Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Anastrepha serpentina
(sapodilla fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha serpentina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sapodilla fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. serpentina is a pest of various cultivated species of Sapotaceae, especially caimito [Chrysophyllum cainito], sapodilla [Manilkara zapota], and sapote [Capparis angulata], and it occasiona...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.
TitleAdult female
CaptionAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.
Copyright©Jorge Valdez/Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico - CC BY-SA 3.0
Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.
Adult femaleAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly) female, dorsal view. Sample from Programa Moscafrut, SAGARPA-IICA, Mexico.©Jorge Valdez/Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)

Preferred Common Name

  • sapodilla fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrotoxa serpentinus (Wiedemann)
  • Dacus serpentinus Wiedemann
  • Leptoxys serpentina (Wiedemann)
  • Trypeta serpentina (Wiedemann)
  • Urophora vittithorax Macquart

International Common Names

  • English: black fruit fly; dark fruit fly; sapote fruit fly; serpentine fruit fly
  • Spanish: mosca de frutas; mosca de las zapotaceus; mosca del nospero
  • French: mouche des sapotilles

EPPO code

  • ANSTSE (Anastrepha serpentina)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. serpentina is a pest of various cultivated species of Sapotaceae, especially caimito [Chrysophyllum cainito], sapodilla [Manilkara zapota], and sapote [Capparis angulata], and it occasionally attacks a variety of other hosts, including Citrus spp.. It is a widespread species in the American tropics, occurring from Mexico to Argentina. It has been intercepted and trapped in the USA (Florida, California) and other countries outside its range indicating its potential for spread via infested fruits.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha serpentina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was first described as Dacus serpentinus by Wiedemann (1830). It has been classified in several different genera. The current combination was proposed by Schiner in 1868.

Description

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For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. serpentina are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin.

The following description is taken from Norrbom (2002):

The body is largely dark-orange to dark-brown with yellow markings and the setae are dark-brown.

Head: mostly yellow. Ocellar tubercle brown. Orbital plate often with paired triangular brown area; frons rarely red or red-brown between these areas forming a single large mark. Frons occasionally orange to pale red-brown anteromedially. Occiput usually with paired, triangular or comma-shaped, brown mark near or covering suture of median occipital sclerite. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Three to six frontal setae; one to two orbital setae, posterior seta usually well developed if present. Ocellar seta weak, small to minute. Antenna extended 0.75-0.85 to lower facial margin.

Thorax: mostly orange-brown to brown with the following areas yellow and distinctly contrasting: postpronotal lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended nearly the full length of the scutum, broadened posteriorly, but extended laterally only slightly beyond the level of the acrostichal seta (at most half distance to level of dorsocentral seta); sublateral vitta extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; scutellum except extreme base (brown area usually well-separated from basal seta, but sometimes narrowly separated); dorsal margin and anteroventral corner of anepisternum; dorsal halt to all of greater ampulla; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Mesonotal darker areas mostly red-brown to dark-brown, often with narrow orange area bordering medial vitta, and less commonly with small sublateral presutural orange area; without orange vitta on dorsocentral line. Most of darker areas of anepisternum, anepimeron, meron, and katatergite dark brown. Katepisternum usually orange anteriorly and ventrally, brown posteriorly. Subscutellum and mediotergite red-brown to dark-brown, sometimes narrowly orange medially. Mesonotum 2.76-3.91 mm long. Scutum microtrichose except for broad medial anterior area extended 1/2-3/4 distance to transverse suture; setulae mostly yellow to pale-brown, but darker-brown on some brown areas. Katepisternal seta weak, at most as long as postocellar seta, yellowish.

