Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Anastrepha striata
(guava fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha striata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • guava fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. striata is a pest of various cultivated species of Myrtaceae, especially guavas [Psidium spp.]. Its exact native range is obscure, but its presence in southern Brazil has been detected only recently, su...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Just beneath a grapefruit peel, fruit fly larvae begin to devour the pulp. Hot-air treatment effectively kills the costly pest.
TitleLarvae
CaptionJust beneath a grapefruit peel, fruit fly larvae begin to devour the pulp. Hot-air treatment effectively kills the costly pest.
CopyrightUSDA
Just beneath a grapefruit peel, fruit fly larvae begin to devour the pulp. Hot-air treatment effectively kills the costly pest.
LarvaeJust beneath a grapefruit peel, fruit fly larvae begin to devour the pulp. Hot-air treatment effectively kills the costly pest.USDA
Caribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.
TitleAdult
CaptionCaribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.
CopyrightUSDA
Caribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.
AdultCaribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.USDA
Caribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.
TitleAdult
CaptionCaribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.
CopyrightUSDA
Caribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.
AdultCaribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a grapefruit.USDA
TitleLine artwork of adult female
Caption
CopyrightCAB International
Line artwork of adult femaleCAB International
Caribbean fruit flies demonstrate a preference for an untreated, yellow-skinned grapefruit versus the gibberellic acid-treated green one in the background. Both are fully ripe.
TitleFruit flies on untreated grapefruit
CaptionCaribbean fruit flies demonstrate a preference for an untreated, yellow-skinned grapefruit versus the gibberellic acid-treated green one in the background. Both are fully ripe.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Caribbean fruit flies demonstrate a preference for an untreated, yellow-skinned grapefruit versus the gibberellic acid-treated green one in the background. Both are fully ripe.
Fruit flies on untreated grapefruitCaribbean fruit flies demonstrate a preference for an untreated, yellow-skinned grapefruit versus the gibberellic acid-treated green one in the background. Both are fully ripe.USDA-ARS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha striata Schiner

Preferred Common Name

  • guava fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Dictya cancellaria Fabricius
  • Trypeta cancellaria (Fabricius)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mosca de la fruta de la guayaba; mosca de la guayaba; mosca de las frutas
  • French: mouche de la goyave

EPPO code

  • ANSTST (Anastrepha striata)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. striata is a pest of various cultivated species of Myrtaceae, especially guavas [Psidium spp.]. Its exact native range is obscure, but its presence in southern Brazil has been detected only recently, suggesting that human activities may have aided its spread. It has also been intercepted and trapped in the USA (Florida, California), indicating its potential for spread via infested fruits.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha striata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was first described in 1805 by Fabricius as Dictya cancellaria, but this name was long unrecognized and is now considered a nomen oblitum (Norrbom, 2002). It was described under the valid name by Schiner in 1868.

Description

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For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. striata are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin. Furthermore, most Anastrepha spp. have a very characteristic wing pattern; the apical half of the wing has two inverted 'V'-shaped markings, one fitting within the other; and a stripe along the forward edge of the wing, which runs from near the wing base to about half-way along the wing length.

The following description is taken from Norrbom (2002):

The body is largely orange with dark-brown and yellow markings. The setae are red-brown to dark-brown.

Head: yellow except ocellar tubercle brown. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Three to six, usually four to five, frontal setae; two or rarely one orbital setae, posterior seta well-developed. Ocellar seta weak and small or minute. Antenna extended 0.70-0.85 to lower facial margin.

Thorax: mostly orange with the following areas yellow and often contrasting: postpronotal lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended nearly the full length of the scutum, broadened posteriorly, extended laterally half to 3/4 distance from the level of acrostichal seta to that of dorsocentral seta; sublateral vitta extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; scutellum except extreme base of disc (brown area well-separated from basal seta); propleuron; dorsal margin of anepisternum; dorsal half of greater ampulla; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Mesonotal pattern with the following orange areas: broad area bordering medial vitta, usually small sublateral presutural area, usually narrow area bordering mesal margin of sublateral vitta, and area lateral to sublateral vitta except extreme posterior margin. Dark-brown, somewhat U-shaped mark narrowed or usually interrupted at or anterior to transverse suture. Darker areas of pleuron orange. Subscutellum and mediotergite dark-brown, narrowly to broadly orange medially. Mesonotum 2.91-3.41 mm long. Scutum with microtrichia relatively dense giving a white appearance when viewed from oblique anterior angle; with short medial presutural bare area sometimes (Brazilian and Bolivian specimens) extended narrowly along medial vitta as far as transverse suture; always with broad non-microtrichose areas on parts of dark-brown marks, one presutural, one postsutural between medial and sublateral vittae and extended to or almost to the level of dorsocentral seta; these areas are usually well-separated at transverse suture, but rarely narrowly connected; setulae usually strongly contrasting, whitish medially, dark-brown on and lateral to non-microtrichose areas except for patch of white setulae on lateral part of presutural non-microtrichose area; brown setulae especially dense on non-microtrichose areas on brown marks and sparse to absent on narrow area lateral to postsutural non-microtrichose area. Katepisternal seta moderately developed, weaker than, but longer than postocellar seta, pale to dark-brown.

