Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Anastrepha suspensa
(Caribbean fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha suspensa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Caribbean fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. suspensa is a pest of guava [Psidium guajava], grapefruit [Citrus x paradisi], and various other cultivated fruits. It is native to the Greater Antilles and possibly the Bahamas, and is an introd...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult female with aculeus tip and large 'teeth' in basal area of reversible membrane showing.
TitleLine artwork of adult female
CaptionAdult female with aculeus tip and large 'teeth' in basal area of reversible membrane showing.
CopyrightCAB International
Adult female with aculeus tip and large 'teeth' in basal area of reversible membrane showing.
Line artwork of adult femaleAdult female with aculeus tip and large 'teeth' in basal area of reversible membrane showing.CAB International
Aculeus, dorsal view (optical section) of apex.
TitleLine artwork of aculeus
CaptionAculeus, dorsal view (optical section) of apex.
CopyrightCAB International
Aculeus, dorsal view (optical section) of apex.
Line artwork of aculeusAculeus, dorsal view (optical section) of apex.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Preferred Common Name

  • Caribbean fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Anastrepha longimacula Greene
  • Anastrepha unipuncta Seín
  • Trypeta suspensa Loew

International Common Names

  • English: Caribbean fruitfly; fruitfly, Caribbean
  • Spanish: mosca de la fruta; mosca de la fruta caribeña; mosca del caribe
  • French: mouche des fruits caribéenne

EPPO code

  • ANSTSU (Anastrepha suspensa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. suspensa is a pest of guava [Psidium guajava], grapefruit [Citrus x paradisi], and various other cultivated fruits. It is native to the Greater Antilles and possibly the Bahamas, and is an introduced pest in Florida, USA. It is considered an A1 quarantine pest by EPPO.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha suspensa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was first described in 1862 by Loew as Trypeta suspensa. The current combination was proposed by Schiner in 1868. The names Anastrepha unipuncta and Anastrepha longimacula are recognized as synonyms.

Description

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For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. suspensa are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin. Furthermore, most Anastrepha spp. have a very characteristic wing pattern; the apical half of the wing has two inverted 'V'-shaped markings, one fitting within the other; and a stripe along the forward edge of the wing, which runs from near the wing base to about half-way along the wing length.

Identification to species is more difficult. In particular, for positive identification it is essential to dissect the aculeus (the distal, piercing part of the ovipositor that is normally retracted into the oviscape) of a female specimen. The adult of A. suspensa is difficult to separate from those of Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha zenildae, and Anastrepha turpiniae, and to a lesser extent Anastrepha obliqua and several other species of the fraterculus group; if necessary, specimens should be referred to a specialist.

The body is predominantly yellow to orange-brown. The setae are red-brown to dark-brown.

Head: yellow except ocellar tubercle brown. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Frons with three or more frontal setae, two orbital setae. Antenna not extended to ventral facial margin.

Thorax: mostly yellow to orange-brown, with the following areas being yellow to white and often contrasting: postpronotal lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended nearly the full length of the scutum, slightly broadened posteriorly, ovoid; sublateral vitta extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; scutellum; propleuron; dorsal margin of anepisternum; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially usually with dark-brown spot. Subscutellum and/or mediotergite often dark-brown laterally. Scutum entirely microtrichose or at most with small presutural, medial bare area.

Wing: vein M strongly curved apically. Vein R2+3 nearly straight. Pattern mostly orange-brown and moderate-brown. C-band and S-band usually connected along vein R4+5, but sometimes separated; marginal hyaline spot (or end of band) present in cell r1 at apex of vein R4+5. S-band with middle section between costa and vein Cu1 largely yellow to orange with narrow brown margins, darkening distally; distal section of band broad, at apex of vein R2+3 extending across cell r2+3; reaching or narrowly separated from apex of vein M. V-band with distal arm usually complete and connected to proximal arm; proximal arm extended to vein R4+5, usually connected to S-band.

Abdomen: tergites yellow to orange-brown, without dark-brown markings.

Male terminalia: lateral surstylus moderately long, in posterior view slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically. Phallus 2.15–2.50 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 0.84–0.95. Glans with basolateral membranous lobe, mostly membranous medially, with isolated, T-shaped apical sclerite.

