Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Anastrepha serpentina
(sapodilla fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha serpentina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sapodilla fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. serpentina is a pest of various cultivated species of Sapotaceae, especially caimito [Chrysophyllum cainito], sapodilla [Manilkara zapota], and sapote [Capparis angulata], and it occasionally attacks a variety of oth...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.
TitleAdult female
CaptionAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.
Copyright©Jorge Valdez/Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico - CC BY-SA 3.0
Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.
Adult femaleAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.©Jorge Valdez/Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)

Preferred Common Name

  • sapodilla fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrotoxa serpentinus (Wiedemann)
  • Dacus serpentinus Wiedemann
  • Leptoxys serpentina (Wiedemann)
  • Trypeta serpentina (Wiedemann)
  • Urophora vittithorax Macquart

International Common Names

  • English: black fruit fly; dark fruit fly; sapote fruit fly; serpentine fruit fly
  • Spanish: mosca de frutas; mosca de las zapotaceus; mosca del nospero
  • French: mouche des sapotilles

EPPO code

  • ANSTSE (Anastrepha serpentina)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. serpentina is a pest of various cultivated species of Sapotaceae, especially caimito [Chrysophyllum cainito], sapodilla [Manilkara zapota], and sapote [Capparis angulata], and it occasionally attacks a variety of other hosts, including Citrus spp.. It is a widespread species in the American tropics, occurring from Mexico to Argentina. It has been intercepted and trapped in the USA (Florida, California) and other countries outside its range indicating its potential for spread via infested fruits.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha serpentina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was first described as Dacus serpentinus by Wiedemann (1830). It has been classified in several different genera. The current combination was proposed by Schiner in 1868.

Description

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For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. serpentina are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin.

The following description is taken from Norrbom (2002):

The body is largely dark-orange to dark-brown with yellow markings and the setae are dark-brown.

Head: mostly yellow. Ocellar tubercle brown. Orbital plate often with paired triangular brown area; frons rarely red or red-brown between these areas forming a single large mark. Frons occasionally orange to pale red-brown anteromedially. Occiput usually with paired, triangular or comma-shaped, brown mark near or covering suture of median occipital sclerite. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Three to six frontal setae; one to two orbital setae, posterior seta usually well developed if present. Ocellar seta weak, small to minute. Antenna extended 0.75-0.85 to lower facial margin.

Thorax: mostly orange-brown to brown with the following areas yellow and distinctly contrasting: postpronotal lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended nearly the full length of the scutum, broadened posteriorly, but extended laterally only slightly beyond the level of the acrostichal seta (at most half distance to level of dorsocentral seta); sublateral vitta extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; scutellum except extreme base (brown area usually well-separated from basal seta, but sometimes narrowly separated); dorsal margin and anteroventral corner of anepisternum; dorsal halt to all of greater ampulla; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Mesonotal darker areas mostly red-brown to dark-brown, often with narrow orange area bordering medial vitta, and less commonly with small sublateral presutural orange area; without orange vitta on dorsocentral line. Most of darker areas of anepisternum, anepimeron, meron, and katatergite dark brown. Katepisternum usually orange anteriorly and ventrally, brown posteriorly. Subscutellum and mediotergite red-brown to dark-brown, sometimes narrowly orange medially. Mesonotum 2.76-3.91 mm long. Scutum microtrichose except for broad medial anterior area extended 1/2-3/4 distance to transverse suture; setulae mostly yellow to pale-brown, but darker-brown on some brown areas. Katepisternal seta weak, at most as long as postocellar seta, yellowish.

