Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Xanthium strumarium L. (1753)
Preferred Common Name
- common cocklebur
Other Scientific Names
- Xanthium abyssinicum Wallr.
- Xanthium brasilicum Velloso
- Xanthium californicum E.L. Greene
- Xanthium canadense Mill., 1768
- Xanthium canavillesii Schouw., 1849
- Xanthium chinense Mill.
- Xanthium echinatum Murray, 1784
- Xanthium indicum Klatt, 1880
- Xanthium italicum Moretti
- Xanthium macrocarpum DC
- Xanthium occidentale Bertol.
- Xanthium orientale L. 1763
- Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr. 1844
- Xanthium pungens Wallr. 1844
- Xanthium ripicola
- Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder, 1923
- Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A. Gray
- Xanthium varians Greene
- Xanthium vulgare Hill
International Common Names
- English: clotbur; cocklebur; ditchbur
- Spanish: Chayotillo
- French: lampourde glouteron
- Portuguese: bardana-menor
Local Common Names
- Australia: noogoora bur; sheep bur
- Germany: Stachel- Spitzklette
- India: adhisishi; bada gokhru bhakra; chota dhatura
- Italy: lappola comune
- Japan: onamomi
- Malaysia: buah anjang
- Netherlands: ongedoornde stekelnoot
- Pakistan: puth kando
- South Africa: kankerroos
- Taiwan: tsai-er
- Thailand: kachab
- Turkey: siraco out
- XANPU (Xanthium pungens)
- XANST (Xanthium strumarium)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):
Annual much-branched herb with erect stems (20–150 cm high) without spines; stems stout, green, brownish or reddish-brown, roughly hairy.
Uncertain, but probably Central and South America.
Reason for Introduction
Bee forage and accidentally as a contaminant.
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, savannahs, water courses, lowlands, floodplains and sandy dry riverbeds.
Rapidly forms large stands, displacing other plant species. X. strumarium is a major weed of row crops such as soybeans, cotton, maize and groundnuts in many parts of the world, including North America, southern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, India and Japan. It also has a damaging impact on rice production in Southeast Asia. Cocklebur is also an alternative host for a number of crop pests. X. strumarium burrs lodge in animal hair and in sheep’s wool, reducing the quality and increasing treatment costs. The plants are toxic to livestock and can lead to death if eaten.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Xanthium
- Species: Xanthium strumarium
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Lesotho||Present||Original citation: Wells et al., 1986|
|South Africa||Present, Widespread|
|Bhutan||Present||Original citation: Parker, 1992|
|Jordan||Present||Original citation: Abu-Irmaileh, 1982|
|Albania||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Austria||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Bulgaria||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Czechoslovakia||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present, Widespread|
|France||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Germany||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Portugal||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|-Azores||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Romania||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|-Central Russia||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|-Northern Russia||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|-Balearic Islands||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Switzerland||Present||Original citation: Love, 1976|
|Canada||Present, Widespread||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Alberta||Present, Localized||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-British Columbia||Present, Localized||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Manitoba||Present, Localized||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-New Brunswick||Present, Localized||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Nova Scotia||Present, Localized||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Ontario||Present||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Quebec||Present||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|-Saskatchewan||Present||Original citation: Weaver & Lechowicz, 1983|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present|
|United States||Present, Widespread|
|-North Carolina||Present, Widespread|
|-South Carolina||Present, Widespread|
|-West Virginia||Present, Widespread|
|-New South Wales||Present||Original citation: Lazarides et al., 1997|
|-Northern Territory||Present||Original citation: Lazarides et al., 1997|
|-Queensland||Present||Original citation: Lazarides et al., 1997|
|-South Australia||Present||Original citation: Lazarides et al., 1997|
|-Victoria||Present||Original citation: Lazarides et al., 1997|
|-Western Australia||Present||Original citation: Lazarides et al., 1997|
|Papua New Guinea||Present|
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Colocasia esculenta (taro)||Araceae||Other|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Other|
|Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Main|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
X. strumarium is a short-day plant which generally will not flower under photoperiods longer than 14 hours, although populations vary in critical night length with latitude of origin (Ray and Alexander, 1966; McMillan, 1975). X. strumarium has the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. It is self-compatible and primarily wind-pollinated.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Zygogramma bicolorata||Predator||Growing point/Inflorescence/Leaves|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page
In soyabeans, cocklebur has been reported to cause the highest reductions in yield of all annual weeds in both northern and southern production areas of the USA (Stoller et al., 1987). Soyabean yield losses are estimated at 10 to 16% for 0.5 plants of X. strumarium per m of row, 65% for 4 plants and 80% for over 10 plants per m of row, for weeds emerging at the same time as the crop (Stoller et al., 1987; Rushing and Oliver, 1998). Similar yield losses from cocklebur were reported in Ontario, Canada (Weaver, 1991). In Italy, Sartorato et al. (1996) recommended an economic threshold of only 0.05 plants of X. strumarium per square m in soyabeans. In addition to direct yield losses through competition, infestations of X. strumarium decrease soyabean seed quality and harvesting efficiency. One cocklebur per m of row was shown to cause a 7.2% increase in foreign material in harvested soyabeans, a 5.2% increase in seed moisture content, decreased test weight by 58.6 g/L seed, and reduced combine speed (Ellis et al., 1998). The authors recommended use of a pre-harvest desiccant when cocklebur densities exceeded 0.5 plants per m of row.