Wing: length 6.00-8.56 mm. Vein M strongly curved apically; section between bm-cu and r-m 1.93-2.55 times as long as section between r-m and dm-cu; section between r-m and dm-cu 0.68-0.82 times as long as dm-cu. Crossvein dm-cu distinctly oblique, with anterior end more distal than posterior end. Pattern mostly dark-brown. C-band and S-band broadly connected in cells r2+3 and br, but separated basally by hyaline area in posterior half of br aligned with pterostigma, hyaline basal fourth to third of cell dm, and hyaline to yellowish area covering all of cell bm. C-band yellowish to subhyaline in cell bc and cell c except anterior margin; with large yellowish area in base of cell sc and cells r1 and r2+3 posterior to pterostigma, extending distally to or almost to level of apex of vein R1. S-band with large yellow area in cell dm often extending into cell br and sometimes nearly touching crossvein r-m; rest of band dark-brown, including areas distal to and anterior to r-m; distal section slender, at apex of vein R2+3 0.32-0.43 times width of cell r2+3; closely following vein R2+3 so that basal marginal hyaline spot in cell r1 usually elongate along costa; rarely extended to apex of vein M. Hyaline marginal spot in cell r1 usually extended beyond vein R2+3, but not extended to vein R4+5; its apex aligned with r-m or slightly basal to it. V-band with distal arm absent, very rarely with 1-2 faint spots in cells r4+5 or m; proximal arm slender, usually extended to vein R4+5, but often fainter in anterior half to 2/3 of cell r4+5, separated from S-band; extended basally along posterior wing margin almost to vein A1+Cu2, but not connected to extension from base of S-band.

Abdomen: predominantly brown with yellow and orange areas forming T-shaped pattern. Syntergite 1+2 mostly brown, often orange basally, with narrow transverse medial area and posterior margin broadly yellow, but not reaching lateral margin. Tergites three and four mostly brown, with narrow, parallel-sided or trapezoidal medial yellow area. Tergite five mostly brown, with yellow to orange medial area larger than on tergite four. Female tergite six orange.

Male terminalia: dorsal posterior margin of epandrium evenly convex. Lateral surstylus moderately long; in lateral view slightly curved; in posterior view usually with small basolateral lobe, main part triangular, acute apically. Proctiger with lateral fold separating sclerotized areas. Phallus 3.71-4.84 mm long; 1.15-1.40 times as long as mesonotum. Glans 0.55-0.60 mm long; acrophallus relatively stout.

Female terminalia: oviscape 2.58-3.91 mm long, 0.79-1.02 times as long as mesonotum. Eversible membrane with 55-65 large, hook-like dorsobasal scales in triangular pattern. Aculeus 2.58-3.83 mm long; base expanded; tip 0.37-0.46 mm long, 0.14-0.17 mm wide, gradually tapered, apical 0.55-0.65 finely serrate.

Immature Stages

The key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive system of Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for the identification of A. serpentina larvae. White and Elson-Harris (1994) described the third-instar larvae as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized, 7.5-9.0 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ large, rounded, protuberant with three large sensilla (two long and tapering, one short and peg-like); smaller sensilla around edge of depression. Oral ridges of 8-12 rows of small ridges with irregular serrations along posterior margins; accessory plates large, anterior ones with small serrations along margins; mouthhooks moderately sclerotised, each with a large curved apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: T1 with a broad band of four to nine discontinuous rows of small, sharply pointed spinules surrounding anterior margin; T2 with two to five discontinuous rows of slightly smaller spinules dorsally and ventrally, but none mid-laterally; T3 similar to T2, but no spinules laterally. Dorsal spinules absent from A1-A8. Creeping welts on A1-A8 large, with seven to nine rows of small, stout spinules. A8 with area around spiracles protuberant, with obvious intermediate areas. Dorsal and intermediate tubercles and sensilla very obvious, ventral sensilla smaller.

Anterior spiracles: with 13-18 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits approximately 2.5-3.0 times as long as broad with heavily sclerotised, dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hairs relatively short (less than the length of a spiracular slit), broad, mostly branched in apical third; dorsal and ventral bundles of six to nine hairs, lateral bundles of four to six hairs.

Anal area: lobes very large, protuberant, obviously grooved or bi-lobed; surrounded by two to four discontinuous rows of small, sharp spinules.

