Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sphagneticola trilobata
(wedelia)

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Datasheet

Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sphagneticola trilobata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wedelia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. trilobata has spread rapidly threatening the native flora after introduction as an ornamental species. It can spread vegetatively and is difficult to eradicate. The IUCN has listed S. trilobata in its 100 of the world's worst...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sphagneticola trilobata; dense foliage and flowers.
TitleFoliage
CaptionSphagneticola trilobata; dense foliage and flowers.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Sphagneticola trilobata; dense foliage and flowers.
FoliageSphagneticola trilobata; dense foliage and flowers. ©A.R. Pittaway
Sphagneticola trilobata; single flower and foliage.
TitleFlower
CaptionSphagneticola trilobata; single flower and foliage.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Sphagneticola trilobata; single flower and foliage.
FlowerSphagneticola trilobata; single flower and foliage.©A.R. Pittaway
Sphagneticola trilobata grown as roadside ground cover adjacent to a rubber plantation. Central Sri Lanka.
TitleHabit
CaptionSphagneticola trilobata grown as roadside ground cover adjacent to a rubber plantation. Central Sri Lanka.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Sphagneticola trilobata grown as roadside ground cover adjacent to a rubber plantation. Central Sri Lanka.
HabitSphagneticola trilobata grown as roadside ground cover adjacent to a rubber plantation. Central Sri Lanka.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski

Preferred Common Name

  • wedelia

Other Scientific Names

  • Acmella brasiliensis Spreng
  • Acmella spilanthoides Cass.
  • Buphthalmum procumbens Desf. Ex Steud
  • Buphthalmum repens Lam.
  • Complaya trilobata (L.) Strother
  • Sereneum trilobata (L.) Kuntze
  • Silphium trilobatum L.
  • Sphagneticola ulei O. Hoffm.
  • Stemmodontia carnosa (Rich.) O.F. Cook & G.N. Collins
  • Thelechitonia trilobata (L.) H. Rob & Cautrec.
  • Verbesina carnosa (Rich.) M. Gómez
  • Verbesina tridentata Sprengel
  • Wedelia brasiliensis (Spreng.) S.F. Blake
  • Wedelia carnosa Rich. ex Pers.
  • Wedelia trilobata (L.) A.S. Hitchc.
  • Wedelina paludosa DC.

International Common Names

  • English: Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye; creeping daisy; creeping ox-eye; creeping wedelia; gold-cup; rabbit's paw; Singapore daisy; trailing daisy; water zinnia; wild marigold; yellow dots
  • Spanish: clavelín de playa; clavelito de muerto; clavellin (Panama); manzanilla; manzanilla de playa; margarita amarilla; margarita de pasto; romerillo; romerillo; saladillo macho; yerba buena cimarrona
  • French: patte canard
  • Chinese: nan mei peng qi ju

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: trailing wedelia
  • Brazil: insulin; vedélia
  • Cuba: romero de playa
  • Germany: Wedelie, Goldstern-
  • Jamaica: creeping oxeye
  • Lesser Antilles: bobena; carpet daisy; graveyard daisy; graveyard grass; herb soleil; lad love; pa a kanna; pasture sage; piss weed; venvenn kawayib; verven carib; vin vin caribe; yellow marigold; zeb a fan
  • Marshall Islands: ut mokadkad; ut telia
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: atiat; dihpw ongohng; dihpwoangoahng suwed (Pohnpei); rostangrang; tuhke ongohng
  • Palau: ngesil ra ngebard
  • Saint Lucia: venvenn kawayib
  • South Africa: Singapoer-madeliefie
  • Tonga: ate
  • USA: Bay Biscayne creeping oxeye; yellow dots

