Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Watermelon mosaic virus
(watermelon mosaic)

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Datasheet

Watermelon mosaic virus (watermelon mosaic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 March 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Watermelon mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • watermelon mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Necrotic lesions on fully developed leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionNecrotic lesions on fully developed leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.
CopyrightM.N. Pearson
Necrotic lesions on fully developed leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.
Symptoms on leavesNecrotic lesions on fully developed leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.M.N. Pearson
Chlorotic patches and leaf distortion in tip leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionChlorotic patches and leaf distortion in tip leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.
CopyrightM.N. Pearson
Chlorotic patches and leaf distortion in tip leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.
Symptoms on leafChlorotic patches and leaf distortion in tip leaves of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans.M.N. Pearson
Left: Necrosis and dieback of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans vine.

Right: Healthy V. fragrans vine growing on the support tree Jatropha curcus.
TitleHealthy and infected vines
CaptionLeft: Necrosis and dieback of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans vine. Right: Healthy V. fragrans vine growing on the support tree Jatropha curcus.
CopyrightM.N. Pearson
Left: Necrosis and dieback of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans vine.

Right: Healthy V. fragrans vine growing on the support tree Jatropha curcus.
Healthy and infected vinesLeft: Necrosis and dieback of VNV-infected Vanilla fragrans vine. Right: Healthy V. fragrans vine growing on the support tree Jatropha curcus.M.N. Pearson
Fruit symptoms on WMV-2-infected rockmelon.
TitleSymptoms on rockmelon
CaptionFruit symptoms on WMV-2-infected rockmelon.
CopyrightHFRI of NZ
Fruit symptoms on WMV-2-infected rockmelon.
Symptoms on rockmelonFruit symptoms on WMV-2-infected rockmelon.HFRI of NZ

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Watermelon mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • watermelon mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • marrow mosaic virus
  • melon mosaic virus
  • soybean mosaic virus N strain
  • watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus
  • watermelon mosaic II potyvirus
  • watermelon mosaic II virus
  • watermelon mosaic potyvirus
  • watermelon mosaic potyvirus-II
  • watermelon mosaic virus 2

International Common Names

  • French: mosaïque de la pastèque

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Wassermelonenvirus

English acronym

  • WMV
  • WMV-2
  • WMV-II

EPPO code

  • WMV000 (Watermelon mosaic potyvirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Watermelon mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentAkanda et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Wu and Cheng, 2018
-HebeiPresentWei et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HeilongjiangPresentWei et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HenanPresentWei et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-JiangsuPresentXue et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-JilinPresentWei et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShaanxiPresentWu et al., 2008
-ShandongPresentWei et al., 1991; Li et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShanxiPresentGu et al., 2008
-TianjinPresentLi et al., 2004
-XinjiangPresentZheng et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ZhejiangPresentWu and Cheng, 2018
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentSingh et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-JavaPresentSomowiyarjo, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IranPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Hajizadeh and Mohammadi, 2016
IraqPresentShawkat and Fegla, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IsraelPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JapanPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HokkaidoPresentYoshida et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ShikokuPresentIwasaki and Inaba, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JordanPresentAl-Musa et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Kim et al., 2019
KuwaitPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
LebanonPresentKatul and Makkouk, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
OmanPresentZouba et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentAli et al., 2004
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Saleh and Al-Shahwan, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SyriaPresentKatul and Makkouk, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TaiwanPresentHseu et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TurkeyPresentNogay and Yorganci, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Kamberoglu et al., 2015
YemenPresentWalkey et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Africa

EgyptPresentAhmed et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
LibyaPresentSvoboda et al., 2015
MauritiusPresentGungoosingh-Bunwaree, 2001/2002
MoroccoWidespreadFischer and Lockhart, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TunisiaPresentMnari-Hattab et al., 2008

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MexicoPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
USAPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlabamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArizonaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentDodds et al., 1984; Grafton-Cardwell et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-DelawarePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-FloridaPresentAdlerz, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HawaiiPresentUllman et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Watanabe et al., 2016
-IllinoisPresentJossey and Babadoost, 2008
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Vincelli and Seebold, 2009
-LouisianaPresentFernandes et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-New JerseyPresentDavis and Mizuki, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New YorkPresentMunger, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentSammons et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-TexasPresentChala et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentRivera et al., 1993; Sanchez et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GuadeloupePresentQuiot et al., 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HondurasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
JamaicaPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MartiniquePresentQuiot et al., 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003

South America

ArgentinaPresentNote: Tucuman Province; Hernandez et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-CearaPresentLima & Vieire, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MaranhaoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-RoraimaPresentHalfeld-Vieira et al., 2004
-Sao PauloPresentYuki et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ChileWidespreadPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SurinamePresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VenezuelaPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Gustavo et al., 2013