Distribution

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A. serpentina is one of the most widespread species of Anastrepha. It occurs at low to middle elevations throughout mainland tropical America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is absent from the West Indies except Trinidad and Tobago and the Netherlands Antilles (Curacao). The record from Dominica (Stone, 1942a), based on specimens in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA (USNM) and intercepted in New York, USA, is doubtful; A. serpentina was not collected in an extensive trapping survey of Dominica and Saint Lucia from 1988-1990 (EC Ambrose, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], St. Lucia, unpublished data).

The status of A. serpentina in the USA was confirmed as 'eradicated' in 2003 (NAPPO, 2003). USDA-APHIS has an ongoing structured trapping network which monitors the occurrence of fruit flies, including A. serpentina, in the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas in order to initiate rapid action upon detections (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2016). A. serpentina is listed as a quarantine pest in the USA.

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. serpentina from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the Distribution Table (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

BelizePresentNativeStone (1942a)
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); Jirón and Hedström (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
DominicaAbsent, Intercepted onlyStone (1942a); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)Record based on intercepted specimens, not confirmed by surveys
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresent, WidespreadStone (1942a)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNativeStone (1942a); Hernández-Ortiz (1992); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)Recorded from Campeche, Chiapas, Coahuila, Guerrero, Mexico, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán
Netherlands AntillesPresent, LocalizedBurgers (1953); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)Present in Curacao since at least 1949
PanamaPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); Norrbom et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
United StatesAbsent, EradicatedNAPPO (2003); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaAbsent, Formerly presentFoote et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaAbsentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-TexasAbsent, EradicatedNAPPO (2003); Stone (1942a); Foote et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI (Undated); Blanchard (1961); Norrbom et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); Original citation: SENASA, 2009, personal communication
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNativeWiedemann (1830); Stone (1942a); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AmapaPresentDeus et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
-AmazonasPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-BahiaPresentNativeCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GoiasPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); Lemos et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParaibaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParanaPresentNativeSchmid and Santos (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PernambucoPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-PiauiPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-RondoniaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-RoraimaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeSteck et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadNativeNúñez Bueno (1981); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); Molineros et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentNativeEPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942); NHM (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); Norrbom et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2001); Korytkowski (2001); EPPO (2020)
SurinamePresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadNativeStone (1942a); Caraballo (1981); Steck et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

Risk of Introduction

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In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is via the transport of fruit containing live larvae. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

A. serpentina, like most Anastrepha species, derives from tropical wet forest habitats and so similar regions are susceptible to infestation. A major risk also arises from the probable imposition of much stricter phytosanitary restrictions on exported fruits (particularly to America and Japan) if any Anastrepha sp. enters and multiplies, even temporarily.

Habitat

Top of page A. serpentina may be found in any orchard or forest with suitable hosts.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The preferred hosts of A. serpentina are Sapotaceae, especially Chrysophyllum, Pouteria spp. and Manilkara zapota (sapodilla). Native and introduced plants in a variety of other families, including various cultivated fruits, are occasionally attacked. Mango [Mangifera indica], several species of Citrus, apple [Malus domestica], peach [Prunus persica] and quince [Cydonia oblonga] have been recorded as hosts. The reported field hosts include 45 species belonging to 28 genera and 17 families, although some plants that have been recorded only once may be rare or incidental hosts (Norrbom, 2004). Of the 18 genera and 29 species that are native hosts, five genera (including Chrysophyllum, Manilkara, Micropholis, Pouteria, and Sideroxylon) and 15 species belong to the Sapotaceae. See Norrbom (2004) for additional host data.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Alchornea latifoliaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeOther
Annona glabra (pond apple)AnnonaceaeOther
Bumelia sebolanaSapotaceaeWild host
Byrsonima crassifolia (wild cherry)MalpighiaceaeOther
Capparis angulataCapparaceaeMain
Chrysophyllum argenteumSapotaceaeOther
Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito)SapotaceaeMain
Chrysophyllum mexicanumSapotaceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeOther
Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
Diospyros ebenaster (black sapote)EbenaceaeOther
Dovyalis hebecarpa (ketembilla)FlacourtiaceaeOther
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeOther
fruitsOther
Lacmellea panamensisApocynaceaeOther
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
Mammea americana (mamey apple)ClusiaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
ManilkaraSapotaceaeOther
Manilkara huberiSapotaceaeOther
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeMain
Micropholis melinonianaSapotaceaeOther
Mimusops coriaceaSapotaceaeOther
Peritassa campestrisSalaciaWild host
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Pouteria caimitoSapotaceaeMain
Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeMain
Pouteria gardnerianaSapotaceaeOther
Pouteria glomerataSapotaceaeOther
Pouteria lucumaSapotaceaeOther
Pouteria obovataSapotaceaeOther
Pouteria ramifloraSapotaceaeOther
Pouteria sapota (mammey sapote)SapotaceaeMain
Pouteria viridis (green sapote)SapotaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Sideroxylon capiriSapotaceaeWild host
Sideroxylon palmeriSapotaceaeWild host
Spondias (purple mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