EPPO code

  • WEDTR (Wedelia trilobata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. trilobata has spread rapidly threatening the native flora after introduction as an ornamental species. It can spread vegetatively and is difficult to eradicate. The IUCN has listed S. trilobata in its 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species and the Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council classified it as a category II invader. This species continues to be available as an ornamental and is therefore likely to spread further.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Sphagneticola
  •                                 Species: Sphagneticola trilobata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The basonym is Siphium trilobatum L., and the species has since been transferred to numerous genera including Compalaya,Sphagneticola, Thelechitonia, Verbesina and Wedelia. Although Sphagneticolatrilobata is the accepted name (HEAR, 2008, USDA-NRCS, 2008; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2008), Wedeliatrilobata is still widely used in the Pacific (HEAR, 2008), the USA and elsewhere. A large number of other synonyms are provided by Missouri Botanical Garden (2008).
 

Description

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S. trilobata is perennial and grows to 45-60 cm high. Stems are green, rounded, rooting at nodes, 10-30 cm long, the flowering portions ascending, coarsely strigose to spreading hirsute, sometimes subglabrous. Leaves are medium textured, fleshy, usually 4-9 cm long (1.5-) 2-5 cm wide, simple obovate, irregularly toothed or serrate, usually with a pair of lateral lobes. The leaf arrangement is opposite to subopposite. Leaf venation is bowed and brochidodrome. Leaves are green in colour and do not change colour during autumn in the USA. S. trilobata usually flowers throughout the year. Flowers, solitary, arise in the leaf axils at any height but appear to have the most blossoms at about 10 cm above ground level. Peduncles 3-10 cm long, involucre, campanulate-hemispherical, 1 cm high; chaffy bracts lanceolate, rigid, ray florets often 8-13 per head, yellow in colour, rays 6-15 mm long; disk corolla 4-5 mm long; pappus a crown of short fimbriate scales (HEAR, 2008). Achenes tuberculate, 4-5 mm long with a brown, dry and hard fruit cover. Fruits are inconspicuous.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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S. trilobata is native to tropical America, from Mexico to Brazil including much of the Caribbean (USDA-ARS, 2008). It is now also common in many other parts of the world, especially at low elevations. S. trilobata is also present in West Africa, though records are limited. It has a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range and is becoming widely naturalized throughout the tropics (HEAR, 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MalawiPresentIntroducedInvasive
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
RwandaPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Subramanium, 1996
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedBonin Islands
KuwaitPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Dissanayake et al., 2001
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
ThailandPresentIntroduced

Europe

GermanyPresentIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroducedPotentially invasive

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresentNative
BermudaPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentIntroduced
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedSaba
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed. St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Wagner et al., 1999
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHawai’I, Kaho’olawe, Lana’I, Maui, Moloka’I, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive‘Atiu, Rartonga
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive in Pohnpei. Also present on Kosrae, Chuuk and Yap
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: mid-1970s
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFatu Hiva, Moorea, Raiatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tupai, Rapa, Tubuai
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasiveButaritari Atoll, Tarawa
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveEnenwetak, Jahuit, Kwajalein, Arno, Majuro
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIle Grande Terre
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveRota, Saipan
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveTobi, Angaur, Babeldaob, Koror, Malakal, Ngerkebesang, Peleliu
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSavai’I, Upolu
TokelauPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasiveTongatapu
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Midway IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
VanuatuPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AcrePresentNative
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-PiauiPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
-TocantinsPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. trilobata has been repeatedly introduced to other countries as an ornamental plant although the original dates of introduction are rarely known. GBIF (2008) lists earliest herbarium specimens in Australia from the mid 1980s, Hong Kong in 1993 and both Papua New Guinea and Indonesia as recently as 1997. Propagules are intentionally dispersed because S. trilobata is one of the most common and dependable ground covers in landscaping and it has been commonly introduced to many tropical gardens as an ornamental and has spread from these foci.

Risk of Introduction

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Further spread of S. trilobata is highly probable, due to risks of accidental movement, mixed with crop seeds and other agricultural produce, and in soil. Deliberate introduction of this species to natural habitats is also very common because S. trilobata has an ornamental value in landscape practices. It is available from dozens of internet plant sales sites and is therefore certain to reach many new territories in the future.

