Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae
(bacterial wilt of begonias)

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Datasheet

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae (bacterial wilt of begonias)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial wilt of begonias
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Xanthomonadales
  •         Family: Xanthomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleBegonia tuberhybrida infected by X. a. pv. begoniae
Caption
CopyrightEduardo Roberto Wright
Begonia tuberhybrida infected by X. a. pv. begoniaeEduardo Roberto Wright

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae (Takimoto 1934) Vauterin et al. 1995

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial wilt of begonias

Other Scientific Names

  • Aplanobacter flavabegoniae (Wieringa) Hauduroy et al. 1953
  • Bacterium begoniae Takimoto 1934
  • Bacterium flavozonatum McCulloch 1937
  • Bacterium takimotoi Okabe 1949
  • Phytomonas begoniae (Takimoto) Burkholder 1939
  • Phytomonas flavabegoniae Wieringa 1935
  • Pseudomonas begoniae (Takimoto) Stapp 1938
  • Xanthomonas begoniae (Takimoto) Dowson 1939
  • Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae (Takimoto 1934) Dye 1978
  • Xanthomonas flavabegoniae (Wieringa) Magrou & Prévot 1948
  • Xanthomonas flava-begoniae (Wieringa) Magrou & Prevot
  • Xanthomonas flavozonata (McCulloch) Dowson 1939

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial: Begonia spp. leaf spot; leaf spot of begonias
  • Spanish: bacteriosis de las hojas de la begonia; mancha foliar de la begonia; marchitamiento bacteriano de la begonia
  • French: maladie des taches d'huile du begonia

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Oelfleckenkrankheit: Begonie

EPPO code

  • XANTBE (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Xanthomonadales
  •                 Family: Xanthomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Xanthomonas
  •                         Species: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MauritiusPresent

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-MaharashtraPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresentLMG 553.
CzechiaPresent, Widespread
CzechoslovakiaPresent, Widespread
DenmarkPresentNCPPB no. 1925.
FrancePresentStrain CFBP 779.
GermanyPresent, LocalizedFirst reported: 193*
HungaryPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Localized
NorwayPresentNCPPB no. 3722
PortugalAbsent, Formerly present1935
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-HawaiiPresentICMP 9587. Hilo.
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New YorkPresentLCM 7189.
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / ooze
Stems / wilt
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Grijalba PE; Irigoyen ED; Rivera MC; Wright ER, 1998. Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae. First report in Buenos Aires (Argentina), inoculum sources and preliminary chemical control tests. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 33(2):94-98; 10 ref.

Khoodoo, M. H. R., Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y., 2004. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting and Southern analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains isolated from different aroid hosts and locations. Plant Disease, 88(9), 980-988. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.9.980

Krösel D, 1969. On the control of Xanthomonas begoniae by leaf spraying with antibiotic and other preparations. Nachr. Bl. dt. Pfh. Schutzdienst, Stuttg. Pjn. Sch., 21(7):100-102.

Mırık, M., Aysan, Y., Baysal-Gurel, F., 2018. Bacterial spot and blight diseases of ornamental plants caused by different Xanthomonas species in Turkey. Plant Protection Science, 54(4), 240-247. https://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/pps.htm?type=article&id=10_2017-PPS

Nichols LP; Jodon MH; Scarborough B, 1974. Longevity of Xanthomonas begoniae, the cause of bacterial leaf spot of Rieger begonias. Pl. Dis. Reptr., 58:814.

Ornek H; Aysan Y; Mirik M; Sahin F, 2007. First report of bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae, on begonia in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 56(2):347. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Robbs CF, 1954. Bacterias fitopatogénicas no Brasil. Agronomfa, R. De J., Ser. Divulg. Pesq. 2.

Schaad NW; Jones JB; Chun W, 2001. Laboratory guide for the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory guide for the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria, Ed. 3:xii + 373 pp.; 24 ref.

Skerman VBD; McGowan V; Sneath PHA, 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 30(1):255-420

Strider DL, 1975. Susceptibility of Rieger Elatior begonia cultivars to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas begoniae. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(1):70-73

Taylor EH; Bradbury JF; Preece TF, 1981. Xanthomonas campestris pv begoniae. CMI descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, No 699. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Vauterin L; Hoste B; Kersters K; Swings J, 1995. Reclassification of Xanthomonas. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 45(3):472-489

Vauterin L; Rademaker J; Swings J, 2000. Synopsis on the taxonomy of the genus Xanthomonas. Phytopathology, 90(7):677-682; 51 ref.

Young JM; Saddler GS; Takikawa Y; Boer SHde; Vauterin L; Gardan L; Gvozdyak RI; Stead DE, 1996. Names of plant pathogenic bacteria 1864-1995. Review of Plant Pathology, 75(9):721-763; 10 pp. of ref.