Symptoms

Top of page Attacked fruits usually show signs of oviposition punctures and very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

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The eggs, as in many Anastrepha species, are laid below the skin of the host fruit (and probably adjacent to the nut, seeds or stone because this species has a long ovipositor). The larvae hatch after approximately 3 days and feed for another 8-13 days. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after 13-17 days. The fecundity is approximately 80-100 eggs per female (Celedonio-Hurtado et al., 1995) and the females take approximately 14 days for ovarian maturation (Imelda et al., 1995).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
27 33

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Biosteres longicaudatus is the only larval parasitoid that attacks A. serpentina in Mexico (Aluja et al., 1990).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. can fly as far as 135 km (Fletcher, 1989) and therefore natural movement is an important means of spread.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of page Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (Smith et al., 1997).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

Top of page Steck et al. (1990) presented a key separating A. serpentina from 12 other species in the larval stage.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page No male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia, for example, Jirón and Soto-Manitiu (1989) found hydrolysed soya protein effective for this species and Hedström and Jirón (1985) found torula yeast effective. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. (White and Elson-Harris, 1994) and other baits used for related species include ammonium acetate (Hedström and Jimenez, 1988) and casein hydrolysate (Sharp, 1987).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. serpentina differs from most species of Anastrepha in having the body, including the abdomen, predominantly dark-brown. Within the serpentina species group (Norrbom, 2002) it is one of the species with a hyaline area in cell br posterior to the pterostigma that is not extended to vein R4+5. It differs from the other species with this character in having the abdomen mostly brown with a T-shaped medial yellow area and the distal section of the S-band slender, at apex of vein R2+3 less than 0.45 times the width of cell r2+3. Within the serpentina group, a similar abdominal pattern occurs only in Anastrepha pulchra, and elsewhere in Anastrepha, only in Anastrepha shannoni of the grandis group and some species of the daciformis group, particularly Anastrepha macrura and Anastrepha zucchii, which have much different wing patterns (e.g. no hyaline marginal mark at apex of vein R1). Other useful diagnostic characters include: orbital plate sometimes with triangular brown mark; thorax mostly dark-brown; wing bands mostly dark-brown; C- and S-bands connected; distal arm of V-band absent; and aculeus tip 0.37-0.46 mm long, 0.14-0.17 mm wide, finely serrate on more than distal half.

The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Consignments of suitable hosts from countries where the pest occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected, cut open in order to look for the larvae. The fruits should be exported only from areas where A. serpentina does not occur or places of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. For Anastrepha ludens, for example, the fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment (e.g. 18, 20 or 22 days at 0.5, 1 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (e.g. maintaining at 43°C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or forced hot-air treatment (Mangan and Ingle, 1994). Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Little post-harvest information is available specifically for A. serpentina, for example, Rojas-Villegas et al. (1995) described a controlled atmosphere-based method and Sharp et al. (1989) described a hot water method.

Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where the pest occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia and should not carry fruits. Such plants may be prohibited for importation.

Control

Cultural Control

Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them.

Chemical Control

Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989); practical details were given by Bateman (1982). Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies.