Habitat

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S. trilobata grows well in open areas up to 700 m or more in elevation (and up to 1300 m in French Polynesia) although it is commonly a coastal species. It is a noxious weed in agricultural areas, along roadsides and trails, in open areas, waste ground, irrigated lawns, rubbish dumps, natural grasslands and disturbed sites. Thaman (1999) has reported that S. trilobata has become naturalized in many Pacific islands and has become invasive along streams, canals, the margins of mangrove forests and in coastal vegetation. S. trilobata is suited to a wide variety of conditions and will cover rough rocky ground or wet drainage ditches and even tolerates some degree of trampling.

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Multiple
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Principal habitat Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal dunes Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
LittoralMangroves Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralMangroves Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. trilobata is a threatening invasive species in agricultural and forestry land, urban areas and roadsides. It forms a dense ground cover, crowding or preventing regeneration of other species (HEAR, 2008). It has been reported as a weed of taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Fiji (Macanawai, 2013).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeMain

    Growth Stages

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    Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number for S. trilobata is given as x=30, 2n=60 by the Missouri Botanical Garden (2008). Ren et al. (2012) give the karyotype formula 2n=56=24m+28sm+4st, and postulate that the basic chromosome number may be x=14 rather than x=15 and that S. trilobata may be tetraploid.

    Wu et al. (2013) report that S. trilobata in South China, where it is invasive, may be hybridizing with the native congener Sphagneticola calendulacea.

    Reproductive Biology

    S. trilobata produces achenes which contain seeds that are often said to be sterile (Hear, 2008), however, Macanawai (2013) demonstrated that large numbers of seeds were present in the the soil seed bank in wedelia-infested study sites in Fiji and that up to 17% of seeds were viable. The minimum generative time of these seeds is usually one year. However, S. trilobata usually propagates vegetatively, with stems forming new plants where they touch the ground. Stem fragments also readily form roots.

    Physiology and Phenology

    S. trilobata is a vigorous perennial herb capable of forming a continuous herbaceous ground cover. Flowering takes place year round. It produces the most flowers in open, frost-free locations. However, S. trilobata can grow in shade and still flower, although only sparingly. Where it has escaped from garden boundaries it can be found in lawns and disturbed areas, where it will respond to mowing by flowering at ground level.

    Environmental Requirements

    S. trilobata is generally a tropical species which will thrive in full sun or shade, but full sun produces most flowering. It grows in any soil when provided with ample moisture, but is also moderately drought tolerant and can tolerate extended flooding. It grows best in moist, well-drained, fertile soils, clays, sands or loams and can tolerate saline soils. S. trilobata does well over a range of soil pH values, but 5.5-7.5 is preferred. Though killed to the ground by frost when grown in temperate countries, S. trilobata may return with the onset of warm weather in the spring. The long, creeping stems of S. trilobata root wherever they touch moist soil.

    In China, S. trilobata has been reported to grow better at high temperatures and carbon dioxide levels than its indigenous related species Wedelia chinensis, and it is suggested that the invasive species may become more aggressive through climate change (Song et al., 2010a,b).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    30 30 1300

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30
    Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 40
    Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 7 12

    Rainfall

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    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
    Mean annual rainfall10002500mm; lower/upper limits

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Summer
    Uniform

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free
    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • alkaline
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • heavy
    • light
    • medium

    Special soil tolerances

    • infertile
    • saline
    • shallow

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    Though relatively resistant to many pests, S. trilobata can occasionally be infested with chewing insects, leaf hoppers and mites. These insects are seldom fatal to S. trilobata, and chemical pest controls are only recommended for severe infections. In Hawaii, it has been reported that the banana rind thrip, Elixothrips brevisetis, feeds on leaves, flowers and stems of S. trilobata, with injured tissue taking on a silvery appearance and eventually turning dark brown. When E. brevisetis feeds on the leaf tips it results in wilting and curling and the undersides of leaves are spotted with small black faecal specks. Flowers become flecked, spotted, deformed and many buds fail to open. This thrip causes scarring and the formation of corky growth on fruit skins (Metcalf et al., 1962; Muruvanda, 1986). Several leaf spot and root rot diseases also affect the growth and development of S. trilobata under moist conditions.