In cotton in the USA, seed yield losses of 60 to 90 kg/ha (approximately 5%) have been reported from cocklebur growing at a density of one plant per 15 m of row in Mississippi (Snipes et al., 1982). Cotton yield losses from one plant of X. strumarium per 3 m of row varied from 6 to 27% in North Carolina (Byrd and Coble, 1991). The critical period for cocklebur in cotton lasted from 2 to 10 weeks after cotton emergence (Snipes et al., 1987).
In groundnuts, cocklebur has been reported to cause yield losses of 31-39% at a density of 0.5 plants and 88% at 4 plants per m of row in the southern USA (Royal et al., 1997a, b). Cocklebur densities higher than 1 plant per 2 m of row reduced deposition of the fungicide chlorothalonil by 34% (Royal et al., 1997b).
The economic impact of X. strumarium in maize is somewhat lower than for soyabeans, cotton and groundnuts. Yields of maize in Illinois, USA have been reported to decrease by 10% at 1 cocklebur per m of row, to a maximum yield loss of 27% at a density of 4.7 cockleburs per m of row (Becket et al., 1988).
Infestations of X. strumarium can also cause significant yield losses in horticultural row crops (Weaver and Lechowicz, 1983). In snap beans, yield losses of 5 to 50% were reported for densities of X. strumarium ranging from 0.5 to 8 per square m (Neary and Majek, 1990).
X. strumarium also has a detrimental impact on livestock production which has been best documented in Australia, where it is abundant in sheep-grazing regions in the eastern half of the continent in Queensland and New South Wales (Wapshere, 1974; Hocking and Liddle, 1986). The burs lodge in animal hair and sheep wool, and are difficult to remove when the wool is processed after shearing. Contaminated wool requires special treatment and may have a price penalty of 25% or more (Wapshere, 1974). The prickly burs can cause considerable discomfort to animals by clinging to hair on the legs and matting the tails and manes of horses.
X. strumarium also has an economic impact in pastures, where cattle, sheep and pigs may be poisoned by eating young plants. The cotyledons contain a toxic compound, carboxyatractyloside, which is absent in older plants (Weaver and Lechowicz, 1982; Hocking and Liddle, 1986; Martin et al., 1992). Symptoms include vomiting, muscular spasms, liver degeneration and occasionally death.
Cocklebur serves as a host for a number of pathogens of crops. Sunflowers have been reported to be damaged by the rust Puccinia xanthii, commonly found on cocklebur, and by alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria helianthi), also found on cocklebur in North America (Hocking and Liddle, 1986). Cocklebur is reported to be a host for Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum which contaminate soyabean and discolour seed and result in a lowered price (Hocking and Liddle, 1986). X. strumarium is also an alternate host for the insect Spilosoma obliqua (Lepidoptera) which attacks Egyptian clover in India (Dhaliwal, 1993), and for Colletotrichum capsici, which causes anthracnose on tomato fruit and cotton seedlings in the USA (Mclean and Roy, 1991).
The Xanthium genus is closely related to the Ambrosia (ragweed) genus, and X. strumarium produces large amounts of highly antigenic pollen (Reddi et al., 1980). The glandular hairs on the leaves and stem secrete a substance which causes contact dermititis in allergic individuals (King, 1966).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Competition (unspecified)
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Both species are sometimes confused with burdocks (Arctium spp.). The latter are biennials which produce a rosette of large leaves during their first year, and spherical burs densely covered with hooked spines during their second year.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Seedlings of X. strumarium can be controlled by cultivation, but older plants often produce shoots from axillary buds if the root has not been severed. Adoption of zero or reduced tillage systems can potentially reduce Xanthium populations, because burs seldom germinate on the soil surface (Vencill and Banks, 1994).