Biological Control

Biological control methods involving parasitoids or sterile insect release have not been tried against A. serpentina. However, work preparatory to sterile insect release has been carried out (Liedo and Carey, 1994; Jacome et al., 1995).

References

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Aluja M, Guillen J, Liedo P, Cabrera M, Rios E, Rosa G de la, Celedonio H, Mota D, 1990. Fruit infesting tephritids (Dipt.: Tephritidae) and associated parasitoids in Chiapas, Mexico. Entomophaga, 35(1):39-48

Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region [ed. by Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA] Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128.

Blanchard EE, 1961. [English title not available]. (Especies argentinas del género Anastrepha Schiner (sens. lat.) (Diptera, Trypetidae)) Rev. Invest. Agric, 15(2):281-342.

Burgers ACJ, 1953. Studies on the fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean islands, No. 21. The fruitfly Anastrepha serpentina in Curacao. Naturwet. Stud. Suriname, The Hague, 8:149-153.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Anastrepha serpentina. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 621. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caraballo J, 1981. Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. Maracay, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, xi + 210 pp.

Carroll LE, White IM, Freidberg A, Norrbom AL, Dallwitz MJ, Thompson FC, 2004. Pest fruit flies of the world. Identification, descriptions, illustrations, and information retrieval. Diptera Data Dissemination Disk (CD-ROM) 2. http://delta-intkey.com/ffl/www/_wintro

Castañeda Mdel R, Osorio F A, Canal NA, Galeano PÉ, 2010. Species, distribution and hosts of the genus Anastrepha Schiner in the Department of Tolima, Colombia. (Especies, distribución y hospederos del género Anastrepha Schiner en el Departamento del Tolima, Colombia.) Agronomía Colombiana, 28(2):265-271. http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/agc/v28n2/v28n2a16.pdf

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Deus Eda Gde, Silva RAda, Nascimento DBdo, Marinho CF, Zucchi RA, 2009. Hosts and parasitoids of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae) in two districts of the State of Amapá. (Hospedeiros e parasitóides de espécies de Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) em dois municípios do Estado do Amapá.) Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 84(3):194-203. http://www.fealq.org.br/revista_agricultura.asp

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fletcher BS, 1989. Ecology; movements of tephritid fruit flies. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 209-219.

Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock.

Hedstrom I, Jimenez J, 1988. Field evaluation of attractants in the capture of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera, Tephritidae), pests of fruit trees in tropical America. II. Ammonium acetate and torula with sodium borate. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 32(2):319-322.

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Hernández-Ortiz V, 1992. El género Anastrepha en México. Taxonomia, distribución y sus plantas huéspedes. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologfa.

Imelda MM, Hernßndez-Ortiz V, Rodrigo LL, 1995. Development and sexual maturation in Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Acta Zoologica Mexicana, No. 65:75-88; 23 ref.

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Jirón LF, Hedstrom I, 1988. Occurrence of fruit flies of the genera Anastrepha and Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and their host plant availability in Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist, 71(1):62-73

Jirón LF, Hedstrom I, 1991. Population fluctuations of economic species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) related to mango fruiting phenology in Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist, 74(1):98-105

Jirón LF, Soto-Manitiu J, 1989. Field evaluation of attractant substances on the catch of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae), pest of fruit in tropical America. III. Borated hydrolysed protein and borated torula yeast. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 33(2):353-356

Jirón LF, Soto-Manitiu J, Norrbom AL, 1988. A preliminary list of the fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist, 71(2):130-137

Korytkowski CA, 2001. [English title not available]. (Situación actual del género Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el Perú) Revista Peruana de Entomología, 42:97-158.

Lemos WP, Silva RAda, Araújo SCA, Oliveira ELA, Silva WRda, 2011. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 40(6):706-707. http://www.scielo.br/ne

Liedo P, Carey JR, 1994. Mass rearing of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies: a demographic analysis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(1):176-180

Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000. Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Riberão Preto, Brazil: Holos, 327 pp.