Female terminalia: oviscape straight, 1.45–1.95 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 0.63–0.76. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, hook-like, in triangular pattern. Aculeus 1.4–1.6 mm long; tip 0.19–0.24 mm long, 0.10–0.12 mm wide, gradually tapering, but with slight constriction proximal to serrate part, distal 0.52–0.64 serrate. Three spermathecae ovoid.

Immature Stages

Larva: it is very difficult, and in some cases impossible to identify Anastrepha spp. larvae from morphological characteristics. The key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive key by Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for larval identification. Descriptions of A. suspensa larvae are provided by Steck et al. (1990) and White and Elson-Harris (1994). White and Elson-Harris (1994) described the third-instar larva as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized, 7.5-9.0 mm long; 1.0-1.5 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ large, rounded, with three short stout sensilla; 8-11 oral ridges; three to four small accessory plates; mandible moderately sclerotised, with a large slender curved apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: anterior margin of T1 with a broad, encircling band of 5-10 discontinuous rows of stout, sharply-pointed spinules; T2 and T3 with three to five discontinuous rows of smaller spinules almost encircling segment, but absent mid-dorsally. Dorsal spinules absent from A1-A8. Creeping welts on A1-A8 large, with 8-10 rows of small, stout spinules. A8, area around spiracles protuberant with large intermediate areas. Bases of dorsal and intermediate tubercles large, well-developed, with large sensilla; ventral sensilla smaller.

Anterior spiracles: with 9-15 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits about three times as long as broad, with heavily sclerotised, dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hairs short (less than the length of the spiracular slit), some branched in apical third; dorsal and ventral bundles of 9-16 hairs, lateral bundles of four to seven hairs.

Anal area: lobes large, protuberant, not grooved; surrounded by two to five discontinuous rows of small, sharply-pointed spinules forming small groups and a concentration of spinules just below anal opening.

Distribution

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A. suspensa is known from the Greater Antilles, Virgin Islands, Bahamas and the USA (Florida). Reports from elsewhere need confirmation (e.g. French Guiana). See also CABI/EPPO (2002, No. 627).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

USARestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Foote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014Trapped, not established
-FloridaLocalisedIntroduced1965 Invasive Weems Jr, 1965; Weems Jr, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014Present in southern two-thirds

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentNorrbom et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
CubaWidespreadNativeLoew, 1862; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicWidespreadNativeStone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
HaitiWidespreadNativeCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
JamaicaWidespreadNativeGreene, 1934; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoWidespreadNativeSeín Jr, 1933; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

South America

French GuianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Florida 1965 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Weems Jr (1965); Weems Jr (1966) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit

Risk of Introduction

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A. suspensa is a quarantine pest for many areas including the EPPO, CPPC, JUNAC and NAPPO regions.

A. suspensa, like the other Anastrepha spp., derives from tropical wet forest habitats and could potentially become established in many areas of Asia, Australia or Africa. However, export from infested areas to these regions is minimal.

