Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris
(black rot)

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Datasheet

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (black rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Xanthomonadales
  •         Family: Xanthomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Early stage of black rot infection caused by X. campestris pv. campestris on margin of cabbage leaves.
TitleSymptoms on cabbage leaves
CaptionEarly stage of black rot infection caused by X. campestris pv. campestris on margin of cabbage leaves.
CopyrightCames M. Mguni/Carmen Nieves Mortensen
Early stage of black rot infection caused by X. campestris pv. campestris on margin of cabbage leaves.
Symptoms on cabbage leavesEarly stage of black rot infection caused by X. campestris pv. campestris on margin of cabbage leaves.Cames M. Mguni/Carmen Nieves Mortensen
Cabbage plant showing wilt symptoms caused by X. campestris pv. campestris.
TitleSymptoms on cabbage
CaptionCabbage plant showing wilt symptoms caused by X. campestris pv. campestris.
CopyrightCames M. Mguni/Carmen Nieves Mortensen
Cabbage plant showing wilt symptoms caused by X. campestris pv. campestris.
Symptoms on cabbageCabbage plant showing wilt symptoms caused by X. campestris pv. campestris.Cames M. Mguni/Carmen Nieves Mortensen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel 1895) Dowson 1939

Preferred Common Name

  • black rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus campestris Pammel 1895
  • Bacterium campestre (Pammel) Smith 1897
  • Phytomonas campestris (Pammel) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas campestris (Pammel) Smith 1897

International Common Names

  • Spanish: podredumbre negra
  • French: nervation noire
  • Russian: sosudistyi bakterioz
  • Portuguese: podridao negra

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: kålbrunbakteriose
  • Germany: Adernchwärze des kohls
  • Italy: marciume nero
  • Nepal: banda ko sadne rog
  • Netherlands: zwartnervigheid
  • Sweden: brunbakterios
  • Thailand: nao-dum
  • Vietnam: thoi than

EPPO code

  • XANTCA (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Xanthomonadales
  •                 Family: Xanthomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Xanthomonas
  •                         Species: Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SeychellesPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
TogoPresentBradbury (1986)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadMguni (1987); UK, CAB International (1987); Mguni (1995); Mguni (1996); Mguni et al. (1996)

Asia

BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-ShaanxiPresentLu Yan et al. (2008)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Shen & Chen, 1990
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987); Jyotsana Sharma et al. (1992)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-HaryanaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Satyavir et al. (1973)
-Himachal PradeshPresentShyam et al. (1994)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Bhat et al. (2000)
-KarnatakaPresentKishun (1984)
-ManipurPresentGupta (1991)
-OdishaPresentBeura et al. (2006)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-SikkimPresent, WidespreadGupta and Choudhary (1995)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadRaju and Sivaprakasam (1989)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-Irian JayaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-SumatraPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1987); Kritzman and Ben-Yephet (1990)
JapanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987); Goto (1992)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MalaysiaPresentHo (1985)
NepalPresent, WidespreadShrestha (1983); UK, CAB International (1987); Shakya and Malla (1988)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
South KoreaPresentKim (1986); UK, CAB International (1987)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1987); CABI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
UzbekistanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1987)

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentTrkulja (2006)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
HungaryPresentNémeth and László (1983)
IcelandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1987); Caponero and Iacobellis (1994); Scortichini et al. (1994)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1987); Kocks and Zadoks (1996)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SerbiaPresentPopović et al. (2013)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1987)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1987); CABI (Undated)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
DominicaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Saint LuciaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadKennedy and Alcorn (1980); Williams (1980); UK, CAB International (1987)
-CaliforniaPresentMatsumoto (1975); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentKennedy and Alcorn (1980); CABI (Undated)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Schaad & Dianese, 1981
-HawaiiPresentAlvarez and Cho (1978); UK, CAB International (1987)
-IllinoisPresentEastburn (1989)
-MichiganPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tsuji & Sommerville, 1992
-New YorkPresentHunter et al. (1975)
-OklahomaPresentZhao YouFu et al. (2002)
-South CarolinaPresentWechter et al. (2008)
-WashingtonPresentDerie and Gabrielson (1988)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1987)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
AustraliaPresentFahy and Persley (1983); UK, CAB International (1987)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Norfolk IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SamoaPresentGerlach (1988)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
VanuatuPresentUK, CAB International (1987)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1987); Gaetán et al. (1995)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
BrazilPresentMariano et al. (1985); UK, CAB International (1987); Rodrigues Neto and Malavolta Júnior (1995)
-ParanaPresentLeite et al. (1994)
-PernambucoPresentAzevêdo et al. (2000)
-Santa CatarinaPresentPeruch et al. (2006)
-Sao PauloPresentCastellane and Braz (1991); Maringoni et al. (2016)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1987)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Vegetative organs / dry rot
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / unusual odour

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelLong survival in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Wood

References

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Akhtar MA, 1989. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot in cabbage. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(3):311-313.