Wing: length 6.41-7.32 mm. Vein M strongly curved apically; section between bm-cu and r-m 1.83-2.44 times as long as section between r-m and dm-cu; section between r-m and dm-cu 0.75-0.91 times as long as dm-cu. Crossvein dm-cu oblique, with anterior end more distal than posterior end. Pattern mostly yellow to orange-brown and moderate brown. C-band and S-band usually narrowly connected or separated, occasionally broadly connected, along vein R4+5; often connected in cells r1 and/or r2+3; separated basally by hyaline area extending width of cell br and aligned with pterostigma, and covering basal seventh to fourth of cell dm and all of cell bm. C-band with cell bc and most of cell c yellowish, the latter sometimes subhyaline medially or darker anteriorly and basally; with large yellow area in base of cell sc and cells r1 and r2+3 posterior to pterostigma, extending distally to or almost to level of apex of vein R1; most of pterostigma, usually narrow distal margin, and base of cell br dark orange-brown to moderate-brown. S-band with middle section between costa and vein Cu1 largely yellow to orange with narrow brown margins, darkening distally; distal section of band slightly narrowed to moderately broad, at apex of vein R2+3 0.44-0.63 times width of cell r2+3; separated from apex of vein M. Hyaline spot in cell r1 nearly triangular, sometimes extended to vein R4+5, but often interrupted in cell r1 or r2+3 or absent in r2+3; its apex aligned distinctly basal to r-m. V-band with distal arm usually complete and connected to proximal arm, but often fainter anteriorly, sometimes (especially in specimens from Guianas and northern Brazil) partially to entirely absent; proximal arm usually extended to vein R4+5, often fainter in cell r4+5; separated from S-band; extended basally along posterior wing margin almost to vein A1+Cu2, but not connected to extension from base of S-band.

Abdomen: mostly orange; posterior margins of tergites narrowly yellow, this area narrower laterally and also on successive tergites, nearly absent on tergite five and female tergite six.

Male terminalia: dorsal posterior margin of epandrium with narrow, V-shaped, medial indentation. Lateral surstyli moderately long, parallel; each basally with narrow, posteriorly projecting ridge bordering medial surstylus; in lateral view slightly posteriorly curved, extreme apex with small, but strong posterior projection; in posterior view without strong basolateral lobe, main part somewhat triangular, with rounded subapical lateral lobe. Proctiger with lateral fold separating sclerotized areas. Phallus 3.95-4.20 mm long; 1.27-1.37 times as long as mesonotum. Glans 0.45-0.50 mm long; acrophallus relatively stout.

Female terminalia: oviscape 2.32-2.66 mm long, 0.74-0.86 times as long as mesonotum. Eversible membrane with 50-60 large, hook-like dorsobasal scales in triangular pattern. Aculeus 1.97-2.25 mm long; tip 0.24-0.31 mm long, 0.18-0.20 mm wide, nonserrate or with a few minute subapical serrations, broadly triangular and blunt apically.

Immature Stages

Larva: the key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive key by Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for the identification of A. striata larvae. White and Elson-Harris (1994) described the third-instar larvae as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized, 7.0-9.0 mm long; 1.2-1.5 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ large, rounded, with two to three peg-like sensilla, with small, sharply-pointed spinules scattered over the surface of stomal sensory organ and adjacent preoral lobe; six to nine oral ridges with unserrated posterior margins; accessory plates well-defined with unserrated margins; mandible moderately sclerotised, with a large curved apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: T1, anterior margin with a broad, encircling band of six to nine discontinuous rows of stout, sharply-pointed spinules; T2 and T3 with three to five rows of smaller spinules encircling anterior margins of each segment. Dorsal spinules absent from A1-A8. Creeping welts on A1-A8 with 6-10 rows of small spinules. A8, area around spiracles slightly protuberant with well-defined intermediate areas. Dorsal and intermediate tubercles and sensilla well-developed, ventral sensilla smaller.