Zhou LH; Ji GH, 2013. First report of bacterial leaf spot of Rieger begonia caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae in China. Plant Disease, 97(2):282. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution References

Anon, 2020. Widely Prevalent Bacteria of the United States., Georgia, USA: University of Georgia, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://www.prevalentbacteria.org/

Blake JH, Williamson M, Ellington K, 2008. Index of plant diseases in South Carolina. In: The Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service, 121 pp.

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CFBP, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the French Collection for Plant-associated Bacteria (CFBP).,

CFBP, 1965. Specimen record from the collection in the collection of Plant-associated Bacteria (CFBP)., http://catalogue-cfbp.inra.fr/result_e.php

CFBP, 1994. Specimen record from the collection of Plant-associated Bacteria (CFBP)., http://catalogue-cfbp.inra.fr/result_e.php

Digat B, 1978. (Selection sanitaire des boutures de Pelargonium et de Begonia x Elatior 'Rieger' vis-avis des bacterioses par utilisation de l'immunofluorescence.). Annals of Phytopathology. 10 (-), 67-78.

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fujinawa M F, 2009. Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae and evaluation of pesticides in the control of bacterial leaf spot and blight of begonia. Universidade Federal de Viçosa. http://locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/4384

Grijalba P E, Irigoyen E D, Rivera M C, Wright E R, 1998. Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae. First report in Buenos Aires (Argentina), inoculum sources and preliminary chemical control tests. (Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae. Presencia en Buenos Aires (Argentina), determinacion de fuentes de inoculo y pruebas preliminares para su control quimico.). Fitopatología. 33 (2), 94-98.

ICMP, 1978. Specimen record from the International Collection of Microorganisms on Plants (ICMP)., https://scd.landcareresearch.co.nz/

ICMP, 1987. Specimen record from the International Collection of Microorganisms on Plants (ICMP)., https://scd.landcareresearch.co.nz/

Khoodoo M H R, Jaufeerally-Fakim Y, 2004. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting and Southern analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains isolated from different aroid hosts and locations. Plant Disease. 88 (9), 980-988. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.9.980

Lin F Y, Fang Z Q, Lee S, Wang Y H, Lin Y R, Chu C C, 2019. First report of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae causing bacterial leaf spot on Rieger begonias in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 103 (11), 2940-2940. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-19-0907-PDN

LMG, 1946. Specimen record in the Belgian Coordinated Collection of Microorganisms (BCCM)., https://bccm.belspo.be/

LMG, 1979. Specimen record from the collection in the Belgian Coordinated Collection of Microorganisms (BCCM)., https://bccm.belspo.be/

Michigan State University, 2021. Essential concepts for managing Xanthomonas in begonia., MSU Extension Floriculture & Greenhouse Crop Production, Michigan State University. https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/essential_concepts_for_managing_xanthomonas_in_begonia_part_1

Mırık M, Aysan Y, Baysal-Gurel F, 2018. Bacterial spot and blight diseases of ornamental plants caused by different Xanthomonas species in Turkey. Plant Protection Science. 54 (4), 240-247. https://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/pps.htm?type=article&id=10_2017-PPS

NCPPB, 1966. Specimen record from the collection in the National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria., http://ncppb.fera.defra.gov.uk/ncppbresult.cfm

NCPPB, 1969. Specimen record from the collection in the National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria., http://ncppb.fera.defra.gov.uk/ncppbresult.cfm

NCPPB, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria., http://ncppb.fera.defra.gov.uk/ncppbresult.cfm

Ornek H, Aysan Y, Mİrİk M, Sahİn F, 2007. First report of bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae, on begonia in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 56 (2), 347. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01522.x

Rattink H, Vruggink H, 1979. A method to obtain Xanthomonas-free begonia plants. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent. 44 (1 (I)), 439-443.

Schneider K L, Marrero G, Alvarez A M, Presting G G, 2011. Classification of plant associated bacteria using RIF, a computationally derived DNA marker. PLoS ONE. e18496. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018496

Taylor E H, Bradbury J F, Preece T F, 1981. Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sheet 699. DOI:10.1079/DFB/20056400699

University of Massachusetts, 2021. Begonia - Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae). In: UMass Extension Greenhouse Crops and Floriculture Program, Massachusetts, Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment. https://ag.umass.edu/greenhouse-floriculture/photos/begonia-bacterial-leaf-spot-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-begoniae-1

Zhou L H, Ji G H, 2013. First report of bacterial leaf spot of Rieger begonia caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae in China. Plant Disease. 97 (2), 282. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0391-PDN

Distribution Maps

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