Europe

Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentTrkulja et al., 2014a; Trkulja et al., 2014b
BulgariaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
CyprusPresentPapayiannis et al., 2005
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentPurcifull et al., 1984
FrancePresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GermanyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GreecePresentAvgelis, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HungaryPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ItalyPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; Rubies-Autonell et al., 1996; Lisa et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-SicilyPresentSpanò et al., 2012
PolandPresentBorodynko et al., 2009
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SerbiaPresentTosic et al., 1996
SloveniaPresentVozelj et al., 2003
SpainPresentAlonso-Prados et al., 1997; Luis-Arteaga et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UkrainePresentRudneva et al., 2006
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-QueenslandPresentGreber, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Cook IslandsPresentMossop and Fry, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
FijiPresentMossop and Fry, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
French PolynesiaPresentGrisoni et al., 2004
KiribatiPresentMossop and Fry, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
New ZealandPresentPurcifull et al., 1984; Fletcher et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SamoaPresentMossop and Fry, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Solomon IslandsPresentBrunt, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TongaPresentMossop and Fry, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abo-Elyazid EB, Abo-Sedera FA, Shafshak Nadia S, 1990. Effect of planting date and fertilization level on: II. The incidence of watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV-2) and its effect on vegetative growth and chemical composition of squash plants. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 28(4):2167-2186

Abu-Samah N, 1985. Relationship between watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-1) and watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV-2) on the basis of nucleotide sequence homology. Pertanika, 8(2):281-287

Adlerz WC, 1978. Watermelon mosaic virus 2 epidemics in Florida 1967-1977. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71(4):596-597

Ahmed KGM, Abo-Elyazid EB, Madhy AMM, 1990. Identification of a strain of watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV-2) isolated from naturally infected squash (Cucurbita pepo, L.) plants grown in Kalubia Governorate, A. R. E. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 28(4):2219-2230

Akanda AM, Tsuno K, Wakimoto S, 1991. Serological detection of four plant viruses in cucurbitaceous crops from Bangladesh. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 57(4):499-505

Ali A, Natsuaki T, Okuda S, 2004. Identification and molecular characterization of viruses infecting cucurbits in Pakistan. Journal of Phytopathology, 152(11/12):677-682. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/jph

Al-Musa A, Mansour A, 1982. Some properties of a watermelon mosaic virus in Jordan. Plant Disease, 66(4):330-331

Alonso-Prados JL, Fraile A, Garcfa-Arenal F, 1997. Impact of cucumber mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus 2 infection on melon production in central Spain. Journal of Plant Pathology, 79(2):131-134; 11 ref

Al-Saleh MA, Al-Shahwan IM, 1997. Viruses infecting cucurbits in Riyadh, Gassim and Hail regions of Saudi Arabia. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 15(1):223-254; 33 ref

Arce-Ochoa JP, Dainello F, Pike LM, Drews D, 1995. Field performance comparison of two transgenic summer squash hybrids to their parental hybrid line. HortScience, 30(3):492-493

Avgelis AD, 1983. Occurrence of watermelon mosaic virus 1 and 2 in cucurbits in Crete (Greece). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 22(3):219-221

Borodynko N, Hasiów-Jaroszewska B, Rymelska N, Pospieszny H, 2009. Watermelon mosaic virus reported for the first time in Poland. Plant Pathology, 58(4):783. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Brown JE, Dangler JM, Woods FM, Tilt KM, Henshaw MD, Griffey WA, West MS, 1993. Delay in mosaic virus onset and aphid vector reduction in summer squash grown on reflective mulches. HortScience, 28(9):895-896

Brunt AA, 1987. Surveys or plant viruses and virus diseases in Solomon Islands. Suva, Fiji: FAO/South Pacific Commission

Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Watermelon mosaic virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 906. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Chala VH, Harrison CW, Halliwell RS, 1987. Identification of two distinct strains of watermelon mosaic virus 2 affecting cucurbits in Texas. Plant Disease, 71(8):750-752

Chalfant RB, Young JR, 1984. Management of insect pests of broccoli, cowpeas, spinach, tomatoes, and peanuts with chemigation by insecticides in oils, and reduction of watermelon virus 2 by chemigated oil. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(5):1323-1326

Davis RF, Mizuki MK, 1987. Detection of cucurbit viruses in New Jersey. Plant Disease, 71(1):40-44

Dikova B, 1995. Establishment of viruses on cucurbit crops in Bulgaria. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 32(4):99-100; 1 ref

Dodds JA, Lee JG, Nameth ST, Lpmmlen FF, 1984. Aphid- and whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses in Imperial County, California. Phytopathology, 74(2):221-225