Mangan RL, Ingle SJ, 1994. Forced hot-air quarantine treatment for grapefruit infested with Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(6):1574-1579

Molineros J, Tigrero JO, Sandoval D, 1992. Diagnostico de la situacion actual del problema de las moscas de la fruta en el Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Direccion de Investigaciones, 53 pp.

NAPPO, 2003. Phytosanitary Alert System: Lifting of sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), quarantine in Texas. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=80&keyword=ANASTREPHA%20SERPENTINA

Nascimento ASdo, Zucchi RA, 1981. Dinamica populacional das moscas-das-frutas do genero Anastrepha (Dip., Tephritidae) no Reconcavo Baiano. I. Levantamento das especies. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 16:763-767.

Nascimento ASdo, Zucchi RA, 1981. Dinamica populacional das moscas-das-frutas do genero Anastrepha (Dip., Tephritidae) no Reconcavo Baiano. I. Levantamento das especies. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 16:763-767.

Norrbom AL, 2002. A revision of the Anastrepha serpentina species group (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 104(2):390-436.

Norrbom AL, 2004. Host plant database for Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Diptera: Tephritidae: Toxotrypanini). Diptera Data Dissemination Disk (CD-ROM) 2.

Norrbom AL, Carroll LE, Thompson FC, White IM, Freidberg A, 1999. Systematic Database of Names. Fruit Fly Expert Identification System and Systematic Information Database, Myia [ed. by Thompson FC]., 65-252.

Norrbom AL, Foote RH, 1989. Taxonomy and zoogeography; the taxonomy and zoogeography of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit flies; Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 3(A). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 15-26.

Norrbom AL, Kim KC, 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Hyattsville, MD, USA: US Dept. Agric., Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Núñez Bueno L, 1981. [English title not available]. (Contribucion al reconocimiento de las moscas de las frutas (Diptera: Tephriridae [sic]) en Colombia) Revista do Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, 16:173-179.

Pallipparambil, G. R., 2017. Status of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) in the United States. Report USDA TASC. USDA-APHIS, Raleigh, USA, 15 pp.

Roessler Y, 1989. Control; insecticides; insecticidal bait and cover sprays. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies. Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 329-336.

Rojas-Villegas R, Avena-Bustillos R, Silveira M, Carrillo-Lopez A, Yahia EM, Gomes JA, 1995. Effect of insecticidal atmospheres on the mortality of fruit flies in mango. International symposium on tropical fruits. Improving the quality of tropical fruits, Vitoria, Brazil, 7-12 November, 1993. Acta Horticulturae, 370:89-92.

Schmid ML, Santos HRdos, 1988. Survey of host plants of the fruit fly in the municipality of Piraquara, PR. Revista do Setor de Ciencias Agrarias, 10(1-2):63-66

Sharp JL, 1987. Laboratory and field experiments to improve enzymatic casein hydrolysate as an arrestant and attractant for Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 70(2):225-233.

Sharp JL, Ouye MT, Ingle SJ, Hart WG, Enkerlin H WR, Celedonio H H, Toledo J, Stevens L, Quintero E, Reyes F J, Schwarz A, 1989. Hot-water quarantine treatment for mangoes from the state of Chiapas, Mexico, infested with Mediterranean fruit fly and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(6):1663-1666

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M, 1997. Ceratitis capitata. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 146-152.

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M, 1997. Ceratitis capitata. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 146-152.

Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Steck GJ, Carroll LE, Celedonio-Hurtado H, Guillen-Aguilar J, 1990. Methods for identification of Anastrepha larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae), and key to 13 species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 92(2):333-346

Steyskal GC, 1977. Pictorial Key to the Species of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Washington, USA: Entomological Society of Washington.

Stone A, 1942. New species of Anastrepha and notes on others. Washington Academy of Sciences, 32:298-304.

Stone A, 1942. The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. Miscellaneous Publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, 439:1-112.

USDA, 1994. Treatment manual. Frederick, USA: USDA/APHIS.

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2010. United States and Mexico Lower Rio Grande Valley: Mexican fruit fly eradication program review, final report. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Washington D.C., 130 pp.