Alvarez AM; Benedict AA; Mizumoto CY, 1985. Identification of xanthomonads and grouping of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris with monoclonal antibodies. Phytopathology, 75(6):722-728

Alvarez AM; Benedict AA; Mizumoto CY; Hunter JE; Gabriel DW, 1994. Serological, pathological, and genetic diversity among strains of Xanthomonas campestris infecting crucifers. Phytopathology, 84(12):1449-1457

Alvarez AM; Cho JJ, 1978. Black rot of cabbage in Hawaii: inoculum source and disease incidence. Phytopathology, 68(10):1456-1459

Alvarez AM; Lou K, 1985. Rapid identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris by ELISA. Plant Disease, 69(12):1082-1086

Assis SMP; Mariano RLR; Michereff SJ; Silva G; Maranhao EAA, 1999. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field. Revista de Microbiologia, 30(3):191-195; 31 ref.

Assis SMP; Mariano Rosa LR; Michereff SJ Coelho RSB, 1996. Biocontrol of Xanthomonas camestris pv. campestris on kale with Bacillus spp. and endophytic bacteria. In: Wenhua T, Cook RJ, Rovira A, eds. Advances in Biological Control of Plant Diseases. Proceedings Congress on Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria , June 1996. Beijing, China: China Agricultural University Press, 347-353.

Assis SMP; Mariano Rosa LR; Michereff SJ; Coelho RSB, 1996. Survival and redistribution of Bacillus spp., potential biocontrol agent of black rot, on kale phylloplane. In: Wenhua T, Cook RJ, Rovira A, eds. Advances in Biological Control of Plant Diseases. Proceedings Congress on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, June 1996. Beijing, China: China Agricultural University Press , 374-379.

Assis SMPde; Silveira EBda; Mariano Rde LR; Menezes D, 1998. Endophytic bacteria - method for isolation and antagonistic potential against cabbage black rot. Summa Phytopathologica, 24(3/4):216-220; 35 ref.

Aveling TAS; Robbertse PJ, 1990. Evaluation of antibiotics against Xanthomonas campestris causing black rot of Brassica. Phytophylactica, 22(2):229-231

AVRDC, 1994. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) 1994 Progress Report, 69-71.

AzevOdo SS; Mariano Rde LR; Michereff SJ, 2000. Survey of the intensity of black rot and Alternaria leaf spot of cabbage in Agreste of Pernambuco and determination of sample size for disease quantification. Summa Phytopathologica, 26(3):299-306.

Babadoost M; Derie ML; Gabrielson RL, 1996. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite treatments for control of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 24(1):7-15; 20 ref.

Bain D, 1955. Resistance of cabbage to black rot. Phytopathology, 45:35-37.

Bain DC, 1952. Reaction of brassica seedlings to blackrot. Phytopathology, 42:316-319.

Baleshwar Singh; Agarwal PC; Usha Devi; Indra Rani; Khetarpal RK, 2006. Interception of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris in imported germplasm of brassicas (Brassica spp.) during 1976-2002. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 76(9):580-583.

Bazzi C, 1991. Seed-transmission of phytopathogenic bacteria. Petria, 1(Supplemento 1):19-30

Berg T; Tesoriero L; Hailstones DL, 2005. PCR-based detection of Xanthomonas campestris pathovars in Brassica seed. Plant Pathology, 54(3):416-427. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa

Beura SK; Mohapatra KB; Paul PK; Nandi A, 2006. Integrated management of Black-rot disease of cauliflower in Orissa. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 44(2):293-296.

Bhat NA; Masoodi SD, 2000. Efficacy of various antibiotics against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris the casual pathogen of black rot of cabbage. Applied Biological Research, 2(1/2):161-163; 6 ref.

Bhat NA; Masoodi SD; Sidique SH, 2000. Chemical control of black rot of cabbage under field conditions in Kashmir valley. Applied Biological Research, 2(1/2):87-89.

Bila J; Mondjana AM; Wulff EG; Mortensen CN, 2009. Recent outbreaks of black rot of brassicas caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Southern Mozambique. Plant Disease, 93(11):1218. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bila J; Mortensen CN; Andresen M; Vicente JG; Wulff EG, 2013. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris race 1 is the main causal agent of black rot of Brassicas in Southern Mozambique. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(6):602-610. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2013/6Feb/Bila%20et%20al.pdf

Boechner B, 1989. Sleughthing out bacterial identities. Nature, 339:157-158.