Espinoza HR, McLeod PJ, 1994. Use of row cover in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) to delay infection of aphid-transmitted viruses in Honduras. Turrialba, 44(3):179-183

Fegla GI, Badr HM, 1979. Effect of plant population on the incidence of mosaic diseases and productivity of vegetable marrow (Cucurbita pepo, L.). Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(4):259-265

Fernandes FF, Valverde RA, Black LL, 1991. Viruses infecting cucurbit crops in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 75(4):431

Fischer HU, Lockhart BEL, 1974. Serious losses in cucubits caused by watermelon mosaic virus in Morocco. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(2):143-146

Fletcher JD, Wallace AR, Rogers BT, 2000. Potyviruses in New Zealand buttercup squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.): yield and quality effects of ZYMV and WMV 2 virus infections. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 28(1):17-26; 21 ref

Frenkel MJ, Ward CW, Shukla DD, 1989. The use of 3 non-coding nucleotide sequences in the taxonomy of potyviruses: application to watermelon mosaic virus 2 and soybean mosaic virus-N. Journal of General Virology, 70(10):2775-2783

Fuchs M, Gonsalves D, 1995. Resistance of transgenic hybrid squash ZW-20 expressing the coat protein genes of zucchini yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus 2 to mixed infections by both potyviruses. Bio/Technology, 13(13):1466-1473; 52 ref

Fuchs M, McFerson JR, Tricoli DM, McMaster JR, Deng RZ, Boeshore ML, Reynolds JF, Russell PF, Quemada HD, Gonsalves D, 1997. Cantaloupe line CZW-30 containing coat protein genes of cucumber mosaic virus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus-2 is resistant to these three viruses in the field. Molecular Breeding, 3(4):279-290; 38 ref

Fuchs M, Tricoli DM, Carney KJ, Schesser M, McFerson JR, Gonsalves D, 1998. Comparative virus resistance and fruit yield of transgenic squash with single and multiple coat protein genes. Plant Disease, 82(12):1350-1356; 22 ref

Gilbert RZ, Kyle MM, Munger HM, Gray SM, 1994. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus in Cucumis melo L. HortScience, 29(2):107-110

Gilbert-Albertini F, Lecoq H, Pitrat M, Nicolet JL, 1993. Resistance of Cucurbita moschata to watermelon mosaic virus type 2 and its genetic relation to resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Euphytica, 69(3):231-237; 20 ref

Gillaspie AG Jr, Wright JM, 1993. Evaluation of Citrullus sp. germ plasm for resistance to watermelon mosaic virus 2. Plant Disease, 77(4):352-354

Giunchedi L, Vicchi V, Gambin E, Baroncelli L, Fini P, 1991. The effect of various plastic mulching films on the prevention of aphid-transmitted viruses in zucchini. Informatore Fitopatologico, 41(12):57-61

Grafton-Cardwell EE, Perring TM, Smith RF, Valencia J, Farrar CA, 1996. Occurrence of mosaic viruses in melons in the Central Valley of California. Plant Disease, 80(10):1092-1097; 36 ref

Graves Gillaspie AJr, Jarret RL, 1997. Watermelon mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding lines WM-1, WM-2, WM-3, and WM-4. HortScience, 32(6):1136-1136; 4 ref

Gray SM, Moyer JW, Kennedy GG, Campbell CL, 1986. Virus-suppression and aphid resistance effects on spatial and temporal spread of watermelon mosaic virus 2. Phytopathology, 76(11):1254-1259

Greber RS, 1978. Watermelon mosaic virus 1 and 2 in Queensland cucurbit crops. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(6):1235-1245

Grisoni M, Davidson F, Hyrondelle C, Farreyrol K, Caruana ML, Pearson M, 2004. Nature, incidence, and symptomatology of viruses infecting Vanilla tahitensis in French Polynesia. Plant Disease, 88(2):119-124

Gu QinSheng, Tian YanPing, Peng Bin, Liu LiFeng, Deng CongLiang, Liang XinMiao, Meng Juan, 2008. Molecular analysis of three cucurbit viruses based on coat protein gene sequences. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 38(4):357-363. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Gungoosingh-Bunwaree A, 2001/2002. Status of major viruses affecting cucurbitaceous crops in Mauritius. Revue Agricole et Sucrière de l'Île Maurice, 80/81(3-1/3):98-103

Gustavo R, Lecoq H, Desbiez C, 2013. First report of watermelon mosaic virus naturally infecting Cucumis anguria. Plant Disease, 97(11):1515. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hajizadeh M, Mohammadi K, 2016. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus. VirusDisease, 27(1):107-109. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13337-016-0302-3