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2015. National exotic fruit fly detection trapping guidelines. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Washington, D.C., 126 pp.

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2016. Cooperative fruit fly emergency response triggers & guidelines. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Washington D.C., 2 pp.

White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Their Identification and Bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Wiedemann CRW, 1830. Aussereuropaische zweiflugelige Insekten Vol. 2. Hamburg, Germany: Schulz, xii + 684 pp.

Distribution References

Blanchard E E, 1961. Argentinian species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (sl.) (Diptera, Trypetidae). (Especies argentinas del género Anastrepha Schiner (sens. lat.) (Diptera, Trypetidae).). Rev. Invest. Agric. 15 (2), 281-342.

Burgers A C J, 1953. Studies on the fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean islands, No. 21. The fruitfly Anastrepha serpentina in Curacao. Naturwet. Stud. Suriname, The Hague. 149-153.

CABI, EPPO, 2001. Anastrepha serpentina. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 621.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Caraballo J, 1981. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Venezuela. (Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela.). Maracay, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela. xi + 210 pp.

Deus E da G de, Silva R A da, Nascimento D B do, Marinho C F, Zucchi R A, 2009. Hosts and parasitoids of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae) in two districts of the State of Amapá. (Hospedeiros e parasitóides de espécies de Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) em dois municípios do Estado do Amapá.). Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba). 84 (3), 194-203. http://www.fealq.org.br/revista_agricultura.asp

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Foote R H, Blanc F L, Norrbom A L, 1993. Handbook of the fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America north of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock Publishing Associates. xii + 571 pp.

Hernández-Ortiz V, 1992. El género Anastrepha en México. Taxonomia, distribución y sus plantas huéspedes. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologia.

Jirón L F, Hedström I, 1991. Population fluctuations of economic species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) related to mango fruiting phenology in Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist. 74 (1), 98-105. DOI:10.2307/3495245

Korytkowski C A, 2001. Status of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Peru. (Situación actual del género Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el Perú.). Revista Peruana de Entomología. 97-158.

Lemos W P, Silva R A da, Araújo S C A, Oliveira E L A, Silva W R da, 2011. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 40 (6), 706-707. http://www.scielo.br/ne

Molineros J, Tigrero J O, Sandoval D, 1992. Diagnostico de la situacion actual del problema de las moscas de la fruta en el Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Direccion de Investigaciones. 53 pp.

NAPPO, 2003. Phytosanitary Alert System: Lifting of sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), quarantine in Texas., http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=80&keyword=ANASTREPHA%20SERPENTINA

NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Norrbom A L, Carroll L E, Thompson F C, White I M, Freidberg A, 1999. Fruit Fly Expert Identification System and Systematic Information Database. Systematic Database of Names. Myia. 65-252.

Núñez Bueno L, 1981. Contribution to a survey of the fruit flies (Diptera: Tephriridae [sic]) of Colombia. (Contribucion al reconocimiento de las moscas de las frutas (Diptera: Tephriridae [sic]) en Colombia.). Revista do Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. 173-179.

Schmid M L, Santos H R dos, 1988. Survey of host plants of the fruit fly in the municipality of Piraquara, PR. (Levantamento de plantas hospedeiras de mosca das frutas no município de Piraquara-PR.). Revista do Setor de Ciências Agrárias. 10 (1-2), 63-66.

Steck G J, Carroll L E, Celedonio-Hurtado H, Guillen-Aguilar J, 1990. Methods for identification of Anastrepha larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae), and key to 13 species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 92 (2), 333-346.

Stone A, 1942. The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. In: Miscellaneous Publications of the United States Department of Agriculture. 1-112.

Stone A, 1942a. New species of Anastrepha and notes on others. Washington Academy of Sciences. 298-304.

Wiedemann C R W, 1830. Aussereuropaische zweiflugelige Insekten, Tom. 2. Hamburg, Germany: Schulz. xii + 684 pp.

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26/02/2008 Updated by:

Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

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