Anterior spiracles: with 14-18 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits large, about five times as long as broad, with heavily sclerotised dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hair bundles dense, with long, slender, branched hairs almost as long as spiracular slits; dorsal and ventral hair bundles of 14-20 hairs, lateral bundles of 6-10 hairs.

Anal area: lobes large, slightly grooved or bilobed, surrounded by two to four discontinuous rows of small, sharply-pointed spinules concentrating into a sharper, stouter patch just below the anal opening.

Distribution

Top of page The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. striata from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the Distribution Table (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Steck et al., 1990; Hernandez-Ortiz, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014Present north to Sinaloa, Aguascalientes and northern Veracruz
USAAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedFoote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedFoote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014Rarely trapped near ports, never established
-FloridaAbsent, unreliable recordIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-TexasAbsent, formerly presentStone, 1942; Foote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014Rarely trapped in the past in Rio Grande Valley, breeding population not established

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004b
Costa RicaWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Jiron et al., 1988; Steck et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
GuatemalaWidespreadNative Not invasive White and Elson-Harris, 1994; White and Elson-Harris, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
HondurasWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Netherlands AntillesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive Borge and Basedow, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
PanamaWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

South America

BoliviaPresentNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Norrbom et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Norrbom et al., 1999; Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-AcrePresent, few occurrencesNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-AmapaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-AmazonasPresentNative Not invasive Couturier et al., 1993; Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentMalavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MaranhaoPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentMalavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ParaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-PiauiPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-RondoniaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-RoraimaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentMalavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000
-TocantinsPresentNative Not invasive Bomfim et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Olarte-Espinosa, 1980; Stone, 1942; Nunez Bueno, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresentNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Molineros et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
French GuianaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
GuyanaPresentNative Not invasive NHM, 1987; Fabricius, 1805; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
PeruWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Couturier et al., 1993; Korytkowski, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SurinamePresentNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; White and Elson-Harris, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaWidespreadNative Not invasive Schiner, 1868; Stone, 1942; Caraballo, 1981; Steck et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

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In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is the transport of fruit containing live larvae. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

A. striata, like most Anastrepha species, derives from tropical wet forest habitats and so similar regions are susceptible to infestation. A major risk also arises from the probable imposition of much stricter phytosanitary restrictions on exported fruits (particularly to America and Japan) if any Anastrepha sp. enters and multiplies, even temporarily.

Habitat

Top of page A. striata may be found in any orchard or forest areas with suitable hosts. However, it appears to avoid the upper canopy levels (Hedstrom, 1992).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The preferred hosts of A. striata are Myrtaceae, especially Psidium spp., but also plants in a variety of other families, including various cultivated fruits, are occasionally attacked. The reported field hosts include 37 species belonging to 23 genera and 17 families, although some plants that have been recorded only once may be rare or incidental hosts (Norrbom, 2004a). Of the 16 genera and 26 species of native plants recorded as hosts, four genera (Campomanesia, Eugenia, Myrcia, and Psidium) and 12 species belong to the Myrtaceae. See Norrbom (2004a) for additional host data.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeOther
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeOther
Campomanesia adamantiumWild host
Campomanesia lineatifoliaWild host
Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito)SapotaceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Diospyros ebenaster (black sapote)EbenaceaeOther
Eugenia punicifoliaWild host
Eugenia stipitataMyrtaceaeOther
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeOther
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Myrcia popayanensisWild host
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Pouteria viridis (green sapote)SapotaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Psidium acutangulumMyrtaceaeWild host
Psidium australeWild host
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Psidium friedrichsthalianum (wild guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Psidium guineense (Guinea guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Psidium laruotteanumWild host
Psidium sartorianumMyrtaceaeWild host
Sideroxylon obtusifoliumWild host
Solanum crinitumWild host
Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeOther
Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeOther
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeOther
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
Zuelania guidoniaFlacourtiaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

Symptoms

Top of page Attacked fruits usually show signs of oviposition punctures and very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