Habitat

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A. suspensa may be found in fruit-growing areas with suitable hosts and in natural forests.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The preferred hosts are Myrtaceae, especially Eugenia spp., guavas (Psidium spp.) and Syzygium spp. This species is also a pest of loquat [Eriobotrya japonica], kumquat [Fortunella crassifolia], sapodilla [Manilkara zapota] and occasionally infests a variety of other fruits. Citrus spp. are not normally significant hosts (Whervin, 1974; Enkerlin et al., 1989), but at least in Puerto Rico and USA (Florida), A. suspensa is found in overripe citrus fruits (Norrbom, 2004), especially grapefruit [Citrus paradisi] and oranges [Citrus sinensis], and is of quarantine importance. Like other pest species of Anastrepha, A. suspensa has been recorded on a wide range of fruits, both tropical and temperate, but many of these records are incidental occurrences or need verification. A database of Anastrepha host records was provided by Norrbom (2004).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Annona glabra (pond apple)AnnonaceaeOther
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeOther
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeOther
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
Blighia sapida (Akee apple)SapindaceaeOther
Canella winteranaCanellaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
Carissa macrocarpa (natal plum)ApocynaceaeOther
Casimiroa edulis (white sapote)RutaceaeOther
Chrysobalanus icaco (icaco plum)ChrysobalanaceaeOther
Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito)SapotaceaeOther
Chrysophyllum oliviformeSapotaceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree)RutaceaeOther
Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)RutaceaeOther
Citrus madurensis (calamondin)RutaceaeOther
Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
Citrus reticulata x paradisi (tangelo)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeOther
Clausena lansium (wampi)RutaceaeOther
Coccoloba uvifera (seaside grape)PolygonaceaeOther
Diospyros blancoi (mabolo)EbenaceaeOther
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeOther
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon (common))EbenaceaeOther
Dovyalis caffra (kei apple)FlacourtiaceaeOther
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeMain
EugeniaMyrtaceaeMain
Eugenia brasiliensis (brazil cherry)MyrtaceaeMain
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeMain
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)FlacourtiaceaeOther
Fortunella margarita (oval kumquat)RutaceaeOther
Fortunella x crassifolia (meiwa kumquat)RutaceaeOther
Garcinia aristataClusiaceaeOther
Garcinia livingstonei (african mangosteen)ClusiaceaeOther
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeMain
Momordica balsamina (common balsamapple)CucurbitaceaeOther
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)TiliaceaeOther
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeOther
Myrciaria cauliflora (jaboticaba)MyrtaceaeOther
Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
Pimenta dioica (allspice)MyrtaceaeOther
Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeOther
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Psidium guineense (Guinea guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeOther
Spondias dulcis (otaheite apple)AnacardiaceaeOther
Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeOther
Synsepalum dulcificumSapotaceaeOther
SyzygiumMyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium cumini (black plum)MyrtaceaeOther
Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeOther
Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeOther
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeMain
Terminalia muelleriCombretaceaeOther
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)RutaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

Symptoms

Top of page Attacked fruit can show signs of oviposition punctures, but these, or any other symptoms of damage, are often difficult to detect in the early stages of infestation. Much damage may occur inside the fruit before external symptoms are seen, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

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As in many Anastrepha spp., the eggs are laid below the skin of the host fruit. The life cycle includes the egg, three larval stages, pupa and adult. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant. The adults occur throughout the year and have no winter diapause.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
29 0

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceratoneuromyia indica Parasite Larvae/Pupae USA
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae USA fruits
Doryctobracon anastrephilus Parasite Larvae
Doryctobracon areolatus Parasite Larvae USA
Euborellia annulipes Predator
Macrocheles Predator Adults
Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Psyttalia concolor Parasite Larvae USA
Trybliographa daci Parasite Larvae USA; Florida Eugenia uniflora; Psidium longipes
Trybliographa dacirol Parasite USA

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The pteromalid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae was released with several other species of parasitoid in Puerto Rico in 1935-1937 (Clausen, 1978), but only P. vindemmiae became established, although it was also suggested that this widespread parasitoid may have been there to start with and not as the result of a release. Baranowski et al. (1993) reviewed releases of biocontrol agents in Florida, USA; Hennessey (1997) reviewed predators capable of attacking larvae on the soil looking for pupariation sites.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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There is evidence that Anastrepha spp. adults can fly up to 135 km (Fletcher, 1989) and therefore natural movement can be an important means of spread.

In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is the transport of fruits containing live larvae. For most regions, the fruits most liable to carry A. suspensa are Eugenia spp., guavas (Psidium spp.), Syzygium spp. and Citrus spp. The various tropical fruit hosts that may be locally important in the USA and the West Indies are little traded to other potentially susceptible areas and this probably accounts for the reason why A. suspensa has never become even temporarily established outside the Americas. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo. Yes
LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
MailFruit in post. Yes
Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of page Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (Smith et al., 1997b). A. suspensa is primarily a pest of guava [Psidium spp.] and other Myrtaceae (White and Elson-Harris, 1992). The fact that it occurs in southern Florida, USA, has given it particular importance (Greany et al., 1993).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Detection and Inspection