Bora LC; Bhattacharyya AK, 2000. Integrated management of black rot of cabbage caused by Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North-East India, 13(2):229-233; 10 ref.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Braun H; Reader JK; Christey MC; King GJ, 2000. Evaluation of cauliflower transgenic for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Brassicas and Twelfth Crucifer Genetics Workshop, Wellesbourne, UK, 5-9 September, 2000. Acta Horticulturae, 539:137-143.

Buonaurio R; Santangeli F; Moretti C; Caglioti C, 2003. Occurrence of black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on ornamental kale in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 85(1):63.

Camargo LEA; Williams PH; Osborn TC, 1995. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance of Brassica oleracea to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the field and greenhouse. Phytopathology, 85(10):1296-1300; 38 ref.

Caponero A; Iacobellis NS, 1994. Foci of 'black rot' on cauliflower in Basilicata. Informatore Agrario, 50(25):67-68

Castellane PD; Braz LT, 1991. Evaluation of cabbage cultivars during the spring in Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo. Horticultura Brasileira, 9(1):13-14

Catara V; Branca F; Bella P, 1999. Outbreak of 'black rot' of Brassicaceae in Sicily. Informatore Fitopatologico, 49(1/2):7-10; 22 ref.

Chang CJ; Donaldson R; Crowley M; Pinnow D, 1991. A new semiselective medium for the isolation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris from crucifer seeds. Phytopathology, 81(4):449-453

Chao YC; Hsu ST; Tzeng KC, 2010. Bactericidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide against three seed-borne plant pathogenic bacteria and application of seed treatment for eradication of these bacteria. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 19(1):19-29.

Chidamba L; Bezuidenhout CC, 2012. Characterisation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris isolates from South Africa using genomic DNA fingerprinting and pathogenicity tests. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 133(4):811-818. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Chitarra LG; Langerak CJ; Bergervoet JHW; Bulk RWvan den, 2002. Detection of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris in seed extracts of Brassica sp. Applying fluorescent antibodies and flow cytometry. Cytometry, 47(2):118-126.

Chuaboon W; Kasem S; Prathuangwong S, 2007. Co-efficacy of beneficial bacteria combined with natural products for growth promoting and induced resistance against diseases of cauliflower farm production. In: Proceedings of the 45th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 30 January-2 February 2007. Subject: Plants. Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, 357-363.

Chung WC; Alvarez AM, 1983. A starch methionine medium for isolation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris from plant debris in soil. Plant Disease, 633-635.

Ciafardini G; Zullo BA, 2003. Antimicrobial activity of oil-mill waste water polyphenols on the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris spp. Annals of Microbiology, 53(3):283-290.

Clayton EE, 1924. Control of black-rot and black-leg of cruciferous crops by seed and seed bed treatments. Phytopathology, 14:24-22 .

CMI, 1965. Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 47. Xanthomonas campestris. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cook AA; Larson RH; Walker JC, 1952. Relation of the black rot pathogen to cabbage seed. Phytopathology, 42:316-320.

Coyne DP; Schuster ML, 1983. Genetics of and breeding for resistance to bacterial pathogens in vegetable crops. HortScience, 18(1):30-36

Darrasse A; Darsonval A; Boureau T; Brisset MN; Durand K; Jacques MA, 2010. Transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria by nonhost seeds without induction of an associated defense reaction at emergence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(20):6787-6796. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/76/20/6787

Derie ML; Gabrielson RL, 1988. Black rot of crucifers in a cabbage seed field in Western Washington. Plant Disease, 72(5):453

Dickson MD; Hunter JE, 1987. Inheritance of resistance in cabbage seedlings to black rot. HortScience, 22(1):108-109

Dinesh Singh; Shri Dhar, 2011. Bio-PCR based diagnosis of Xanthomonas campestris pathovars in black rot infected leaves of crucifers. Indian Phytopathology, 64(1):7-11. http://www.ipsdis.org

Dinesh Singh; Shri Dhar; Yadava DK, 2011. Genetic and pathogenic variability of Indian strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot disease in crucifers. Current Microbiology, 63(6):551-560. http://www.springerlink.com/content/wl84um25053k05hm/

Djalilov FS; Monakhos GF; Tiwari RD, 1989. [Damage from black rot]. MSKHA Reports, 5:102-105 [In Russian].

Djalilov FS; Tiwari RD, 1995. Soil and cabbage plant debris as ifection sources of black rot. Arch. Pthitopath. Pflanz., 29:383-386.

