni epidemics on peaches. Journal of Plant Pathology, 81(3):161-171; 38 ref

Bazzi C, Mazzucchi U, 1984. Updated notes on the most important bacterial diseases of fruit plants in the nursery. Informatore Fitopatologico, 34(3):51-62

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2015. Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 340 (Edition 6)

Dunegan JC, 1932. The bacterial spot disease of the peach and other stone fruits. Technical Bulletin US Department of Agriculture No. 273

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Gitaitis RD, Hamm JD, Bertrand PF, 1988. Differentiation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni from other yellow-pigmented bacteria by the refractive quality of bacterial colonies on an agar medium. Plant Disease, 72(5):416-417

Goodman CA, Hattingh MJ, 1988. Mechanical transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni in plum nursery trees. Plant Disease, 72(7):643

Hayward AC, Waterston JM, 1965. Xanthomonas pruni. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 50. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jami, F., Kazempour, M. N., Elahinia, S. A., Khodakaramian, G., 2005. First report of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on stone fruit trees from Iran. Journal of Phytopathology, 153(6), 371-372. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.00975.x

Lelliott RA, 1988. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Phillips DH, Lelliott RA, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 167-168

Marchi G, Cinelli T, Surico G, 2011. Bacterial leaf spot caused by the quarantine pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on cherry laurel in Central Italy. Plant Disease, 95(1):74. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Moffett ML, 1973. Bacterial spot of stone fruit in Queensland. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 26(1):171-179

Palacio-Bielsa A, Roselló M, Cambra MA, López MM, 2010. First report on almond in Europe of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Plant Disease, 94(6):786. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Papdiwal PB, Deshpande KB, 1979. Occurrence of Xanthomonas pruni (E.F. Smith) Dowson on Terminalia catappa L. Marathwada University Journal of Science (Natural Sciences), 18(11):37-38

Plessis HJdu, 1983. Chemical control of bacterial spot on plums: preliminary evaluation of bactericides. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 33(11):413-418

Plessis HJdu, 1987. Canker development on plum shoots following systemic movement of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni from inoculated leaves. Plant Disease, 71(12):1078-1080

Plessis HJdu, 1988. Bacterial spot disease of stone fruits; overview of findings. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 38(4):128-132

Plessis HJdu, 1988. Differential virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni to peach, plum, and apricot cultivars. Phytopathology, 78(10):1312-1315

Pothier, J. F., Pelludat, C., Bünter, M., Genini, M., Vogelsanger, J., Duffy, B., 2010. First report of the quarantine pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on apricot and plum in Switzerland. Plant Pathology, 59(2), 404. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02247.x

Randhawa PS, Civerolo EL, 1985. A detached-leaf bioassay for Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni. Phytopathology, 75(9):1060-1063

Ritchie DF, 1995. Bacterial spot. In: Ogawa JM et al., eds. Compendium of Stone Fruit Diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 50-52

Schwarczinger, I., Bozsó, Z., Szatmári, Á., Süle, S., Szabó, Z., Király, L., 2017. First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on apricot in Hungary. Plant Disease, 101(6), 1031. doi: 10.1094/pdis-11-16-1582-pdn

Schwarczinger, I., Bozsó, Z., Szatmári, Á., Süle, S., Szabó, Z., Nagy, G., Király, L., 2018. First report of bacterial leaf spot caused by the quarantine pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on peach in Hungary. Plant Disease, 102(8), 1654. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-17-1952-PDN

Scortichini M, Janse JD, Rossi MP, Derks JHJ, 1996. Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni strains from different hosts by pathogenicity tests and analysis of whole-cell fatty acids and whole-cell proteins. Journal of Phytopathology, 144(2):69-74; 26 ref

Shen YM, Huang TC, Chao CH, Liu HL, 2013. First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on Japanese plum in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 97(6):835. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Shepard DP, Zehr EI, Bridges WC, 1999. Increased susceptibility to bacterial spot of peach trees growing in soil infested with Criconemella xenoplax. Plant Disease, 83(10):961-963; 13 ref

Thornberry HH, Anderson HW, 1933. Overwintering of Phytomonas pruni on peach. Phytopathology, 23:787-801

Tjou-Tam-Sin NNA, Bilt JLJvan de, Bergsma-Vlami M, Koenraadt H, Westerhof J, Doorn Jvan, Pham KTK, Martin WS, 2012. First report of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in ornamental Prunus laurocerasus in the Netherlands. Plant Disease, 96(5):759. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Topp BL, Heaton JB, Russell DM, Mayer R, 1989. Field susceptibility of Japanese-type plums to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 29(6):905-909

Vauterin L, Hoste B, Kersters K, Swings J, 1995. Reclassification of Xanthomonas. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 45(3):472-489

Young JM, 1987. Orchard management and bacterial diseases of stone fruit. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 15(2):257-266

Zaccardelli M, Ceroni P, Mazzucchi U, 1999. Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Journal of Plant Pathology, 81(3):173-179; 16 ref

Zaccardelli M, Consiglio MF, Mazzucchi U, 1995. Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni in symptomless peach trees in winter. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 34(3):199-203; 10 ref

Distribution References

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2015. Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 340 (Edition 6). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20153159074

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Haack S E, Wade L, Förster H, Adaskaveg J E, 2020. Epidemiology and management of bacterial spot of almond caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, a new disease in California. Plant Disease. 104 (6), 1685-1693. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2087-RE

Iličić R, Popović T, 2020. Occurrence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni causing bacterial leaf spot and shot-hole on peach in Montenegro. Plant Disease. 104 (4), 1250-1250. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1309-PDN

Iličić R, Popović T, 2021. Occurrence of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on peach and apricot in Serbia. Plant Disease. 105 (3), 697-697. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-20-1817-PDN

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jami F, Kazempour M N, Elahinia S A, Khodakaramian G, 2005. First report of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on stone fruit trees from Iran. Journal of Phytopathology. 153 (6), 371-372. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.00975.x

Marchi G, Cinelli T, Surico G, 2011. Bacterial leaf spot caused by the quarantine pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on cherry laurel in Central Italy. Plant Disease. 95 (1), 74. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-10-0529

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Palacio-Bielsa A, Roselló M, Cambra M A, López M M, 2010. First report on almond in Europe of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Plant Disease. 94 (6), 786. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-6-0786B

Pothier J F, Pelludat C, Bünter M, Genini M, Vogelsanger J, Duffy B, 2010. First report of the quarantine pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on apricot and plum in Switzerland. Plant Pathology. 59 (2), 404. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02247.x

Schwarczinger I, Bozsó Z, Szatmári Á, Süle S, Szabó Z, Király L, 2017. First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on apricot in Hungary. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1031. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-16-1582-pdn

Shen Y M, Huang T C, Chao C H, Liu H L, 2013. First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on Japanese plum in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 835. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1094-PDN

Tjou-Tam-Sin N N A, Bilt J L J van de, Bergsma-Vlami M, Koenraadt H, Westerhof J, Doorn J van, Pham K T K, Martin W S, 2012. First report of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in ornamental Prunus laurocerasus in the Netherlands. Plant Disease. 96 (5), 759. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-11-0265-PDN

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