Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae
(mango black spot)

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Datasheet

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae (mango black spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango black spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Xanthomonadales
  •         Family: Xanthomonadaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae (Patel et al. 1948) Robbs et al. 1974

Preferred Common Name

  • mango black spot

Other Scientific Names

  • Erwinia mangiferae var. indicae Stapp 1956
  • Phytobacterium mangiferaeindicae (Patel, Moniz & Kulkarni) Patel & Kulkar
  • Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae Patel
  • Pseudomonas mangiferae-indicae Patel, Moniz & Kulkarni 1948
  • Pseudomonas mangifera-indicae PATEL & al.
  • Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae (Patel et al. 1948) Robbs et al. 1974
  • Xanthomonas mangiferaeindicae (Patel, Moniz & Kulkarni) Robbs, Ribeiro

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial: mango canker; bacterial: mango rot
  • Spanish: chancro bacteriano del mango
  • French: chancre bacterien du manguier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzfleckenkrankheit: Mango

EPPO code

  • XANTMI (Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindic

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Xanthomonadales
  •                 Family: Xanthomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Xanthomonas
  •                         Species: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 09 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentAtacora, Borgou, and Collines.
Burkina FasoPresent
ComorosPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedKorhogo province.
EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
MaliPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveFisrt recorded in 2010 in Koulikoro, Sikasso, and Bougouni provinces, but may have been present for some years.
MauritiusPresent
-RodriguesPresent
RéunionPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TogoPresent, WidespreadSavanes, Kara, Centrale, Plateaux, and Maritime regions.

Asia

ChinaPresent, Localized
-GuangxiPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresentHormozgan province.
JapanPresent
-Bonin IslandsPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresentIntroducedFirst record. Yangon.
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent

North America

MartiniquePresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent, Few occurrencesBoynton Beach and Lake Worth.
-HawaiiPresent, Few occurrencesFound at residences on Maui and O'ahu.

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
New CaledoniaPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-CearaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-PiauiPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / ooze
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / discoloration

References

Top of page

Afzal MA, 1987. Outbreaks and new records. Pakistan. Black spot of mango. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(4):165.

Ah-You N; Gagnevin L; Chiroleu F; Jouen E; Rodrigues Neto J; Pruvost O, 2007. Pathological variations within Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae support its separation into three distinct pathovars that can be distinguished by amplified fragment length polymorphism. Phytopathology, 97(12):1568-1577.

Ah-You N; Gagnevin L; Grimont PAD; Brisse S; Nesme X; Chiroleu F; Bui Thi Ngoc L; Jouen E; Lefeuvre P; Vernière C; Pruvost O, 2009. Polyphasic characterization of xanthomonads pathogenic to members of the Anacardiaceae and their relatedness to species of Xanthomonas. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 59(2):306-318. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org

Ah-You N; Gagnevin L; Pruvost O; Myint NT; Johnson GI, 2007. First report in Myanmar of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease, 91(12):1686. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Alvarado-Ortiz AN; Acin N; Zamora JL, 2004. Crop Profile for Mangos in Puerto Rico., USA: National information system for the regional IPM centers, 16 pp.

Australia Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 1985. Annual report 1984-85. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 48pp.

Beal PR, 1981. Screening of mango varieties at Bowen, Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences (Australia), 38(1):71-85.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, 1135(1). Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Dayakar BV; Gnanamanickam SS, 1996. Biochemical and pathogenic variation in strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae from Southern India. Indian Phytopathology, 49(3):227-233.

Fahy PC; Persley GJ, 1983. Plant bacterial diseases. A diagnostic guide. North Ryde, Australia: Academic Press Australia, vii + 393 pp.

Fukuda T; Uehara K; Azagami K; Tabei H; Nishiyama K, 1990. Bacterial canker of mango in Japan caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 56(4):474-480.

Haggag WM, 2010. Mango diseases in Egypt. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(3):285-289.

Khan MA; Mirza JH, 1995. Bacterial leaf spot of mango in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 7(2):204-205.

