Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Vespula vulgaris
(wasp, common)

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Datasheet

Vespula vulgaris (wasp, common)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Vespula vulgaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wasp, common
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Vespula vulgaris (the common wasp) nest underground and in the cavities of trees and buildings. In ad...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Vespula vulgaris (common wasp); portrait, depicting the characteristic facial markings.
TitleCharacteristic facial markings
CaptionVespula vulgaris (common wasp); portrait, depicting the characteristic facial markings.
Copyright©Timothy Evison/www.scinetificillustration.net - CC BY-SA 2.5
Vespula vulgaris (common wasp); portrait, depicting the characteristic facial markings.
Characteristic facial markingsVespula vulgaris (common wasp); portrait, depicting the characteristic facial markings.©Timothy Evison/www.scinetificillustration.net - CC BY-SA 2.5

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • wasp, common

Other Scientific Names

  • Dolichovespula vulgaris
  • Paravespa vulgaris
  • Paravespula vulgaris
  • Vespa vulgaris

International Common Names

  • English: common wasp; common yellowjacket; wasp, English
  • Spanish: avispa comun
  • French: guepe commune

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gedehams
  • Finland: ampiainen, yleinen
  • Germany: Gemeine Wespe; Wespe, Gemeine
  • Iran: sanbure assal
  • Italy: Vespa comune
  • Netherlands: Wesp, gewone
  • Norway: jordveps
  • Sweden: geting, vanlig

EPPO code

  • VESPVU (Vespa vulgaris)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Vespula vulgaris (the common wasp) nest underground and in the cavities of trees and buildings. In addition to causing painful stings to humans, they compete with other insects and birds for insect prey and sugar sources. They will also eat fruit crops and scavenge around rubbish bins and picnic sites. This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Vespidae
  •                             Genus: Vespula
  •                                 Species: Vespula vulgaris

Description

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Distinguishing marks on workers include a black mark behind the eye on the side of the head; an anchor-shaped or dagger-shaped mark on the "face"; yellow pronotal bands which are almost parallel; black dots and rings on the abdomen, which are usually fused. Males can only be reliably distinguished by examining the aedeagus (part of the genitals) under a microscope.

Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Wasps: English wasp Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) for high quality diagnostic and overview images.

Distribution

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Native range: Holarctic species.

Known introduced range: Introduced to New Zealand and Australia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
IndiaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
IranPresentNativeISSG, 2011
IsraelPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JapanPresentNativeISSG, 2011
KazakhstanPresentNativeISSG, 2011
Korea, DPRPresentNativeISSG, 2011
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeISSG, 2011
KyrgyzstanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
MongoliaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
TurkeyPresentNativeISSG, 2011

Africa

Saint HelenaRestricted distributionIntroducedISSG, 2011

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-ManitobaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-New BrunswickPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-OntarioPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-QuebecPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-Yukon TerritoryPresentNativeISSG, 2011
MexicoPresentNativeISSG, 2011
USAPresentCAB Abstracts
-AlaskaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-ArizonaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-GeorgiaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-HawaiiAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-IowaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-KentuckyPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-NebraskaPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-New MexicoPresentNativeISSG, 2011
-New YorkPresentCAB Abstracts
-WashingtonPresentCAB Abstracts

Europe

AustriaPresentCAB Abstracts
BelgiumPresentCAB Abstracts
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Former USSRPresentCAB Abstracts
GermanyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IcelandPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
IrelandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NetherlandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PolandPresentCAB Abstracts
RomaniaPresentCAB Abstracts
SpainPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SwedenPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SwitzerlandPresentCAB Abstracts
UKPresentCAB Abstracts
-England and WalesPresentNativeISSG, 2011

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCAB Abstracts
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New ZealandPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Apis mellifera

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition

Common wasps collect protein and carbohydrate food. Honeydew and nectar are important food sources. They have a broad invertebrate diet with an emphasis on Diptera, Lepidoptera and Araneae. Notorious for their scavenging. Vespula wasps are also attracted to dead bait, such as chicken or fish meat (Toft and Harris, 2004).

    Reproduction

    Sexual. Males and queens produced in late autumn. Fertilised queens overwinter, and then start a new colony in early spring. The queen produces sterile females, called workers, throughout the season. Approximately 1000-2000 queens are produced per colony in autumn. Average colony density in New Zealand beech forest c. 12 per ha.

