Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
(rice leaf blight)

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Datasheet

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rice leaf blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Xanthomonadales
  •         Family: Xanthomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on blighted leaves in the field.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on blighted leaves in the field.
Copyright©Chin Khoon Min
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on blighted leaves in the field.
Field symptomsXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on blighted leaves in the field.©Chin Khoon Min
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on rice leaves, showing young water-soaked lesions at leaf tips.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on rice leaves, showing young water-soaked lesions at leaf tips.
Copyright©Chin Khoon Min
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on rice leaves, showing young water-soaked lesions at leaf tips.
SymptomsXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (rice leaf blight); bacterial blight on rice leaves, showing young water-soaked lesions at leaf tips.©Chin Khoon Min

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Ishiyama 1922) Swings et al. 1990

Preferred Common Name

  • rice leaf blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium oryzae (Uyeda & Ishiyama) Nak., 1928
  • Phytomonas oryzae (Ishiyama) Magrou 1937
  • Pseudomonas oryzae Ishiyama
  • Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama 1922) Dye 1978
  • Xanthomonas itoana (Tachinai) Dowson
  • Xanthomonas kresek Schure 1953
  • Xanthomonas oryzae (Ishiyama 1922) Swings et al. 1990
  • Xanthomonas translucens f. sp. oryzae Jones et al; Dowson; Ishiyama; Pordesimo

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial leaf blight of rice; kresek disease; rice bacterial leaf blight; rice kresek disease
  • Spanish: enfermedad bacteriana de las hojas del arroz
  • French: maladie bactérienne des feuilles du riz

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Backterieller Blattbrand; bakterielle weissenfleckenkrankheit

EPPO code

  • XANTOR (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Xanthomonadales
  •                 Family: Xanthomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Xanthomonas
  •                         Species: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentAfolabi et al. (2016); Onasanya et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
Burkina FasoPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BurundiPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
CameroonPresentJones et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentAbd El-Ghafar (2004)
GabonPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GambiaPresentOnasanya et al. (2009)
MadagascarAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Buddenhagen (1985); EPPO (2020)
MaliPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); Séré et al. (2005); EPPO (2020)
NigerPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentCABI (Undated a)
SenegalPresent, Few occurrencesBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentAshura et al. (1999)
TogoPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); Zhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentHuang et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HainanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI (Undated a)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-ChhattisgarhPresentAbdul Khalid and Sinha (2008); EPPO (2020)
-DelhiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-GoaPresentGhose et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBradbury (1986); Tikoo et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PuducherryPresentMadhiazhangan (2000)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-RajasthanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-TripuraPresentEPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SulawesiPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentGhasemie et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentKueh et al. (1985); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NepalPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ThailandPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

Europe

RussiaAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Russian Far EastAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Southern RussiaAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)
UkraineAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Koroleva et al. (1985); EPPO (2020)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)

North America

Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Costa RicaPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NicaraguaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresent, Few occurrencesBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedJones et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentJones et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentJones et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

South America

BoliviaPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaAbsentCABI (Undated); Bradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), 2014, personal communication
EcuadorPresent, Few occurrencesBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Seeds / discolorations
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Wood

References

Top of page

Abd El-Ghafar NY, 2004. Bacteria associated with rice grains and their potential pathogenicity. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1):425-435

Abdul Khalid, Sinha AP, 2008. Cultural, morphological and biochemical variability in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 16(2):516-517. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Afolabi O, Amoussa R, Bilé M, Oludare A, Gbogbo V, Poulin L, Koebnik R, Szurek B, Silué D, 2016. First report of bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Benin. Plant Disease, 100(2):515. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Agarwal PC, Mortensen CN, Mathur SB, 1989. Seed-borne diseases and seed health testing of rice. Phytopathological Papers, No. 30:106 pp.; 10 pp. of ref

Alvarez AM, Rehman FU, Leach JE, 1997. Comparison of serological and molecular methods for detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice seed. Seed health testing: progress towards the 21st century., 175-183; 21 ref

Anuratha CS, Gnanamanickam SS, 1987. Pseudomonas fluorescens suppresses development of bacterial blight (BB) symptoms. International Rice Research Newsletter, 12(1):17

Ashura LK, Mabagala RB, Mortensen CN, 1999. Isolation and characterization of seed-borne pathogenic bacteria from rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(1):71-80; 28 ref

Awoderu VA, Bangura N, John VT, 1991. Incidence, distribution and severity of bacterial diseases on rice in West Africa. Tropical Pest Management, 37(2):113-117

Benedict AA, Alvarez AM, Berestecky J, Imanaka W, Mizumoto CY, Pollard LW, Mew TW, Gonzalez CF, 1989. Pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies for Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae and for Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola. Phytopathology, 79(3):322-328

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Buddenhagen IW, 1985. Rice disease evaluation in Madagascar. International Rice Commission Newsletter, 34(1):74-78