Halfeld-Vieira BA, Ramos NF, Rabelo Filho FAC, Gonçalves MFB, Nechet KL, Pereira PRVS, Lima JAA, 2004. Serological identification of virus species in watermelon in the state of Roraima. (Identificação sorológica de espécies de potyvirus em melancia, no estado de Roraima.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(6):687-689. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n6/a18v29n6.pdf

Hernßndez JR, Ramallo JC, Weht S, 2000. Watermelon mosaic-2 potyvirus on winter squash in Tucuman, Argentina. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 35(2):91-97; 9 ref

Herrington ME, Prytz S, Brown P, Persley DM, Greber R, 1991. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-W, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus-2 in C. maxima. Report - Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, No. 14:123-124

Horvath J, 1979. New artificial hosts and non-hosts of plant viruses and their role in the identification and separation of viruses IX. Potyvirus group (subdivision-III): potato virus Y, turnip mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus (strain 2 or general strain). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(1/2):157-173

Hseu SH, Huang CH, Chang CA, Yang WZ, Chang YM, Hsiao CH, 1987. The occurrence of five viruses in six cucurbits in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 29(3):233-244

Huang CH, Liang SC, Deng TC, Hseu SH, 1993. Comparison of diagnostic hosts and serological tests for four cucurbit potyviruses. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 2(3):169-176

Huttner E, Tucker W, Vermeulen A, Ignart F, Sawyer B, Birch R, 1999. Ribozyme genes protecting transgenic melon plants against potyviruses. In: Rossi JJ, Couture LA, eds. Intracellular Ribozyme Applications: Principles and Protocols. Wymondham, UK: Horizon Scientific Press, 271-283

Iwasaki M, Inaba T, 1988. Viral wilt of cucumber plants grafted on squash rootstocks. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 54(5):584-592

Jayaram C, Hill JH, Miller WA, 1991. Nucleotide sequences of the coat protein genes of two aphid-transmissible strains of soybean mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology, 72(4):1001-1003

Jossey S, Babadoost M, 2008. Occurrence and distribution of pumpkin and squash viruses in Illinois. Plant Disease, 92(1):61-68. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Kamberoglu MA, Desbiez C, Caliskan AF, 2015. Characterization of an emerging isolate of watermelon mosaic virus in Turkey. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 17(1):211-215. http://www.fspublishers.org/published_papers/73262_..pdf

Kameya-Iwaki M, Tochihara H, Hanada K, Torigoe H, 1992. Attenuated isolate of watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2) and its cross protection against virulent isolate. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 58(3):491-494

Katul L, Makkouk KM, 1987. Occurrence and serological relatedness of five cucurbit potyviruses in Lebanon and Syria. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 26(1):36-42

Kaya A, Erkan S, 2011. Detection and incidence of viruses in cucurbits grown in Izmir, Aydin, Manisa and Balikesir provinces. (Izmir, Aydin, Manisa ve Balikesir illerinde üretilen kabakgillerdeki viral etmenlerin tanilanmasi ve yayginliklarinin belirlenmesi.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 51(4):387-405. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Kim, J. E., Kwak, H. R., Choi, H. S., Kim, M., Jung, W. K., Seo, J. K., Kim, J. S., Cha, B., 2019. First report of watermelon mosaic virus on Malva verticillata in Korea. Plant Disease, 103(2), 380-381. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kishaba AN, Castle SJ, Coudriet DL, McCreight JD, Bohn GW, 1992. Virus transmission by Aphis gossypii Glover to aphid-resistant and susceptible muskmelons. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(2):248-254

Komuro Y, 1962. Virus diseases of cucumber and watermelon caused by melon mosaic virus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 27,31-36

Kosaka Y, Fukunishi T, 1997. Multiple inoculation with three attenuated viruses for the control of cucumber virus disease. Plant Disease, 81(7):733-738; 21 ref

Krfstkovß E, Lebeda A, 2000. Resistance in Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima germplasm to watermelon mosaic potyvirus-2. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No. 121:47-52; 33 ref

Kyle MM, Dickson MH, 1988. Linkage of hypersensitivity to five viruses with the B locus in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Heredity, 79(4):308-311

Kyle MM, Provvidenti R, 1987. Inheritance of resistance to potato Y viruses in Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1. Two independent genes for resistance to watermelon mosaic virus-2. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 74(5):595-600

Lamont WJ, Sorensen KA, Averre CW, 1990. Painting aluminium strips of black plastic mulch reduces mosaic symptoms on summer squash. HortScience, 25(10):1305

Laney AG, Avanzato MV, Tzanetakis IE, 2012. High incidence of seed transmission of Papaya ringspot virus and Watermelon mosaic virus, two viruses newly identified in Robinia pseudoacacia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 134(2):227-230. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

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