Kishun R; Chand R, 1994. Epiphytic survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae-indicae on weeds and its role in MBCD. Plant Disease Research, 9(1):35-40.

Kishun R; Rajan S, 2002. Role of strains, genotypes and seasons on the progression of mango bacterial canker disease. Indian Phytopathology, 55(2):200-202.

Kishun R; Rajan S; 2000, publ. 2001. Detection of variability in Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae strains. Journal of Applied Horticulture (Lucknow), 2(1):44-46.

Kotzé JM; Visser AA, 1997. Observations on the epidemiology and control of bacterial black spot in mango. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 17:66-70.

Liao CH, 1975. Studies on mango fruit spot (II). Pathogenicity. Bulletin of the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, No. 32:62-66.

Lim TK; Sijam K, 1989. Bacterial black spot of mango, a new disease in Malaysia. Acta Horticulturae, 291:317-323.

Liu XM; Liu WB; Pu JJ; Xie YX; Zhang X; Qi YX; Li SH, 2009. Identification of resistance of mango cultivars against Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae-indicae. Journal of Fruit Science, 26(3):349-352.

Mishra AK; Om Prakash, 1992. Bacterial canker of mango: incidence and control. Indian Phytopathology, 45(2):172-175.

Misra AK, 1995. Control of bacterial canker of mango under suitable weather conditions. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 25(3):214-217.

Mizuno A; Kotanino S; Tomono H; Sato T; Nishiyama K, 1993. Occurence of Bacterial Canker of Mango in Ogasawara Island. In: Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, 40. 139-141.

Najafipour G; Boroumand M; Ayazpour K, 2014. First report of bacterial black spot of mango in Iran. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4(2):190-196. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-2/JLS-029-042-GILDA%20NAJAFI-BLACK-MANGO.pdf

Nema AG, 2001. Some important bacterial diseases observed on plants of forest nurseries in Madhya Pradesh. Advances in Plant Sciences, 14(1):313-315.

Pal V; Jalali I, 2005. Strategies for the management of improtant bacterioses of fruit crops. In: Challenging problems in horticultural and forest pathology [ed. by Sharma, R. C. \Sharma, J. N.]. New Delhi, India: Indus Publishing Company, 90-114.

Papdiwal PB; Pawar BT, 2008. Mendal International Journal, 25(1-4):19-20.

Penrose LJ; Fahy PC; Fitzell RD, 1979. Mango bacterial spot (Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae). Plant Disease Survey 1977-78. Rydalmere, NSW, Australia: Biol. Chem. Res. Inst., 18.

Pitkethley R, 2006. Bacterial black spot of mangoes. Agnote - Northern Territory of Australia, No.I24:2 pp.

ProMED, 2008. Bacterial black spot, mango - India (Andhra Pradesh), 20080407.1271. http://www.promedmail.org

Pruvost O; Boyer C; Grygiel P; Boyer K; Verniere C; Gagnevin L; Soro S; N'Guessan C; Kone D, 2014. First report of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica in Ivory Coast. Plant Disease, 98(12):1740. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pruvost O; Boyer C; Vital K; Verniere C; Gagnevin L, 2012. First report in Mali of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease, 96(4):581.

Pruvost O; Boyer C; Vital K; Verniere C; Gagnevin L; Austin Lde B; Rey JY, 2011. First report in Ghana of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease, 95(6):774. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pruvost O; Boyer C; Vital K; Verniere C; Gagnevin L; Somda I, 2011. First report in Burkina Faso of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease, 95(10):1312. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pruvost O; Couteau A; Luisetti J, 1992. Pepper tree (Schinus terebenthifolius Radii), a new host plant for Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Journal of Phytopathology, 135(4):289-298.

Pruvost O; Couteau A; Verniere C; Luisetti J, 1993. Epiphytic survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae on mango buds. In: Acta Horticulturae, No. 341. 337-344.