X. strumarium is controlled by many soil-applied and foliar herbicides. In France, Mamarot and Rodriguez (1997) give recommendations for a range of treatments including sulcitrone in maize, amitrole directed in maize, bentazon and fomesafen in soyabeans.
In Brazil, Lorenzi (1984) tabulates susceptiblity to bentazon, dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate, but states that the weed is resistant to metolachlor, asulam, butachlor, butylate,cyanazine, linuron, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, trifluralin and vernolate. In Papua New Guinea, Henty and Pritchard (1975) indicate susceptibility to 2,4-D, MCPB, amitrole, ametryne and diuron recommended for broad-leaved weeds, including atrazine, dicamba, metribuzin, bentazon, acifluorfen, and imazethapyr.
Populations resistant to imidazolinones and to the arsenical herbicides MSMA/DSMA have been reported in the USA (Heap, 1997).
Biological control of X. strumarium has been attempted with Alternaria helianthi (Abbas and Barrentine, 1995), and the rust Puccinia xanthii (Julien et al., 1979). Seed predation by the moth, Phaneta imbridana, and the trypetid fly, Euaresta aequalis, in the USA, may provide some control (Hare and Futuyma, 1978; Hare, 1980).
A. helianthi caused necrotic lesions on leaves of A. retroflexus, and resulted in 100% or 67% mortality of plants grown under growth chamber or outdoor conditions, respectively, when applied as a solution of conidia to seedlings (Abbas and Barrentine, 1995). The authors suggested that a phytotoxin could be isolated from A. helianthi and sprayed as a mycoherbicide.
The rust P. xanthii occurs in North America and India and was accidentally introduced into Australia (Hocking and Liddle, 1986). It causes deformation of the leaves, splitting of the petioles and stems, and finally leaf drop, but it has not provided significant large-scale control of X. strumarium.
Seed damage ranged from 0 to 28% for Phaneta imbridana, and from 0 to 42% for Euaresta aequalis, on natural populations of X. strumarium in New York. E. aequalis was introduced into Australia from North America in the 1930's. It became established only in the vicinity of Brisbane, and has not contributed significantly to the control of X. strumarium (Hocking and Liddle, 1986).
As summarized by Julien (1992), additional attempts at biological control have included: the lepidopteran Epiblema strenuana which was introduced from Mexico to Australia in 1984 and became widely established, reducing weed vigour and competiveness; Mecas saturnina (Coleoptera), introduced from N. America to Australia in 1963, but thought to have died out; and Nupserha vexator, introduced from India to Fuji and Australia, without notable success.
ReferencesTop of page
Dhaliwal JS, 1993. Role of some weeds in the carry-over of Spilosoma obliqua (Walker) to Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.). Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 30(3-4):168-170
Du ZhenZhu, Xu WenBin, Yan Ping, Wang ShaoShan, Guo YiMin, 2012. Three newly recorded alien invasive plants of Xanthium in Xinjiang. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences, 49(5):879-886. http://www.xjnykx.periodicals.com.cn
Hare JD, Futuyma DJ, 1978. Different effects of variation of Xanthium strumarium L. (Compositae) on two insect seed predators. Oecologia, 37:109-120
Heap IM, 1997. International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds. Annual Report, Weed Science Society of America
Hocking PJ, Liddle MJ, 1986. The biology of Australian weeds: 15. Xanthium occidentale Bertol. complex and Xanthium spinosum L. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 52(4):191-221
Kaul V, 1965. Physiological-ecology of Xanthium strumarium L. II. Physiology of seeds in relation to its distribution. Journal of Indian Botanical Society, 44:365-380
Kaul V, 1971. Physiological-ecology of Xanthium strumarium L. IV. Effect of climatic factors on growth and distribution. New Phytologist, 70:799-812
King LJ, 1966. Weeds of the World. Biology and Control. New York, USA: Interscience Publ
Love D, Dansereau P, 1959. Biosystematic studies on Xanthium: Taxonomic appraisal and ecological status. Canadian Journal of Botany, 37:173-208
Martin T, Johnson BJ, Sangiah S, Burrows GE, 1992. Experimental cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) intoxication in calves. Poisonous plants. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium., 489-494; 16 ref
McMillan C, 1974. Experimental hybridization in Xanthium strumarium of American complexes with diverse photoperiodic adaptation. Canadian Journal of Botany, 52:849-859