Top of page No male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. (see Drew, 1982; White and Elson-Harris, 1992, for trap details) and possible baits are ammonium acetate (Hedstrom and Jimenez, 1988), casein hydrolysate (Sharp, 1987), torula yeast (Hedstrom and Jiron, 1985) and Spinosad, an extract of a bacterial broth (King and Hennessey, 1996). It may also be possible to use autolysed protein, as used for Bactrocera spp. (Smith and Nannan, 1988). Epsky et al. (1993) reviewed protein bait formulations used against A. suspensa and as the results varied between locations that reference should be consulted for details. The number of traps required per unit area is high; in a mark-release and recapture test, Calkins et al. (1984) placed 18 traps per 0.4 ha and only recovered about 13% of the released flies. Pheromone based trapping systems have also been developed (Landolt and Heath, 1996).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. suspensa adults are difficult to separate from those of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha zenildae and Anastrepha turpiniae, and to a lesser extent Anastrepha obliqua and several other species of the fraterulus group. Fortunately, of these species, only A. obliqua occurs within the range of A. suspensa. The females can be distinguished from those of A. obliqua by the shape of the aculeus tip (half to two-thirds serrate in suspensa, with the basal non-serrate part more tapered than in obliqua, which is two-thirds to three-fourths serrate). Most specimens also have a distinct dark-brown spot on the scuto-scutellar suture that is absent in A. obliqua. A. suspensa differs from A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. zenildae and A. turpiniae in having a broader band on the anteroapical margin of the wing (distal part of S-band).

The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications. The third-instar larvae are very similar to those of A. obliqua and the A. fraterculus complex, and these species usually cannot be distinguished (Steck et al., 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Regulatory Control

Pest-free areas can be established for A. suspensa. In Florida, USA, the Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol provides a body of quarantine regulations, establishing specific A. suspensa controlled areas (designated areas) from which fresh fruits may be certified for export (Simpson, 1993). Calkins (1993) believed that control of A. suspensa in Florida could reduce it to insignificant importance.

Consignments of fruits of Citrus, Fortunella, Malus, Mangifera indica (mango), Prunus domestica (plum), Prunus persica (peach) and Psidium guajava (guava) from countries where A. suspensa attacks these crops should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open to look for the larvae. For example, EPPO recommends that such fruits should come from an area where A. suspensa does not occur, or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. Fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment (for example, 13, 15 or 17 days at 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (for example, keeping at 43°C for 4-6 h) (Hallman, 1990; USDA, 1994), or forced hot-air (Sharp and Hallman, 1992; Sharp, 1993), or hot-water immersion (Gould and Sharp, 1992). Temperature treatments specifically cited against A. suspensa include exposure to water or air >43°C and exposure to cold (0-2.22°C) (Sharp et al., 1993). Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Gamma-ray irradiation has also been investigated as a quarantine treatment against A. suspensa (Gould and Windeguth, 1991), whereas the use of heat-shrinkable film to wrap mangoes is not an adequate treatment (Gould and Sharp, 1990).

Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where A. suspensa occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Such plants may indeed be prohibited importation.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Control can be aided considerably by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits, and destroying them.

Biological Control

Possibilities for the biological control of A. suspensa in Florida, USA, have been reviewed by Baranowski et al. (1993). Inundative releases of the braconid Biosteres longicaudatus are being considered. The susceptibility of some fruits to attack may also be reduced by the use of plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid) (Greany et al., 1996).

The use of the sterile insect technique has also been considered either as an alternative to fumigation of harvested fruits or as a supplement to a fly-free management programme in Florida (Holler and Harris, 1993). For details of the use of traps for this species see Detection and Inspection.

Chemical Control

Insecticidal protection is possible using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989); practical details are given by Bateman (1982). Abamectin has been shown to be a viable alternative to malathion (Hennessey and King, 1996) for use in bait sprays. The possibility of using autolysed protein with an insecticide (Smith and Nannan, 1988) has not been tested for Anastrepha spp. Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays in that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies or other insect fauna. For details of the use of fumigants during storage or transportation, see Regulatory Control.

References

Top of page

Baranowski R; Glenn H; Sivinski J, 1993. Biological control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 76(2):245-251.

Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 2nd edn. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128.

Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region [ed. by Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA] Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Anastrepha suspensa. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 627. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Calkins CO, 1993. Future directions in control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 76(2):263-270.

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27/02/2008 Updated by:

Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

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