    Yu et al. (2011) report that native Cuscuta australis reduces the growth and nutrient content of invasive hosts including S. trilobata, helping native species to compete against the invader.

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    S. trilobata usually reproduces vegetatively (HEAR, 2008) but viable seeds may also be present in the soil (Macanawai, 2013). The propagules are very often dispersed intentionally by people, or unintentionally in garden waste. It is commonly planted as an ornamental (Englberger, 2009).

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Land vehicles Yes Yes

    Plant Trade

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    Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
    Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx flowers; seeds
    Fruits (inc. pods) flowers; seeds
    Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches stems
    True seeds (inc. grain) flowers; seeds
    Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
    Bark
    Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
    Growing medium accompanying plants
    Leaves
    Roots
    Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
    Wood

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Animal/plant collections None
    Animal/plant products None
    Biodiversity (generally) Negative
    Crop production Negative
    Cultural/amenity Positive
    Economic/livelihood Negative
    Environment (generally) Positive and negative
    Fisheries / aquaculture None
    Forestry production None
    Human health Positive
    Livestock production Negative
    Native fauna None
    Native flora Negative
    Rare/protected species Negative
    Tourism None
    Trade/international relations None
    Transport/travel None

    Economic Impact

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    There are costs associated with the control of S. trilobata in agricultural situations, though no figures are available. It is listed as a ‘principal’ weed in Trinidad (Holm et al., 1991). In Sri Lanka, it is a favoured host of Cuscuta campestris and could therefore contribute to the spread of this serious parasitic weed (Jayasinghe et al., 2004).

    Environmental Impact

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    Impact on Habitats

    S. trilobata is an aggressive weed which forms a dense ground cover. This plant will spread rapidly excluding other ground cover vegetation. It has a vine-like habit and grows up into shrubs and trees thus retarding their growth. Batianoff and Franks (1997) reported that S. trilobata invaded the sandy beach fronts along the east coast of Queensland in Australia. Competition with other vegetation may be enhanced by allelopathic effects (Zhang et al., 2004), and the same allelopathic substances may also damage brine shrimps (Nie et al., 2004).

    Impact on Biodiversity

    S. trilobata has been ranked as a threatening invasive species that has invaded and affected the native biota of many areas in Hawaii, many other Pacific islands, the West Indies and southern Florida, USA, Central America, West Africa and Asia. In addition, it will also invade rainforest margins. The regeneration of native species in invaded areas can be inhibited due to rapid growth of S. trilobata and this can lead to reduction of biodiversity in invaded areas.

    In South China, S. trilobata hybridization with the native congener Sphagneticola calendulacea is reported to threaten conservation of the native species (Wu et al., 2013).
     

    Social Impact

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    S. trilobata has an ornamental value. Subramanium (1996) reported that it could be maintained on fences, arches, compounds, building walls, trees, pillars and roofs to provide aesthetic appeal.

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Long lived
    • Fast growing
    • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
    • Reproduces asexually
    Impact outcomes
    • Damaged ecosystem services
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Negatively impacts forestry
    • Negatively impacts tourism
    • Reduced amenity values
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Allelopathic
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - smothering
    • Interaction with other invasive species
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
    • Difficult/costly to control

    Uses

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    S. trilobata provides an excellent ground cover and is especially good for soil retention and erosion control. Farmers in Indonesia believe it enhances soil fertility (Handayani et al., 2006). S. trilobata is very attractive because of nearly constant and prolific blooming of yellow daisy-like flowers. Therefore it is used in many landscape practices and mass planting such as under trees, open areas, around rocks and ponds as a covering in parkways and on walls or in pots. Furthermore, this species is excellent for erosion control on slopes and banks because it roots where the stems come in contact with soil. S. trilobata can also be used successfully as a companion crop to combat silver leaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important vegetable pest in Puerto Rico, the southern USA and the Caribbean Basin.