McMillan C, 1975. Experimental hybridization of Xanthium strumarium (Compositae) from Asia and America. 1. Responses of F1 hybrids to photoperiod and temperature. American Journal of Botany, 62(1):41-47
Mohammed AS, Tamrat Bekele, 2010. Forage production and plant diversity in two managed rangelands in the Main Ethiopian Rift. African Journal of Ecology, 48(1):13-20. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aje
Ray PM, Alexander WE, 1966. Photoperiodic adaptation to latitude in Xanthium strumarium. American Journal of Botany, 53:806-816
Reddi CS, Reddi EUB, Bai AJ, Raju KVR, Reddi MS, 1980. The ecology of anther dehiscence, pollen liberation and dispersal in Xanthium strumarium L. Indian Journal of Ecology, 7:171-181
Royal SS, Brecke BJ, Shokes FM, Colvin DL, 1997. Influence of broadleaf weeds on chlorothalonil deposition, foliar disease incidence, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) yield. Weed Technology, 11(1):51-58; 18 ref
Sartorato I, Berti A, Zanin G, 1996. Estimation of economic thresholds for weed control in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Crop Protection, 15:63-68
United States Department of Agriculture, 1970. Selected Weeds of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 366. Washington DC, USA: USDA
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf
Altınok H H, 2013. Fusarium species isolated from common weeds in eggplant fields and symptomless hosts of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (5), 335-340. DOI:10.1111/jph.12074
Bayram Y, Büyük M, Özaslan C, Bektaș Ö, Bayram N, Mutlu Ç, Ateș E, Bükün B, 2015. New host plants of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Turkey. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty. 12 (2), 43-46. http://jotaf.nku.edu.tr
Beshr S M, Badr S A, Ahmad A A, Mohamed G H, 2016. New record of host plants of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Tinsley, 1898), (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Alexandria and Behaira governorates. Journal of Entomology. 13 (4), 155-160. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2016.155.160&org=10
Bükün B, 2005. Weed flora changes in cotton growing areas during the last decade after irrigation of Harran plain in ?anliurfa, Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 37 (3), 667-672. http://www.pjbot.org
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Celepcİ E, Uygur S, Kaydan M B, Uygur F N, 2017. Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on weeds in Citrus (Rutaceae) plantations in Çukurova Plain, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni. 7 (1), 15-21. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/315531
Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40
Du ZhenZhu, Xu WenBin, Yan Ping, Wang ShaoShan, Guo YiMin, 2012. Three newly recorded alien invasive plants of Xanthium in Xinjiang. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences. 49 (5), 879-886. http://www.xjnykx.periodicals.com.cn
Duary B, Mukherjee A, 2013. Distribution pattern of predominant weeds in wet season and their management in West Bengal, India. In: The role of weed science in supporting food security by 2020. Proceedings of the 24th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, October 22-25, 2013 [The role of weed science in supporting food security by 2020. Proceedings of the 24th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, October 22-25, 2013.], [ed. by Bakar B H, Kurniadie D, Tjitrosoedirdjo S]. Bandung, Indonesia: Weed Science Society of Indonesia. 191-199.
Esquivel J F, 2016. Nezara viridula (L.) in Central Texas: I. New host plant associations and reproductive status of adults encountered within. Southwestern Entomologist. 41 (4), 895-904. http://www.bioone.org/loi/swen
Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 21 (3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf
Fotopoulos V, Dovas C I, Katis N I, 2011. Incidence of viruses infecting spinach in Greece, highlighting the importance of weeds as reservoir hosts. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (2), 389-395. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/1194
Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355
Grice A C, Lawes R A, Abbott B N, Nicholas D M, Whiteman L V, 2004. How abundant and widespread are riparian weeds in the dry tropics of north-east Queensland? In: Weed management: balancing people, planet, profit. 14th Australian Weeds Conference, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, 6-9 September 2004: papers and proceedings. [ed. by Sindel B M, Johnson S B]. Sydney, Australia: Weed Society of New South Wales. 173-175.