Pruvost O; Luisetti J, 1989. Strains of Xanthomonas campestris isolated from Ambarella (Spondias cytherea Sonn.) in the French West Indies are probably a new pathogenic form of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Fruits (Paris), 44(10):539-542.

Pruvost O; Savelon C; Boyer C; Chiroleu F; Gagnevin L; Jacques MA, 2009. Populations of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae from asymptomatic mango leaves are primarily endophytic. Microbial Ecology, 58(1):170-178. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/j371r04443h3v269/?p=da7990fd3f844e5d9c8f9a0982943155&pi=17

Pruvost O; Vernière C; Vital K; Guérin F; Jouen E; Chiroleu F; Ah-You N; Gagnevin L, 2011. Insertion sequence- and tandem repeat-based genotyping techniques for Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae. Phytopathology, 101(7):887-893.

Pruvost, O., Boyer, C., Vital, K., Verniere, C., Gagnevin, L., Traoré, Y.N., 2012. First Report in Mali of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae Causing Mango Bacterial Canker on Mangifera indica. 96(4), 581. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0001-PDN

Pruvost, O., Roumagnac, P., Gaube, C., Chiroleu, F., Gagnevin, L., 2005. New media for the semiselective isolation and enumeration of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae, the causal agent of mango bacterial black spot. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99(4), 803-815. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02681.x

Robbs CF; Ponte JJda; Sales Mda G, 1978. Note on Xanthomonas mangiferaeindicae in Northeast Brazil. (Nota sobre Xanthomonas mangiferaeindicae no nordeste do Brasil.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 3(2):215-218.

Sanahuja G; Ploetz RC; Lopez P; Konkol JL; Palmateer AJ; Pruvost O, 2016. Bacterial canker of Mango, Mangifera indica, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, confirmed for the first time in the Americas. Plant Disease, 100(12):2520-2521. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Serfontein JJ; Swart SH; Kalinowski J, 2004. Alternative disease control strategies - chemical and biological control, plant growth promoting and/or systemic acquired resistance compounds. Research Journal - South African Mango Growers' Association, 24:50-54. http://www.mango.co.za/

Sheikh KM; Bajwa MN; Rashid A; Mahmood T, 1995. Studies on the incidence of bacterial leaf spot of mango caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae-indicae in Multan region and its sensitivity to various chemicals. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 7(1):29-32.

Silimela M; Korsten L, 2007. Evaluation of pre-harvest Bacillus licheniformis sprays to control mango fruit diseases. Crop Protection, 26(10):1474-1481. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Somé A; Samson R, 1996. Isoenzyme diversity in Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Plant Pathology, 45(3):426-431.

Tarr SAJ, 1957. Recent observations on plant diseases in the Sudan. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 5(12):188-190.

Viana FMP; Cardoso JE; Saraiva HAO; Ferreira MASV; Mariano RLR; Trindade LC, 2007. First report of a bacterial leaf and fruit spot of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae in Brazil. Plant Disease, 91(10):1361. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Willis A, 2009. Evaluation of alternatives to copper oxychloride for the control of bacterial black spot and post harvest diseases in mango. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Eighth International Mango Symposium, Sun City, South Africa, 5-10 February 2006.], No.820:535-540. http://www.actahort.org

Willis A; Mabunda RS, 2004. Copper alternatives for the control of bacterial black spot - further progress. Research Journal - South African Mango Growers' Association, 24:61-62. http://www.mango.co.za/

Yasuhara-Bell J; Silva ASde; Alvarez AM; Shimabuku R; Ko M, 2013. First report in Hawai'i of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing bacterial black spot on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease, 97(9):1244. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Young JM; Saddler GS; Takikawa Y; Boer SHde; Vauterin L; Gardan L; Gvozdyak RI; Stead DE, 1996. Names of plant pathogenic bacteria 1864-1995. Review of Plant Pathology, 75(9):721-763; 10 pp. of ref.