Wing: length 6.00-8.56 mm. Vein M strongly curved apically; section between bm-cu and r-m 1.93-2.55 times as long as section between r-m and dm-cu; section between r-m and dm-cu 0.68-0.82 times as long as dm-cu. Crossvein dm-cu distinctly oblique, with anterior end more distal than posterior end. Pattern mostly dark-brown. C-band and S-band broadly connected in cells r2+3 and br, but separated basally by hyaline area in posterior half of br aligned with pterostigma, hyaline basal fourth to third of cell dm, and hyaline to yellowish area covering all of cell bm. C-band yellowish to subhyaline in cell bc and cell c except anterior margin; with large yellowish area in base of cell sc and cells r1 and r2+3 posterior to pterostigma, extending distally to or almost to level of apex of vein R1. S-band with large yellow area in cell dm often extending into cell br and sometimes nearly touching crossvein r-m; rest of band dark-brown, including areas distal to and anterior to r-m; distal section slender, at apex of vein R2+3 0.32-0.43 times width of cell r2+3; closely following vein R2+3 so that basal marginal hyaline spot in cell r1 usually elongate along costa; rarely extended to apex of vein M. Hyaline marginal spot in cell r1 usually extended beyond vein R2+3, but not extended to vein R4+5; its apex aligned with r-m or slightly basal to it. V-band with distal arm absent, very rarely with 1-2 faint spots in cells r4+5 or m; proximal arm slender, usually extended to vein R4+5, but often fainter in anterior half to 2/3 of cell r4+5, separated from S-band; extended basally along posterior wing margin almost to vein A1+Cu2, but not connected to extension from base of S-band.

Abdomen: predominantly brown with yellow and orange areas forming T-shaped pattern. Syntergite 1+2 mostly brown, often orange basally, with narrow transverse medial area and posterior margin broadly yellow, but not reaching lateral margin. Tergites three and four mostly brown, with narrow, parallel-sided or trapezoidal medial yellow area. Tergite five mostly brown, with yellow to orange medial area larger than on tergite four. Female tergite six orange.

Male terminalia: dorsal posterior margin of epandrium evenly convex. Lateral surstylus moderately long; in lateral view slightly curved; in posterior view usually with small basolateral lobe, main part triangular, acute apically. Proctiger with lateral fold separating sclerotized areas. Phallus 3.71-4.84 mm long; 1.15-1.40 times as long as mesonotum. Glans 0.55-0.60 mm long; acrophallus relatively stout.

Female terminalia: oviscape 2.58-3.91 mm long, 0.79-1.02 times as long as mesonotum. Eversible membrane with 55-65 large, hook-like dorsobasal scales in triangular pattern. Aculeus 2.58-3.83 mm long; base expanded; tip 0.37-0.46 mm long, 0.14-0.17 mm wide, gradually tapered, apical 0.55-0.65 finely serrate.

Immature Stages

The key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive system of Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for the identification of A. serpentina larvae. White and Elson-Harris (1994) described the third-instar larvae as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized, 7.5-9.0 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ large, rounded, protuberant with three large sensilla (two long and tapering, one short and peg-like); smaller sensilla around edge of depression. Oral ridges of 8-12 rows of small ridges with irregular serrations along posterior margins; accessory plates large, anterior ones with small serrations along margins; mouthhooks moderately sclerotised, each with a large curved apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: T1 with a broad band of four to nine discontinuous rows of small, sharply pointed spinules surrounding anterior margin; T2 with two to five discontinuous rows of slightly smaller spinules dorsally and ventrally, but none mid-laterally; T3 similar to T2, but no spinules laterally. Dorsal spinules absent from A1-A8. Creeping welts on A1-A8 large, with seven to nine rows of small, stout spinules. A8 with area around spiracles protuberant, with obvious intermediate areas. Dorsal and intermediate tubercles and sensilla very obvious, ventral sensilla smaller.

Anterior spiracles: with 13-18 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits approximately 2.5-3.0 times as long as broad with heavily sclerotised, dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hairs relatively short (less than the length of a spiracular slit), broad, mostly branched in apical third; dorsal and ventral bundles of six to nine hairs, lateral bundles of four to six hairs.

Anal area: lobes very large, protuberant, obviously grooved or bi-lobed; surrounded by two to four discontinuous rows of small, sharp spinules.

Distribution

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A. serpentina is one of the most widespread species of Anastrepha. It occurs at low to middle elevations throughout mainland tropical America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is absent from the West Indies except Trinidad and Tobago and the Netherlands Antilles (Curacao). The record from Dominica (Stone, 1942a), based on specimens in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA (USNM) and intercepted in New York, USA, is doubtful; A. serpentina was not collected in an extensive trapping survey of Dominica and Saint Lucia from 1988-1990 (EC Ambrose, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], St. Lucia, unpublished data).