      Lifecycle Stages

      Annual colonies initiated in spring by one queen. Colony expands through season and then produces sexual stages in autumn, before colony breaks down. In each cell of a new nest, the queen lays a single egg, which hatches into a larvae in 5 to 8 days. After five moults over about 90 days (the length of time spent in each stage is determined by environmental conditions), each larva spins a silken cap over the cell and pupates. After about 80 days an adult worker wasp emerges.

         

        Natural enemies

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        Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
        Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
        Aspergillus niger Antagonist
        Bacillus cereus Pathogen
        Bareogonalos canadensis Parasite
        Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
        Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite
        Linepithema humile Predator
        Metoecus paradoxus Parasite
        Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
        Sphecophaga vesparum Parasite New Zealand
        Sphecophaga vesparum burra Parasite New Zealand
        Steinernema feltiae Parasite

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        Introduction pathways to new locations

        Other: Queen wasps stowaway in human goods and accidentally transported.

        Seafreight (container/bulk):

        Local dispersal methods

        Natural dispersal (local): Queen wasps can fly between 30 - 70km per annum.

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Hitchhiker Yes

        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Crop production Negative
        Economic/livelihood Negative
        Forestry production Negative
        Human health Negative
        Native fauna Negative

        Impact

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        Wasps impact a range of human activities and values, from conservation, forestry, beekeeping and horticulture sectors to human-health. Wasp stings are painful, but can also be life-threatening. A small proportion of the population will have a severe allergic reaction (called anaphylactic shock), which can be fatal unless treated promptly (Landcare Research, 2007).

        In forests, wasps may eat huge numbers of native insects and consume large quantities of sugary honeydew. By eating so much, wasps take potential food sources away from native species and disrupt the natural food chain and ecosystem cycling of the forest (Landcare Research, 2007). To elaborate, in temperate beech forests in the South Island of New Zealand honeydew drops produced by beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma assimile) feeding on beech trees (Nothofagus) are collected by introduced wasp species: the German wasp (Vespula germanica) and the common wasp (V. vulgaris). Moller and colleagues found that in relation to cropping by native honeyeater birds and native insects, cropping by German wasps and particularly by common wasps, significantly reduces the number, size and sugar concentration of honeydew drops (by up to 99.1%) in the summer and autumn months. Removal of the honeydew by the introduced social wasps threatens the existence of some New Zealand native animals (Moller et al., 1991).

        Wasps bring with them a financial burden. They are economic pests of primary industries such as beekeeping, forestry and horticulture (Beggs, 2001). Wasps totally destroy or seriously affect 10% of beehives, which translates to a significant financial loss (Clapperton et al., 1989). Beehives are often placed near honeydew forests or other unique sources of nectar to produce strong-flavoured honey. However, wasps can reduce honey production by reducing nectar and honeydew supplies and cause honeybees to stay in the hive to conserve energy and protect the hive from raiding wasps (Landcare Research, 2007).

        Risk and Impact Factors

        Top of page Impact outcomes
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Negatively impacts forestry
        • Negatively impacts human health
        • Negatively impacts livelihoods
        • Threat to/ loss of native species
        Impact mechanisms
        • Causes allergic responses
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

        Prevention and Control

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        Management Information

        Complied by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

        Preventative measures:

        The early detection of establishing populations is important as the next line of defence after initial quarantine procedures. Landcare Research has conducted research into generalised invertebrate surveillance techniques in recognition of the gap in biosecurity surveillance. These include malaise traps, mini-malaise traps, window traps, sticky traps, pitfall traps, UV light traps, flat ant traps, baited ant pottles, spurr wasp traps, ground bottle traps, yellow pan traps and beating. Of these, malaise traps, mini-malaise traps, window traps, sticky traps (for small wasps), UV traps, spurr wasp traps and ground bottle traps were found to be effective at catching wasps. Please follow this link for descriptions of trapping methods.
        As there is very little generalised surveying of invertebrates in high risk environments, the primary source of information on the establishment of new invertebrate species is often public observation (Landcare Research, 2007).

        Physical Control:

        There are two ways of reducing a local wasp problem; either find and destroy all nests in the area, or use poison bait (Landcare Research, 2007). Manual destruction of nests over large areas of shrub land is likely to be difficult and labour intensive (Toft and Harris, 2004).