CABI/EPPO, 1997. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases , (December (Edition 6)) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Map 304.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2016. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 304 (Edition 7)

Chithrashree, Udayashankar AC, Nayaka SC, Reddy MS, Srinivas C, 2011. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria mediate induced systemic resistance in rice against bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Biological Control, 59(2):114-122. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049964411001629

Durgapal JC, 1985. Self-sown plants from bacterial blight-infected rice seeds a possible source of primary infection in North-West India. Current Science, India, 54(24):1283-1284

Durgapal JC, Baleshwar Singh, Pandey KR, 1980. Mode of infection of rice seeds by Xanthomonas oryzae. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 50(8):624-626

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212

EPPO, 1995. Prospects for plant quarantine in Russia. EPPO Reporting Service 1995-01, 2-3. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

EPPO, 2007. Xanthomonas oryzae. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 37(3):543-553. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2007.01162.x

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

George MLC, Bustamam M, Cruz WT, Leach JE, Nelson RJ, 1997. Movement of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in southeast Asia detected using PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. Phytopathology, 87(3):302-309; 26 ref

Ghasemie E, Kazempour MN, Padasht F, 2008. Isolation and identification of Xathomonas oryzae pv. oryzae the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice in Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 48(1):53-62. http://www.plantprotection.pl

Ghose S, Prabhudesai HR, Dias A, Sundarajan SP, Mirajgaonkar PK, 1987. Rice insects and diseases in Goa, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 12(2):35

Hassankiadeh AA, Kazempour MN, Dehkaei FP, Rahimian H, 2011. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae from rice seeds through bio-PCR technique in paddy fields of Guilan province in northern Iran. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica, 44(2):71-76. http://www.agriculturaits.czu.cz/pdf_files/vol_44_2_pdf/hassankiadeh.pdf

Huang BC, Chen ZC, Mei PJ, Liang JH, Zhou ZG, 1989. Studies on the epidemic model of rice bacterial blight in the Pearl River delta. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 22(1):62-67

Jain RK, Dath AP, Devadath S, 1984. Correlation between foliage and seed infection of bacterial blight of rice. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 2(2):193-194

Jones MP, Jeutong F, Tchatchoua J, 1991. Diseases of rice in Cameroon. International Rice Research Newsletter, 16(1):19-20

Jones RK, Barnes LW, Gonzalez CF, Leach JE, Alvarez AM, Benedict AA, 1989. Identification of low-virulence strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae from rice in the United States. Phytopathology, 79(9):984-990

Kauffman HE, Reddy APK, 1975. Seed transmission studies of Xanthomonas oryzae in rice. Phytopathology, 65(6):663-666

Kim HM, Song WY, 1996. Characterization of ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region of several seedborne bacterial pathogens of rice. Seed Science and Technology, 24(3):571-580; 30 ref

Koroleva IB, Gvozdyak RI, Pasichnik LA, 1985. Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, causal agent of a bacterial disease of rice seeds in the Ukraine. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal, 47(6):93-95

Kueh TK, Teo GK, Wong C, Chai CC, 1985. Rice diseases. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, for the year 1983 Kuching, Sarawak; Minist. Agric. Community Development, 35-37

Leach JE, White FF, Rhoads ML, Leung H, 1990. A repetitive DNA sequence differentiates Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae from other pathovars of X. campestris. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 3(4):238-246

Lelliott RA, Stead DE, 1987. Methods for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases of plants. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 216 pp

Li ZZ, Zhao H, Ying XD, 1985. The weed carriers of bacterial leaf blight of rice. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 15(4):246-248

Liao X, Zhu S, Zhao W, Luo K, Qi Y, 2003. Detection and identification of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola by real-time fluorescent PCR. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 43(5):626-634

Lozano JC, 1977. Identification of bacterial leaf blight in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae, in America. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):644-648

Madhiazhangan K, 2000. A new pathotype of bacterial blight pathogen of rice in Union Territory of Pondicherry. Indian Phytopathology, 53(3):335-336

Mary CA, Nair SK, Saraswathi P, 2001. Survival of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Ishiyama, 1922), Swings et al., 1990. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 39(1):76-78

Mew TW, Alvarez AM, Leach JE, Swings J, 1993. Focus on bacterial blight of rice. Plant Disease, 77(1):5-12

Ming D, Ye HZ, Schaad NW, Roth DA, 1991. Selective recovery of Xanthomonas spp. from rice seed. Phytopathology, 81(11):1358-1363

Mukherjee P, Singh RA, 1983. Histopathological studies on infected rice seed with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae and mode of its passage from seed to seedling. Seed Research, 11(1):32-41

Murty VST, Devadath S, 1982. Survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae in different soils. Indian Phytopathology, 35(1):32-38

Murty VST, Devadath S, 1984. Role of seed in survival and transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae causing bacterial blight of rice. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 110(1):15-19