    S. trilobata has traditionally been used to treat infections, indigestion and to treat hepatitis. It shows considerable anti-hepatotoxic and protective effects against carbon tetrachloride induced liver destruction. The active ingredient present in S. trilobata is a coumestan called wedelolactone (Wagner et al., 1986). Due to the presence of active chemicals such as n-hexane and ethyl acetate in extracts of S. trilobata, it shows antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella sonnei (Taddei and Romero, 1999). S. trilobata has also been traditionally used to clear the placenta after birth. Sureshkumar et al. (2007) also report effectiveness as an analgesic in studies on mice.

    Dissanayake et al. (2002) reported that S. trilobata has the capability to absorb a high amount of Cu+2, Ni+2, Mn+2 and Fe+2 / Fe+3 from polluted areas in Sri Lanka. Hence, S. trilobata can be recommended as a phyto-remediator that can be used in a profitable manner to treat waste effluents and environments contaminated with heavy metal ions.

    Uses List

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    Environmental

    • Agroforestry
    • Amenity
    • Boundary, barrier or support
    • Erosion control or dune stabilization
    • Landscape improvement
    • Revegetation
    • Soil conservation
    • Soil improvement

    General

    • Botanical garden/zoo

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Ornamental

    • Seed trade

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Cultural Control

    Growth of S. trilobata can be controlled by carefully managing nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation. The importation and spread of S. trilobata can be significantly reduced by public education on the aggressive nature of the species. Educating the public on the identity, impacts and control of the spread of S. trilobata can reduce ecological degradation of native ecosystems by S. trilobata.

    Mechanical Control

    S. trilobata can be effectively controlled by removing the top few centimetres of soil using a suitable tool such as a fire hoe (a sharped-toothed hoe used for cutting roots and sod to clear fire breaks), with the aim of removing the soil-stored seed bank. Studies have shown that hand pulling can be effective, but can be impractical on a larger scale, because even small underground portions can re-sprout and seeds buried in soil can germinate. Therefore, repeated hand pulling or follow up with herbicide application is often necessary. In addition, burning can also be practised. It is important to note that pulling plants from the ground may cause unwanted soil disturbance in certain areas and recolonization by other invasive non-native plants. Hence, plans for management or replanting of sites with native vegetation should be carefully developed prior to implementation of mechanical removal.

    Chemical Control

    The spread of S. trilobata may be controlled by spraying metsulfuron-methyl herbicide (HEAR, 2008) and the addition of a suitable wetting agent is also important. This gives good control, but it is important to follow up with repeat treatments as some underground runners will survive the initial treatment and resprout (HEAR, 2008). In Australia, Spencer (2012) reports that most native species growing together with S. trilobata in the Daintree, Queensland, are resistant to metsulfuron-methyl and that native sensitive species tended to be pioneer species which could readily colonise once S. trilobata had been removed.

    Large, dense populations may be treated by tryclopyr ester with follow-up treatments as needed. Spread of S. trilobata can also be controlled by applying 2,4-D, dicamba or triclopyr because many broadleaved weed species are more sensitive to these herbicides than are grasses. Also, some chemical growth regulators have shown promise in controlling the height of S. trilobata.