Dye DW; Lelliott RA, 1968. Genus Xanthomonas. Bushanan, ed. 8th edition, 339-345.

Eastburn D, 1989. Disease management of cabbage and broccoli an IPM approach. Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, 123:32-35

Eden PA; Schmidt TM; Blackmore RP; Pace NR, 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum using polymerase chain reaction amplied 16S rRNA specific DNA. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 41:324-325.

Fahy PC; Persley GJ, 1983. Plant bacterial diseases. A diagnostic guide. Plant bacterial diseases. A diagnostic guide., vii + 393 pp.

Fargier E; Fischer-le Saux M; Manceau C, 2011. A multilocus sequence analysis of Xanthomonas campestris reveals a complex structure within crucifer-attacking pathovars of this species. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 34(2):156-165. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07232020

Fargier E; Manceau C, 2007. Pathogenicity assays restrict the species Xanthomonas campestris into three pathovars and reveal nine races within X. campestris pv. campestris. Plant Pathology, 56(5):805-818. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Ferreira ME; Dias JS; Mengustu A; Williams PH, 1993. Screening of Portuguese cole landraces (Brassica oleracea L.) with Leptosphaeria maculans and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . Euphytica, 65:219-227.

Franken AAJM, 1992. Application of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in crucifer seeds using immunofluorescence microscopy. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(2):95-106

Franken AAJM, 1992. Immunofluorescence Microscopy and Dilution-plating for the Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Crucifer Seeds -Methods to Determine Seed Health and Seed Infection. PhD thesis. Wageningen, Holland: Agricultural University of Wageningen.

Franken AAJM; Zeijl C van; Bilsen JGPM van; Neuvel A; Vogel R de; Wingerden Y van; Birnbaum YE; Hateren J van; Zouwen PS van der, 1991. Evaluation of a plating assay for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Seed Science and Technology, 19(2):215-226

Franken AAJM; Zilverentant JF; Boonekamp PM; Schots A, 1992. Specificity of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(2):81-94

Fukaya M; Miyagawa T; Koide H; Ohno T; Ichikawa K, 1988. Study on control of black rot of cabbage. Research Bulletin of the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center, No. 20:245-251

Gaetan SA; Garbagnoli C; Irigoyen; ED, 1995. Microorganisms isolated from rape seeds (Brassica napus L. subsp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.) in Argentina. VIII Latin American Congress of Plant Pathology. XIV Venezuelan Congress of Plant Pathology. Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela, 22-26 October 1995. Fitopatologfa, 30:10.

Galli JA; Panizzi RC; Sader R, 2001. Effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on the physical and physiological quality of cauliflower seeds. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 23(2):56-63; 19 ref.

Gay PA; Tuzun S, 2000. Involvement of a novel peroxidase isozyme and lignification in hydathodes in resistance to black rot disease in cabbage. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78(9):1144-1149; 22 ref.

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp.

Gill HS; Lakhanpal KD; Sharma SR; Bhagchandani PM, 1983. `K1' a valuable addition to Snowball group of cauliflower. Indian Horticulture, 27:23-24.

Goncalves ER; Rosato YB, 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of Xanthomonas species based upon 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequences. International Journal of Systemic Evolutionary Microbiology, 52(Pt 2):355-61.

Goto M, 1992. Fundamentals of bacterial plant pathology. San Diego, USA: Academic Press Inc.

Grimault V; Andro C; Politikou A, 2012. PCR as a new identification method of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on Brassica spp. seed. Seed Testing International, No.143:35-38. http://www.seedtest.org

Guo ZH; Dickson MH; Hunter JE, 1991. New sources of resistance to black rot and their inheritance. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 4-5:154-155

Gupta DK, 1991. Studies on black rot of cabbage in Manipur. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 21(2):203-204

Gupta DK; Choudhary KCB, 1995. Infection of radish and rayosag seeds by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 25(3):332.

Hapte M; Alexander M, 1975. Protozooa as agents responsible for the decline of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the soil. Kenya J. Sci. Technol. (Series B), 8:1.

Harman GE; Norton JM; Stasz TE; Humaydan HS, 1987. Nyolate seed treatment of Brassica spp. to eradicate or reduce black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Plant Disease, 71(1):27-30

Hauben L; Vauterin L; Swing J; Moore ERB, 1997. Comparison of 16s ribosomal DNA sequences of all Xanthomonas species. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 47:328-335.

Henz GP; Melo PEde, 1994. Resistance of cabbage cultivars to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 29(9):1411-1415

Henz GP; Takatsu A; Reifschneider FJB, 1988. Evaluation of methods of inoculating Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris for detecting sources of resistance in brassicas. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 13(3):207-210

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