Zombré C; Wonni I; Ouédraogo SL; Kpemoua KE; Assignon K; Sankara P; Vernière C; Boyer C; Boyer K; Javegny S; Pruvost O, 2017. First report of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica in Togo. Plant Disease, 101(3):503. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Zombré, C., Sankara, P., Ouédraogo, S. L., Wonni, I., Pruvost, O., Boyer, C., Vernière, C., Adandonon, A., Vayssières, J. F., Ahohuendo, B. C., 2015. First report of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing Mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica L. in Benin. Plant Disease, 99(12), 1854. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0392-PDN

Distribution References

Afzal M A, 1987. Outbreaks and new records. Pakistan. Black spot of mango. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 35 (4), 165.

Ah-You N, Gagnevin L, Chiroleu F, Jouen E, Rodrigues Neto J, Pruvost O, 2007. Pathological variations within Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae support its separation into three distinct pathovars that can be distinguished by amplified fragment length polymorphism. Phytopathology. 97 (12), 1568-1577. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-97-12-1568

Alvarado-Ortiz AN, Acin N, Zamora JL, 2004. Crop Profile for Mangos in Puerto Rico., USA: National information system for the regional IPM centers. 16 pp.

Australia, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 1985. Annual report 1984-85. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 48pp.

Beal P R, 1981. Screening of mango varieties at Bowen, Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences (Australia). 38 (1), 71-85.

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 1135 (Edition 1). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20123367489

Constantin E C, Cleenwerck I, Maes M, Baeyen S, Malderghem C van, Vos P de, Cottyn B, 2016. Genetic characterization of strains named as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae leads to a taxonomic revision of the X. axonopodis species complex. Plant Pathology. 65 (5), 792-806. DOI:10.1111/ppa.12461

Dayakar B V, Gnanamanickam S S, 1996. Biochemical and pathogenic variation in strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae from Southern India. Indian Phytopathology. 49 (3), 227-233.

Fahy PC, Persley GJ, 1983. Plant bacterial diseases. A diagnostic guide., North Ryde, Australia: Academic Press Australia. vii + 393 pp.

Fukuda T, Uehara K, Azagami K, Tabei H, Nishiyama K, 1990. Bacterial canker of mango in Japan caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan. 56 (4), 474-480. DOI:10.3186/jjphytopath.56.474

Haggag W M, 2010. Mango disease in Egypt. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 1 (3), 285-289. http://scihub.org/ABJNA/PDF/2010/3/1-3-285-289.pdf

Khan M A, Mirza J H, 1995. Bacterial leaf spot of mango in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 7 (2), 204-205.

Kishun R, Rajan S, 2000. Detection of variability in Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae strains. Journal of Applied Horticulture (Lucknow). 2 (1), 44-46.

Kishun R, Rajan S, 2002. Role of strains, genotypes and seasons on the progression of mango bacterial canker disease. Indian Phytopathology. 55 (2), 200-202.

Liao C H, 1975. Studies on mango fruit spot (II). Pathogenicity. Bulletin of the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute. 62-66.

Lim TK, Sijam K, 1989. Bacterial black spot of mango, a new disease in Malaysia. In: Acta Horticulturae, 291 317-323.

Liu Feng, Ou XiongChang, Zhan RuLin, 2018. Complete genome sequencing of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae XC01 in mango. Journal of Fruit Science. 35 (10), 1244-1252.

Liu XiaoMei, Liu WenBo, Pu JinJi, Xie YiXian, Zhang Xin, Qi YanXiang, Li ShaoHua, 2009. Identification of resistance of mango cultivars against Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae-indicae. Journal of Fruit Science. 26 (3), 349-352.

Mishra A K, Om Prakash, 1992. Bacterial canker of mango: incidence and control. Indian Phytopathology. 45 (2), 172-175.

Misra A K, 1995. Control of bacterial canker of mango under suitable weather conditions. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 25 (3), 214-217.

Mizuno A, Kotanino S, Tomono H, Sato T, Nishiyama K, 1993. Occurence of Bacterial Canker of Mango in Ogasawara Island. [Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society], 40 139-141.