        Chemical Control:

        Poison baiting is widely used to control wasp populations as it has the advantage that foraging wasps carry the poison back to the nest, meaning it is unnecessary to locate nests or approach those that are very large or difficult to get close to (Landcare Research, 2007).
        However although most baits show some degree of attraction to wasps, bait attraction can vary between different sites and regions, weather conditions and within a population throughout the wasp flight season (Harris et al, 1991; Spurr, 1995; Wood et al., 2006 in Sackmann and Corley, 2007). This variation may be influenced by the presence of other food sources, nest requirements and behavioural traits. Protein rich foods and carbohydrates are generally attractive to foraging wasps, but relative attractiveness may vary throughout the season due to changing nest requirements (D’Adamo and Lozada, 2005). However there is no universal commercial bait for wasp control (Sackmann and Corley, 2007).

        In New Zealand poison must be mixed with protein-based bait, as carbohydrate baits risk poisoning bees. However at certain times wasps are not greatly attracted to protein baits, which can cause poisoning operations to fail (Beggs, 2001). Toxins such as 1080, sulfluramid and fipronil mixed with sardine catfood can be effective at controlling wasps. Fipronil is faster acting and equally as toxic at concentrations 1000 times lower than sulfluramid. Fipronil was found to reduce colony activity of Vespula spp. By 99.7% in treated areas (Harris and Etheridge, 2001).

        In Hawaii when the wasp was discovered in 1977 nest eradication and control programmes were initiated on various islands. The toxicant bendiocarb was used in an attempt to control the wasp and used for nest eradication outside of agricultural situations (as it is not registered for agricultural use). Chang (1988) found that the most effective combination of bait and chemical toxicant was 0.5% microencapsulated diazinon mixed with canned Figaro brand tuna cat food. Amidino-hydrazone in a similar bait mix was also effective. Dispenser colour for the bait also proved critical: the preferred colour of bait dispenser being a translucent white.

        Poison baiting can kill 80-100% of the colonies within a site. However reinvasion is extremely likely (Beggs, 2001). Wasps have been recorded foraging up to 4km from their nest (Coch, 1972 in Beggs, 2001). Even if the controlled site was very large, queen wasps which can fly 30-70km to find suitable nesting sites are highly likely to invade the following spring.

        Biological:

        Biological control has been used in attempts to achieve widespread control of wasps. Icheumonid parasitoids Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum, S. v. burra and Sphecophaga orientalis have been utilised as biological control agents for V. germanica (Donovan et al., 1989, 2002; Beggs and Harris, 2000; Beggs et al., 2002). For more information on biological control of wasps please follow this link.

        General Considerations:

        Some other general factors to consider: V. germanica constructs significantly larger nests in New Zealand (part of its introduced range) than it does in Europe; over-wintering of nests (i.e. re-using the same nest from one summer to the next) also occurs more frequently in New Zealand than in Europe (Fordham et al., 1991; Harris, 1996 in Ward et al., 2002). This suggests the wasp may be harder to control in areas of its introduced range.

        Fordham et al. (1991) found that urban nests produced more workers and reproductive progeny (and had more combs per nest) compared to rural nests, a factor to consider when planning control strategies (Ward et al., 2002). Temperature variation may also affect the growth and impact of wasp colonies, for example, a slightly longer wasp-activity season exists in the warmer parts of Australia (Sydney) than in the cooler parts (Melbourne, Hobart) (Ward et al., 2002).

        Bibliography

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        Archer, M.E. (2005). A numerical model of seasonal foraging characteristics of successful underground colonies of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera,Vespidae) in England. Insectes Sociaux 52: 231-237.

        Barr, K., Moller H., Christmas, E., Lyver, P. and Beggs, J. 1996. Impacts of introduced common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) on experimentally placed mealworms in a New Zealand beech forest. Oecologia 105: 266-270.

        Beggs, J. R. 1991. Altitudinal variation in abundance of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 155-158.

        Beggs, J. R. 1999. Bandits of the beech forest. New Zealand science teacher 91: 33-36.

        Beggs, J. R. 1999. Comparison of the quality of red and silver beech (Nothofagus) seeds in Nelson Lakes National Park, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 495-501. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjb/1999/44.php

        Beggs, J. R. 1999. The ecological impact and control of introduced wasps (Vespula spp) in Nothofagus forest. Unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 197 pp.