The status of A. serpentina in the USA was confirmed as 'eradicated' in 2003 (NAPPO, 2003). USDA-APHIS has an ongoing structured trapping network which monitors the occurrence of fruit flies, including A. serpentina, in the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas in order to initiate rapid action upon detections (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2016). A. serpentina is listed as a quarantine pest in the USA.

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. serpentina from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the Distribution Table (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

BelizePresentNative
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadNative
CuraçaoPresent
DominicaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadNative
HondurasPresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNativeRecorded from Campeche, Chiapas, Coahuila, Guerrero, Mexico, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán
Netherlands AntillesPresent, LocalizedPresent in Curacao since at least 1949
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent, WidespreadNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadNative
United StatesPresent, Few occurrences
-CaliforniaPresent, Few occurrences
-FloridaAbsent
-TexasPresent, Few occurrences

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Original citation: SENASA, 2009, personal communication
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNative
-AmapaPresent
-AmazonasPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-BahiaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParaibaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-PiauiPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-RondoniaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-RoraimaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-TocantinsPresent
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadNative
EcuadorPresent, WidespreadNative
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresent, WidespreadNative
ParaguayPresent, Localized
PeruPresent, WidespreadNative
SurinamePresent, WidespreadNative
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadNative

Risk of Introduction

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In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is via the transport of fruit containing live larvae. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

A. serpentina, like most Anastrepha species, derives from tropical wet forest habitats and so similar regions are susceptible to infestation. A major risk also arises from the probable imposition of much stricter phytosanitary restrictions on exported fruits (particularly to America and Japan) if any Anastrepha sp. enters and multiplies, even temporarily.

Habitat

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A. serpentina may be found in any orchard or forest with suitable hosts.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The preferred hosts of A. serpentina are Sapotaceae, especially Chrysophyllum, Pouteria spp. and Manilkara zapota (sapodilla). Native and introduced plants in a variety of other families, including various cultivated fruits, are occasionally attacked. Mango [Mangifera indica], several species of Citrus, apple [Malus domestica], peach [Prunus persica] and quince [Cydonia oblonga] have been recorded as hosts. The reported field hosts include 45 species belonging to 28 genera and 17 families, although some plants that have been recorded only once may be rare or incidental hosts (Norrbom, 2004). Of the 18 genera and 29 species that are native hosts, five genera (including Chrysophyllum, Manilkara, Micropholis, Pouteria, and Sideroxylon) and 15 species belong to the Sapotaceae. See Norrbom (2004) for additional host data.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Alchornea latifoliaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
    Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeOther
      Annona glabra (pond apple)AnnonaceaeOther
        Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
        Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
        Bumelia sebolanaSapotaceaeWild host
        Byrsonima crassifolia (wild cherry)MalpighiaceaeOther
        Capparis angulataCapparaceaeMain
          Chrysophyllum argenteumSapotaceaeOther
            Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito)SapotaceaeMain
            Chrysophyllum mexicanumSapotaceaeOther
            CitrusRutaceaeMain
              Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
              Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
              Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
              Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
              Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeOther
              Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
                Diospyros ebenaster (black sapote)EbenaceaeOther
                Dovyalis hebecarpa (ketembilla)FlacourtiaceaeOther
                  Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeOther
                    Ficus gomelleiraUnknown
                    fruitsOther
                      Lacmellea panamensisApocynaceaeOther
                        Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
                          Mammea americana (mamey apple)ClusiaceaeOther
                          Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                          ManilkaraSapotaceaeOther
                          Manilkara huberiSapotaceaeOther
                          Manilkara subsericeaSapotaceaeUnknown
                          Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
                          Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeMain
                            Micropholis melinonianaSapotaceaeOther
                            Mimusops balata (balata)SapotaceaeUnknown
                            Mimusops coriaceaSapotaceaeOther
                              Peritassa campestrisSalaciaWild host
                                PerseaLauraceaeUnknown
                                • Bush and Jr. (1957)
                                Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                  PouteriaSapotaceaeUnknown
                                  Pouteria caimitoSapotaceaeMain
                                  Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeMain
                                  Pouteria gardnerianaSapotaceaeOther
                                  Pouteria glomerataSapotaceaeOther
                                    Pouteria lucumaSapotaceaeOther
                                    • Stone (1942)
                                    Pouteria obovataSapotaceaeOther
                                      Pouteria psammophilaSapotaceaeUnknown
                                      Pouteria ramifloraSapotaceaeOther
                                      Pouteria sapota (mammey sapote)SapotaceaeMain
                                      Pouteria tortaSapotaceaeUnknown
                                      Pouteria viridis (green sapote)SapotaceaeOther
                                      Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                        Sideroxylon capiriSapotaceaeWild host
                                          Sideroxylon palmeriSapotaceaeWild host
                                            Spondias (purple mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                              Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                              Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther

                                              Growth Stages

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                                              Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

                                              Symptoms

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                                              Attacked fruits usually show signs of oviposition punctures and very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

                                              List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                              SignLife StagesType
                                              Fruit / internal feeding

                                              Biology and Ecology

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                                              The eggs, as in many Anastrepha species, are laid below the skin of the host fruit (and probably adjacent to the nut, seeds or stone because this species has a long ovipositor). The larvae hatch after approximately 3 days and feed for another 8-13 days. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after 13-17 days. The fecundity is approximately 80-100 eggs per female (Celedonio-Hurtado et al., 1995) and the females take approximately 14 days for ovarian maturation (Imelda et al., 1995).

                                              Climate

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                                              ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                              A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
                                              Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                              Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                              Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                              Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                              Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                              Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                                              Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                              27 33

                                              Natural enemies

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                                              Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                              Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite

                                              Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                              Biosteres longicaudatus is the only larval parasitoid that attacks A. serpentina in Mexico (Aluja et al., 1990).

                                              Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                              There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. can fly as far as 135 km (Fletcher, 1989) and therefore natural movement is an important means of spread.

                                              Pathway Causes

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                                              CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                              Crop production Yes Yes

                                              Pathway Vectors

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                                              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                              AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
                                              LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
                                              Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes

                                              Plant Trade

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                                              Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                              Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                              Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                              Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                              Bark
                                              Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                              Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                              Leaves
                                              Roots
                                              Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                              Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                              True seeds (inc. grain)
                                              Wood

                                              Impact Summary

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                                              CategoryImpact
                                              Economic/livelihood Negative

                                              Impact

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                                              Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (Smith et al., 1997).

                                              Risk and Impact Factors

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                                              Invasiveness
                                              • Has a broad native range
                                              • Abundant in its native range
                                              • Is a habitat generalist
                                              • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                                              • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                              • Has high reproductive potential
                                              • Has high genetic variability
                                              Impact outcomes
                                              • Host damage
                                              • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                              • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                              Likelihood of entry/control
                                              • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                              • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
                                              • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                              • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                              • Difficult/costly to control

                                              Diagnosis

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                                              Steck et al. (1990) presented a key separating A. serpentina from 12 other species in the larval stage.

                                              Detection and Inspection

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                                              No male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia, for example, Jirón and Soto-Manitiu (1989) found hydrolysed soya protein effective for this species and Hedström and Jirón (1985) found torula yeast effective. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. (White and Elson-Harris, 1994) and other baits used for related species include ammonium acetate (Hedström and Jimenez, 1988) and casein hydrolysate (Sharp, 1987).

                                              Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                              A. serpentina differs from most species of Anastrepha in having the body, including the abdomen, predominantly dark-brown. Within the serpentina species group (Norrbom, 2002) it is one of the species with a hyaline area in cell br posterior to the pterostigma that is not extended to vein R4+5. It differs from the other species with this character in having the abdomen mostly brown with a T-shaped medial yellow area and the distal section of the S-band slender, at apex of vein R2+3 less than 0.45 times the width of cell r2+3. Within the serpentina group, a similar abdominal pattern occurs only in Anastrepha pulchra, and elsewhere in Anastrepha, only in Anastrepha shannoni of the grandis group and some species of the daciformis group, particularly Anastrepha macrura and Anastrepha zucchii, which have much different wing patterns (e.g. no hyaline marginal mark at apex of vein R1). Other useful diagnostic characters include: orbital plate sometimes with triangular brown mark; thorax mostly dark-brown; wing bands mostly dark-brown; C- and S-bands connected; distal arm of V-band absent; and aculeus tip 0.37-0.46 mm long, 0.14-0.17 mm wide, finely serrate on more than distal half.

                                              The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications.