Groves R L, Walgenbach J F, Moyer J W, Kennedy G G, 2002. The role of weed hosts and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, in the epidemiology of tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease. 86 (6), 573-582. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.573
Haroon Khan, Marwat K B, Gul Hassan, Khan M A, Saima Hashim, 2014. Distribution of parthenium weed in Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 46 (1), 81-90. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/46(1)/07.pdf
Hassannejad S, Ghafarbi S P, 2013. Weed flora survey of Tabriz wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 3 (9), 118-132. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/JBES-Vol3No9-p118-132.pdf
Hassannejad S, Ghafarbi S P, Abbasvand E, Ghisvandi B, 2014. Quantifying the effects of altitude and soil texture on weed species distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 5 (1), 590-596. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/JBES-Vol5No1-p590-596.pdf
Ibrahim A F, El-Wekil H R, Yehia Z R, Shaban S A, 1988. Effect of some weed control treatments on sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and associated weeds. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 160 (5), 319-324. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-037X.1988.tb00629.x
Khan I, Marwat K B, Khan I A, Haidar Ali, Dawar K, Khan H, 2011. Invasive weeds of southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (2), 161-174. http://www.wssp.org.pk/PJWSR-17-2-161-174.pdf
Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm
Lawes R, Grice A, 2008. Exotic invasions of the Burdekin catchment, North Queensland. In: Proceedings of the 16th Australian Weeds Conference, Cairns Convention Centre, North Queensland, Australia, 18-22 May, 2008. Queensland, Australia: Queensland Weed Society. 122-124.
Lee H B, 2013. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii (syn. P. fusca) on cocklebur in Korea. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0951-PDN
Milanova S, Boneva P, Grigorova P, Valkova M, 2007. Weed survey in central north Bulgaria. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007.], [ed. by Fløistad E]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 217. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com
Mohamed E S I, Mahmoud M E E, Elhaj M A M, Mohamed S A, Ekesi S, 2015. Host plants record for tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Sudan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 45 (1), 108-111. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.12178
Mohammed A S, Tamrat Bekele, 2010. Forage production and plant diversity in two managed rangelands in the Main Ethiopian Rift. African Journal of Ecology. 48 (1), 13-20. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aje DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01039.x
Moskova T, Dimitrov G, Tityanov M, 2018. Distribution and degree of weed growth of amaranth and other weeds in sunflower crops in Plovdiv and Stara Zagora regions. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans. 21 (1), 158-168. http://www.rimsa.eu/images/forage_production_vol_21-1_part_2_2018.pdf
Nayak S K, Satapathy K B, 2015. Diversity, uses and origin of invasive alien plants in Dhenkanal district of Odisha, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (2), 21-27. http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v4/i2/4.ISCA-IRJBS-2014-223.pdf
Nigussie Seboka Tadesse, Amare Seifu Assefa, Manaye Misganaw Motbaynor, Edget Merawi Betsiha, Ashenafi Ayenew Hailu, Girum Faris Beyene, Tesfaye Bekele Hordofa, 2017. Invasion and impacts of Xanthium strumarium in Borena Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 5 (8), 350-355. DOI:10.12980/jclm.5.2017j7-26
Oh S M, Moon B C, Kim C S, 2007. Current status on influx and habitat of exotic weeds in Korea. In: Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka [Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka.], [ed. by Marambe B, Sangakkara U R, Costa W A J M de, Abeysekara A S K]. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society. 608-613.
Patil K P, Awadhiya G K, Pandey S R, 2017. Occurrence of powdery mildew on some plants from Raipur of Chhattisgarh state. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (32), 6818-6829. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/23-8868_(K_P__Patila).pdf
Rehmat Ullah, Kalim Ullah, Khan M A, Imdad Ullah, Zahid Usman, 2014. Summer weeds flora of district Dera Isamail Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 505-517. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/8.%20PJWSR-36-2013.pdf
Shah S M, Asad Ullah, Fazal Hadi, 2014. Ecological characteristics of weed flora in the wheat crop of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 479-487. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/6.%20PJWSR-22-2014.pdf
Tahira J J, Khan S N, 2017. Diversity of weed flora in onion fields of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 23 (2), 245-253. http://www.wssp.org.pk/resources/images/paper/955QW1498306408.pdf
Vrandecic K, Cosic J, Jurkovic D, Riccioni L, Duvnjak T, 2007. First report of Phomopsis longicolla on cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) in Croatia. Plant Disease. 91 (12), 1687. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-12-1687B
Witt A, Beale T, Wilgen B W van, 2018. An assessment of the distribution and potential ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species in eastern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 73 (3), 217-236. DOI:10.1080/0035919X.2018.1529003
Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Zeeshan Ahmad, Khan S M, Shahab Ali, Inayat-ur-Rahman, Hussan Ara, Iram Noreen, Ayesha Khan, 2016. Indicator species analyses of weed communities of maize crop in District Mardan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 22 (2), 227-238. http://www.wssp.org.pk/SearchViaList/85f2b9507de3d718f94122555958c33a/8229716c1c1ad23b1ea10452ba59f128
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/