        Beggs, J. R. 1999. The war against wasps. Proceedings of the Manaaki Whenua conference, 21-23 April 1999. Abstracts published on conference website.

        Beggs, J. R. 2001. The ecological consequences of social wasps (Vespula spp.) invading an ecosystem that has an abundant carbohydrate resource. Biological conservation 99: 17-28.

        Beggs, J. R. and Harris, R. J. 2000. Can the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum significantly reduce the density of Vespula wasps? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27: 73-74.

        Beggs, J. R. and Moller, H. 1991. New Zealand wasp research - uncoordinated goals or still stuck in the descriptive bottleneck? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 230-231.

        Beggs, J. R. and Rees, J. S. 1999. Restructuring of Lepidoptera communities by introduced Vespula wasps in a New Zealand beech forest. Oecologia 119: 565-571.

        Beggs, J. R. and Wilson, P. R. 1991. The kaka, Nestor meridionalis, a New Zealand parrot endangered by introduced wasps and mammals. Biological Conservation 56: 23-38.

        Beggs, J. R. in press. Impact and control of introduced Vespula wasps in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 4th International Hymenoptera Conference. CSIRO.

        Beggs, J. R., Alspach, P. A., Moller, H., Toft, R. J. and Tilley, J. A. V. 1992. Impacts of the parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum on colonies of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Proceedings 41st Annual Conference Entomological Society of New Zealand.

        Beggs, J. R., Harris, R. J. and Read, P. E. C. 1996. Invasion success of the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Curtis) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 1-9. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1996/90.php

        Beggs, J. R., Toft, R. J., Malham, J. P., Rees, J. S., Tilley, J. A. V., Moller, H. and Alspach, P. 1998. The difficulty of reducing introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris) populations for conservation gains. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22: 55-63.

        Beggs, J.R. (2001). The ecological consequences of social wasps (Vespula spp.) invading an ecosystem that has an abundant carbohydrate resource. Biological Conservation 99: 17-28.

        Beggs, J.R., Rees, J.S., Toft, R.J., Dennis, T.E. & Barlow, N.D. (2008). Evaluating the impact of a biological control parasitoid on invasive Vespula wasps in a natural forest ecosystem. Biological Control 44: 399–407.

        Berry, J. A., Harris, R. J., Read, P. E. C. and Donovan, B. J. 1997. Morphological and colour differences between subspecies of Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 35-46. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1997/5.pdf

        Buck, M., Marshall, S.A. & Cheung, D.K.B. (2008). Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the northeastern Nearctic region, 98. Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758). [Accessed 16 July, 2009 from http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/bmc_05/98v_vulgaris.html] http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/bmc_05/98v_vulgaris.html

        Clapperton, B. K. 1999. Abundance of wasps and prey consumption of paper wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae: Polistinae) in Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23(1): 11-19.

        Clapperton, B. K. and Dymock, J. J. 1997. Growth and survival of colonies of the Asian paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 9-15. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1997/2.php

        Clapperton, B. K. and Lo, P. L. 2000. Nesting biology of Asian paper wasps Polistes chinensis antennalis Perez, and Australian paper wasps P. humilis (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27(3): 189-195. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/2000/22.php

        Clapperton, B. K., Alspach, P. A., Moller, H. and Matheson, A. G. 1989. The impact of common and German wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) on the New Zealand beekeeping industry. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 325-332.

        Clapperton, B. K., Lo, P. L., Moller, H. and Sandlant, G. R. 1989. Variation in colour markings of German wasps Vespula germanica (F.) and common wasps Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 303-313.

        Clapperton, B. K., Moller, H. and Sandlant, G. 1989. Distribution of social wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand in 1987. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 315-323.

        Clapperton, B. K., Tilley, J. A. V. and Pierce, R. J. 1996. Distribution and abundance of Asian paper wasps Polistes chinensis antennalis Perez and Australian paper wasps P.humilis (Fab.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in various habitats in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 19-25 http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1996/92.php

        Clapperton, B. K., Tilley, J. A. V., Beggs, J. R. and Moller, H. 1994. Changes in the distribution and proportions of Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) between 1987 and 1990 in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 1994, Vol. 21: 295-303 http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1994/29.php

        Donovan, B. D. 1991. Life cycle of Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of some vespid wasps. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 181-192.