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The eggs, as in many Anastrepha species, are laid below the skin of the host fruit. They hatch within 3-6 days and the larvae feed for another 15-25 days, according to temperature. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after 15-19 days (longer in cooler conditions). The adults occur throughout the year (Christenson and Foote, 1960). The females of A. striata take approximately 15 days to mature (Ramirez-Cruz et al., 1996). Emergence generally takes place in the morning and oviposition in the middle of the day. The mean clutch size is 1.5 (Aluja et al., 1993). See Aluja et al. (1993) and Aluja and Norrbom (1999) and included references for additional information about the ecology and behaviour of this species. A. striata is the only species of Anastrepha in which the mating behaviour is known to include trophallaxis (passing of a substance from the male to the female via the mouthparts).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
26 24

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae Trinidad sapodillas
Dirhinus giffardii Parasite Trinidad sapodillas
Ganaspis pelleranoi Parasite Peru Citrus
Opius concolor Parasite Trinidad sapodillas
Trybliographa daci Parasite Trinidad sapodillas

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Borge and Basedow (1997) recorded 5% parasitism of larvae by Biosteres longicaudatus and Wharton et al. (1981) also noted very low levels of attack. These authors recorded the following from Anastrepha spp. puparia: B. longicaudatus, Biosteres oophilus, Ganaspis carvalhoi, Odontosema anastrephae, Aceratoneuromyia indica, Opius anastrephae, Opius bellus, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi and Doryctobracon zeteki. Although these puparia could not be individually identified, 99% of the flies that emerged were A. striata.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. can fly as far as 135 km (Fletcher, 1989) and therefore natural movement is an important means of spread.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo. Yes
Land vehiclesAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
MailFruit in post. Yes
Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of page Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989; Norrbom, 2004a), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (Smith et al., 1997).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Detection and Inspection

Top of page No male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia and McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. (White and Elson-Harris, 1994). Baits that have been used for A. striata include hydrolysed soya protein (Jiron and Soto-Manitiu, 1989), human urine (Hedstrom, 1988), ammonium acetate (Hedstrom and Jimenez, 1988) and torula yeast (Hedstrom and Jiron, 1985).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The adults of A. striata are unlikely to be confused with any other species except those of Anastrepha bistrigata, which also have a broad U-shaped mark on the scutum, the scutum microtrichose except for broad stripes on the dorsocentral line, the mediotergite and subscutellum entirely brown or at least brown laterally, the thoracic pleuron and abdomen without brown areas, the dorsal posterior margin of the epandrium with a narrow, V-shaped, medial indentation, and the aculeus tip broad, at least 0.17 mm wide, and bluntly triangular.

A. striata differs from A. bistrigata by the following characters: oviscape less than 2.8 mm long, less than 0.90 times the mesonotum length; aculeus less than 2.5 mm long; scutum with brown areas usually interrupted at transverse suture; scutal setulae usually strongly contrasting white and dark-brown, absent on narrow area lateral to postsutural nonmicrotrichose area; distal section of S-band slightly narrowed to moderately broad, at apex of vein R2+3 0.44-0.63 times width of cell r2+3;aculeus tip 0.24-0.31 mm long; and lateral surstylus slightly longer and narrower and more or less parallel to the opposite surstylus. The scutal microtrichia are usually denser and whiter in appearance in the oblique anterior view than in A. bistrigata. As in all cases where Anastrepha identification is critical, specialist help should be sought to confirm identifications.

The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications. Steck et al. (1990) presented a key separating A. striata from 12 other species in the larval stage. The third-instar larva is very similar to that of A. bistrigata. These two species differ from those of the other Anastrepha species described to date (2009) by the following combination of characters: dorsal spinules separate, conical, in fewer than five to six rows on meso- and metathorax, but present on the first, second, and usually third abdominal segments; anterior spiracle with 12-23 tubules; posterior spiracular processes SP-I and SP-IV with an average of 13-23 trunks and 23-49 tips, and the hair length is at least one-third the length of the spiracular opening (Steck et al., 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them. Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989); practical details are given by Bateman (1982). Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies. The susceptibility of A. striata to malathion was studied by Gonzalez et al. (1997). Perales-Segovia et al. (1996) found that leaf infusions of Piper auritum killed 78-90% of larvae.

Phytosanitary Measures

Consignments of host fruits from areas where A. striata occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. Such fruits should come from an area where A. striata does not occur, or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. Specific postharvest details for A. striata are lacking and the following regimes for Anastrepha fraterculus would be generally applicable: fruits may be treated in transit by cold treatment (e.g. 13, 15 or 17 days at 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (e.g. keeping at 43°C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or by hot water immersion (Nascimento et al., 1992).

Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where A. striata occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Such plants may indeed be prohibited importation.

References

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26/02/2008 Updated by:

Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

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