Mizuno A, Kotanino S, Tomono H, Sato T, Nishiyama K, 1993a. Occurrence of bacterial canker of mango in Ogasawara Island. [Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae]. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society. 139-141.

Najafipour G, Boroumand M, Ayazpour K, 2014. First report of bacterial black spot of mango in Iran. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (2), 190-196. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-2/JLS-029-042-GILDA%20NAJAFI-BLACK-MANGO.pdf

Nema A G, 2001. Some important bacterial diseases observed on plants of forest nurseries in Madhya Pradesh. Advances in Plant Sciences. 14 (1), 313-315.

Papdiwal PB, Pawar BT, 2008. Mendal International Journal., 25 (1-4) 19-20.

Pawar B T, 2012. Studies on some bacterial diseases of fruit plants from Aurangabad District. Advances in Bio Research. 3 (1), 32-36. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/abr_march2012/9.pdf

Penrose L J, Fahy P C, Fitzell R D, 1979. Mango bacterial spot (Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae). In: Plant Disease Survey 1977-78. Rydalmere, NSW, Australia: Biol. Chem. Res. Inst. 18.

Pitkethley R, 2006. Agnote - Northern Territory of Australia, Darwin, Australia: Northern Territory Government. 2 pp.

Pruvost O, Boyer C, Grygiel P, Boyer K, Verniere C, Gagnevin L, Soro S, N'Guessan C, Kone D, 2014. First report of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica in Ivory Coast. Plant Disease. 98 (12), 1740. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0669-PDN

Pruvost O, Boyer C, Vital K, Verniere C, Gagnevin L, 2012. First report in Mali of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. In: Plant Disease, 96 (4) 581.

Pruvost O, Boyer C, Vital K, Verniere C, Gagnevin L, Austin L de B, Rey J Y, 2011. First report in Ghana of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing mango bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease. 95 (6), 774. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-11-0098

Pruvost O, Boyer C, Vital K, Verniere C, Gagnevin L, Somda I, 2011a. First report in Burkina Faso of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae causing bacterial canker on Mangifera indica. Plant Disease. 95 (10), 1312. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-11-0324

Pruvost O, Boyer C, Vital K, Verniere C, Gagnevin L, Traoré YN, 2012a. First Report in Mali of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae Causing Mango Bacterial Canker on Mangifera indica. 96 (4), 581. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0001-PDN

Pruvost O, Couteau A, Luisetti J, 1992. Pepper tree (Schinus terebenthifolius Radii), a new host plant for Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Journal of Phytopathology. 135 (4), 289-298. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1992.tb04314.x

Pruvost O, Couteau A, Verniere C, Luisetti J, 1993. Epiphytic survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae on mango buds. In: Acta Horticulturae [Fourth international mango symposium, held at Miami, Florida, USA, 5-10 July, 1992.], 337-344.

Pruvost O, Luisetti J, 1989. Strains of Xanthomonas campestris isolated from Ambarella (Spondias cytherea Sonn.) in the French West Indies are probably a new pathogenic form of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Fruits (Paris). 44 (10), 539-542.

Pruvost O, Roumagnac P, Gaube C, Chiroleu F, Gagnevin L, 2005. New media for the semiselective isolation and enumeration of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae, the causal agent of mango bacterial black spot. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 99 (4), 803-815. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02681.x

Robbs C F, Ponte J J da, Sales M da G, 1978. Note on Xanthomonas mangiferaeindicae in Northeast Brazil. (Nota sobre Xanthomonas mangiferaeindicae no nordeste do Brasil.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 3 (2), 215-218.

Sanahuja G, Ploetz R C, Lopez P, Konkol J L, Palmateer A J, Pruvost O, 2016. Bacterial canker of Mango, Mangifera indica, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, confirmed for the first time in the Americas. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2520-2521. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-16-0412-PDN

Sheikh K M, Bajwa M N, Rashid A, Mahmood T, 1995. Studies on the incidence of bacterial leaf spot of mango caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae-indicae in Multan region and its sensitivity to various chemicals. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 7 (1), 29-32.

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