        Donovan, B. J. 1984. Occurrence of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 11: 417-427.

        Donovan, B. J. 1989. Potential enemies of the introduced wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum (Hymneoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 365-367.

        Donovan, B. J. 1991. Nest initiation by German and common wasp queens (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) and nest fate at Christchurch, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 95-99.

        Donovan, B. J. and Read, P. E. C. 1987. Attempted biological control of social wasps, Vespula spp., (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) with Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 14: 329-335.

        Donovan, B. J., Howie, A. M. E., Schroeder, N. C., Wallace, A. R.and Read, P. E. C. 1992. Comparative characteristics of nests of Vespula germanica (F.) and Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespinae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 19: 61-71.

        Donovan, B. J., Moller, H., Plunkett, G. M., Read, P. E. C. and Tilley, J. A. V. 1989. Release and recovery of the introduced wasp parasitoid, Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 121-125.

        Dubatolov, V.V. & Milko, D.A. (2004). Social wasps of the subfamily Vespinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of the Kyrghyz Republic. Entomological Science 7: 63-71.

        Dymock, J. J., Forgie, S. A. and Ameratunga, R. 1994. A survey of wasp sting injuries in urban Auckland from December to April in 1991/92 and 1992/93. New Zealand Medical Journal 107: 32-33.

        Fordham, R. A. 1962. Spread of the German wasp in New Zealand. Tuatara 9: 129-130.

        Fordham, R. A. 1991. Vespulid wasps at the upper forest margin in Tongariro National Park - a threat to the native biota? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 151-153.

        Fordham, R. A., Craven, A. J. and Minot, E. O. 1991. Phenology and population structure of annual nests of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fab.) in Manawatu, New Zealand, with particular reference to late summer and autumn. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 127-137.

        Glare, T. R., Harris, R. J. and Donovan, B. J. 1996. Aspergillus flavus as a pathogen of wasps, Vespula spp., in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 339-344.

        Gruner, D.S. & Foote, D. (2000). Management strategies for Western yellowjackets in Hawaii. [Accessed 14 July, 2009 from http://www.bml.ucdavis.edu/facresearch/gruner/2002_Packard.pdf] http://www.bml.ucdavis.edu/facresearch/gruner/2002_Packard.pdf

        Harcourt, S. J., Harris, R. J., Rose, E. A. F., Glare, T. R. and Nelson, T. L. 1997. The potential of Beauveria bassiana for the control of common and German wasps (Vespula vulgaris L. and V. germanica F.) in New Zealand. Proceedings of 4th international workshop on microbial control of soil dwelling pests.

        Harris, A. C. 1979. Occurrence and nesting of the yellow Oriental paper wasp, Polistes olivaceus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7: 41-44.

        Harris, A. C. 1984. An American bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata; Hymenoptera: Vespidae) captured live in the Dunedin town belt. New Zealand Entomologist 8: 44-46.

        Harris, R J. and P.E.C. Read., 1999. Enhanced biological control of wasps. SCIENCE FOR CONSERVATION 115 http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/Sfc115.pdf

        Harris, R. J and Rose, E. A. F. 1999. Factors influencing reproductive strategies of the vespid parasitoid Sphecocphaga vesparum vesparum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 26: 89-96. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1999/10.php

        Harris, R. J. 1989. An entrance trap to sample foods of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16.: 369-371.

        Harris, R. J. 1991. Diet of the wasps Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica in honeydew beech forest of the South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 159-170.

        Harris, R. J. 1995. Effect of starvation of larvae of Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on subsequent survival and adult size. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 22: 33-38. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1995/51.php

        Harris, R. J. 1996. Frequency of over wintered Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) colonies in scrubland - pasture habitat and their impact on prey. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 11-17. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1996/91.php

        Harris, R. J. and Beggs, J. R. 1995. Variation in the quality of Vespula vulgaris (L.) queens (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) and its significance in wasp population dynamics. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 22: 131-142. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz/1995/60.php

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          Reviewed by: Jacqueline Beggs, School of Biological Sciences. Tamaki Campus, University of Auckland. New Zealand.
          Compiled by: Jacqueline Beggs, School of Biological Sciences. Tamaki Campus, University of Auckland. New Zealand & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
          Last Modified: Sunday, May 31, 2009

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