    References

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    Al-Zalzaleh H, Ghulam Shabbir, 2004. Effect of bioremediated soil on growth of different plant species. Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering, 31(1):107-118

    Batianoff GN, Franks AJ, 1997. Invasion of sandy beachfronts by ornamental plant species in Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 12(4):180-186; 26 ref

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    Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp

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    Verloove F, Sanchez E, 2012. New records of interesting vascular plants (mainly xenophytes) in the Iberian Peninsula. II. Flora Mediterranea, 22:5-24

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    Wu Wei, Zhou RenChao, Ni GuangYan, Shen Hao, Ge XueJun, 2013. Is a new invasive herb emerging? Molecular confirmation and preliminary evaluation of natural hybridization between the invasive Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae) and its native congener S. calendulacea in South China. Biological Invasions, 15(1):75-88. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0269-y/fulltext.html

    Yu Hua, Liu Jian, He WeiMing, Miao ShiLi, Dong Ming, 2011. Cuscuta australis restrains three exotic invasive plants and benefits native species. Biological Invasions, 13(3):747-756. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r2782711r7137m00/

    Zhang YH, Liu MF, Ling TJ, Wei XiaoY, 2004. Allelopathic sesquiterpene lactones from Wedelia trilobata. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 12(6):533-537

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Al-Zalzaleh H, Ghulam Shabbir, 2004. Effect of bioremediated soil on growth of different plant species. Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering. 31 (1), 107-118.

    Batianoff G N, Franks A J, 1998. Environmental weed invasions on south-east Queensland foredunes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 15-34.

    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Cao Fei, Song XiaoLing, He YunHe, Qiang Sheng, Qin WeiHua, Jiang MingKang, 2007. Investigation of alien invasive plants in Huizhou Mangrove Natural Reserve. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment. 16 (4), 61-66.

    Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore., Singapore: National University of Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research. 273 pp.

    Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness. In: Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness, Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP). 29 pp.

    Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA et al, 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil. (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

    Fosberg F R, Sachet M H, Oliver R, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica. 1-295.

    GBIF, 2008. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, GBIF. http://www.gbif.org/

    Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). In: The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean), http://www.saintlucianplants.com

    HEAR, 2008. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. In: Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

    Henderson L, 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute.

    Macanawai AR, 2013. Impact of Sphagneticola trilobata on plant diversity in soils in south-east Viti Levu, Fiji. In: Journal of Life Sciences, 7 (6) 635-642. http://www.davidpublishing.com/davidpublishing/Upfile/11/1/2013/2013110165331645.pdf

    Maia S M F, Oliveira T S de, Oliveira F N S, 2004. Spontaneous plants in the soil covering and accumulate of nutrients in areas cultivated with cashew. (Plantas espontâneas na cobertura do solo e acúmulo de nutrientes em áreas cultivadas com cajueiro.). Revista Ceres. 51 (293), 83-97.

    McCormack G, 2002. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project database., Cook Islands:

    Nirmal S A, Chavan M J, Tambe V D, Jadhav R S, Ghogare P B, Bhalke R D, Girme A S, 2005. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Wedelia trilobata leaves. Indian Journal of Natural Products. 21 (3), 33-35.

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

    PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.gov.au/cgi-bin/avh/avh.cgi

    Santos I, 1998. Wedelia trilobata on Pohnpei. In: Aliens, 7 3.

    Satya Narain, Kanchan Lata, 2006. Additions to the family Asteraceae in Flora of Gorakhpur. Indian Forester. 132 (11), 1504-1508. http://www.indianforester.org

    Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, USDA Forest Service. 51.

    Space JC, Flynn T, 2000a. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USDA Forest Service. 34.

    Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service.

    USA, USDA-ARS, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

    USA, USDA-NRCS, 2008. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov

    USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

    Verloove F, Sanchez E, 2012. New records of interesting vascular plants (mainly xenophytes) in the Iberian Peninsula. II. In: Flora Mediterranea, 22 5-24.

    Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

    Links to Websites

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    WebsiteURLComment
    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
    Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

    Contributors

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    10/07/13 Updated by:

    Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

    Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

    15/04/2008 Updated by:

    Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

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