Onasanya A, Ekperigin MM, Nwilene FE, Sere Y, Onasanya RO, 2009. Two pathotypes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae virulence identified in West Africa. Current Research in Bacteriology, 2(2):22-35. http://ansijournals.com/crb

Ou SH, 1985. Rice diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 380 pp

Pande VS, Mandakhot AM, 1992. Performance of a bacterial blight (BB)-resistant rice variety in the endemic pockets of Konkan Region, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 17(3):9

Rao PS, 1987. Across-season survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola, causal agent of bacterial leaf streak (BLS). International Rice Research Newsletter, 12(2):27

Reddy PR, 1972. Studies on bacteriophages of Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas translucens f. oryzicola, the incitants of blight and streak diseases of rice. PhD thesis. Varanasi, India: Banaras Hindu University

Reddy PR, 1983. Evidence for seed transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae. Current Science, 52(6):265

Ren XG, Huang JR, Xiang JG, Chen Z, Wu WJ, Li BW, Pen F, 1993. Research on the control technique of rice bacterial leaf streak. Journal of Hunan Agricultural College, 19(6):591-599

Sakthivel N, Mew TW, 1991. Efficacy of bacteriocinogenic strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on the incidence of bacterial blight disease of rice (Oryzae sativa L.). Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 37(10):764-768

Sakthivel N, Mortensen CN, Mathur SB, 2001. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in artificially inoculated and naturally infected rice seeds and plants by molecular techniques. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 56(3/4):435-441

Séré Y, Onasanya A, Verdier V, Akator K, Ouédraogo LS, Segda Z, Mbare MM, Sido AY, Basso A, 2005. Rice bacterial leaf blight in West Africa: preliminary studies on disease in farmers' fields and screening released varieties for resistance to the bacteria. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 4(6):577-579. http://www.ansinet.org/ajps

Sha XY, Zhu PX, Zhu LH, Lu ZQ, 1994. Resistance of main rice cultivars to bacterial blight disease in Jiangsu province. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 10(1):50-51

Shubha K, Shetty SA, Shetty HS, Karanth NGK, 1992. Interactions between seed-borne bacteria and fungi of paddy. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 10(1):125-130; 19 ref

Singh DV, Banerjee AK, Rai M, Srivastava SSL, 1980, publ. 1981. Survival of Xanthomonas oryzae in infected paddy seeds in plains of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 33(4):601-602

Singh RA, Rao MHS, 1977. A simple technique for detecting Xanthomonas oryzae in rice seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 5(1):123-127

Singh RA, Rao MHS, 1982. Evaluation of several chemical treatments for eradicating Xanthomonas oryzae from rice seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 10(1):119-123

SINGH RN, 1971. Perpetuation of bacterial blight disease of Paddy and preservation of its incitant. I. Survival of Xanthomonas oryzae in water. Indian Phytopathology, 24(1):153-154

SINGH RN, 1971. Perpetuation of bacterial blight disease of Paddy and preservation of its incitant. II. Survival of Xanthomonas oryzae in soil. Indian Phytopathology, 24(1):140-144

Subhash Chander, Aggarwal PK, Reddy PR, 2002. Assessment of yield loss in rice due to bacterial leaf blight using simulation models. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 10(2):277-281; 10 ref

Swings J, Mooter M van den, Vauterin L, Hoste B, Gillis M, Mew TW, Kersters K, 1990. Reclassification of the causal agents of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae) and bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola) of rice as pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae (ex Ishiyama 1922) sp. nov., nom. rev. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 40(3):309-311

Tikoo ML, Gupta BR, Kalha CS, 1987. Incidence of kresek - a systemic symptom of bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) of rice in subtropical region of Jammu. Research and Development Reporter, 4(1):96-97

Valluvaparidasan V, Mariappan V, 1989. Alternate hosts of rice bacterial blight (BB) pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae. International Rice Research Newsletter, 14(5):27-28

Vauterin L, Hoste B, Kersters K, Swings J, 1995. Reclassification of Xanthomonas. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 45(3):472-489

Yong C, Liao XH, Xie YF, Zhang DP, 1991. Distribution of rice varieties resistant to bacterial blight (BB) in Yunnan, China. International Rice Research Newsletter, 16(4):13-14

Yuan WQ, 1990. Culture medium for Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69(6):798-805

Zhang BC, Huang KC, 1990. A list of important plant diseases in China. Review of Plant Pathology, 69:97-118

Zhu H, Gao JL, Li QX, Hu GX, 1988. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae in rice by monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Jiangsu Agricultural College, 9(2):41-43

Distribution References

Abd El-Ghafar N Y, 2004. Bacteria associated with rice grains and their potential pathogenicity. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 12 (1), 425-435.

Abdul Khalid, Sinha A P, 2008. Cultural, morphological and biochemical variability in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 16 (2), 516-517. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

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