                                              Prevention and Control

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                                              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                              Prevention

                                              Consignments of suitable hosts from countries where the pest occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected, cut open in order to look for the larvae. The fruits should be exported only from areas where A. serpentina does not occur or places of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. For Anastrepha ludens, for example, the fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment (e.g. 18, 20 or 22 days at 0.5, 1 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (e.g. maintaining at 43°C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or forced hot-air treatment (Mangan and Ingle, 1994). Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Little post-harvest information is available specifically for A. serpentina, for example, Rojas-Villegas et al. (1995) described a controlled atmosphere-based method and Sharp et al. (1989) described a hot water method.

                                              Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where the pest occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia and should not carry fruits. Such plants may be prohibited for importation.

                                              Control

                                              Cultural Control

                                              Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them.

                                              Chemical Control

                                              Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989); practical details were given by Bateman (1982). Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies.

                                              Biological Control

                                              Biological control methods involving parasitoids or sterile insect release have not been tried against A. serpentina. However, work preparatory to sterile insect release has been carried out (Liedo and Carey, 1994; Jacome et al., 1995).

                                              References

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                                              Aluja, M., Guillén, J., Rosa, G. de la, Cabrera, M., Celedonio, H., Liedo, P., Hendrichs, J., 1987. Natural host plant survey of the economically important fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of Chiapas, Mexico. Florida Entomologist, 70(3), 329-330. doi: 10.2307/3495066

                                              Aluja, M., Ordano, M., Teal, P. E. A., Sivinski, J., García-Medel, D., Anzures-Dadda, A., 2009. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of a juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies. Journal of Insect Physiology, 55(3), 231-242. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2008.11.013

                                              Aluja, M., Rull, J., Sivinski, J., Norrbom, A. L., Wharton, R. A., Macías-Ordóñez, R., Díaz-Fleischer, F., López, M., 2003. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated native parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in the tropical rainforest biosphere reserve of Montes Azules, Chiapas, Mexico. Environmental Entomology, 32(6), 1377-1385. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-32.6.1377

                                              Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region [ed. by Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA] Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128.

                                              Bittencourt, M. A. L., Silva, A. C. M. da, Silva, V. E. S., Bomfim, Z. V., Guimarães, J. A., Souza Filho, M. F. de, Araujo, E. L., 2011. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the Southern Region of Bahia State. (Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associados às plantas hospedeiras no Sul da Bahia). Neotropical Entomology, 40(3), 405-406. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000300016

                                              Blanchard EE, 1961. [English title not available]. (Especies argentinas del género Anastrepha Schiner (sens. lat.) (Diptera, Trypetidae)) Rev. Invest. Agric, 15(2):281-342.

                                              Burgers ACJ, 1953. Studies on the fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean islands, No. 21. The fruitfly Anastrepha serpentina in Curacao. Naturwet. Stud. Suriname, The Hague, 8:149-153.

                                              Bush, G. L., Jr., 1957. Some Notes on the Susceptibility of Avocados in Mexico to Attack by the Mexican Fruit Fly. [Proceedings of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society], 11, UK: Entomology Research Branch. 75-78. http://www.avocadosource.com/Journals/RioGrande/Rio%20Grande%20Proc_1957_11_PG_75-78.pdf

                                              Bustos, M. E., Enkerlin, W., Reyes, J., Toledo, J., 2004. Irradiation of mangoes as a postharvest quarantine treatment for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(2), 286-292. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-97.2.286

                                              CABI/EPPO, 2001. Anastrepha serpentina. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 621. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

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                                              López M, Aluja M, Sivinski J, 1999. Hymenopterous larval-pupal and pupal parasitoids of Anastrepha flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. Biological Control. 15 (2), 119-129. DOI:10.1006/bcon.1999.0711

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                                              Uchôa M A, Nicácio J, 2010. New records of neotropical fruit flies (Tephritidae), lance flies (Lonchaeidae) (Diptera: Tephritoidea), and their host plants in the south Pantanal and adjacent areas, Brazil. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 103 (5), 723-733. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/00138746/v103n5/s5.pdf?expires=1285569039&id=0000&titleid=10263&checksum=609A413DBDABE85FB1B77A5289B3A5EB DOI:10.1603/AN09179

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                                              Wiedemann C R W, 1830. Aussereuropaische zweiflugelige Insekten, Tom. 2. Hamburg, Germany: Schulz. xii + 684 pp.

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                                              26/02/2008 Updated by:

                                              Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

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