Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Anastrepha obliqua
(West Indian fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha obliqua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • West Indian fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. obliqua is the most important fruit fly pest of mango (Mangifera indica) in the Neotropics and attacks a broad range of other fruits. It is widespread in Mexico, Central and South America and the West I...

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CopyrightCAB International
Line artwork of adult femaleCAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)

Preferred Common Name

  • West Indian fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrotoxa obliqua (Macquart)
  • Anastrepha acidusa Greene
  • Anastrepha ethalea Greene
  • Anastrepha fraterculus var. ligata Costa Lima
  • Anastrepha fraterculus var. mombinpraeoptans Seín
  • Anastrepha mombinpraeoptans Seín
  • Anastrepha trinidadensis Greene
  • Tephritis obliqua Macquart
  • Trypeta obliqua (Macquart)

International Common Names

  • English: Antillean fruit fly; fruit fly, West Indian
  • Spanish: mosca de la fruta; mosca de la fruta de las Indias Occidentales
  • French: mouche antillaise des fruits

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfliege, Westindische

EPPO code

  • ANSTOB (Anastrepha obliqua)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. obliqua is the most important fruit fly pest of mango (Mangifera indica) in the Neotropics and attacks a broad range of other fruits. It is widespread in Mexico, Central and South America and the West Indies. It is invasive in the Lesser Antilles and was temporarily established in Key West, Florida, USA. It should be considered a serious threat to other tropical parts of the world, particularly mango-producing regions. It is considered an A1 quarantine pest by EPPO.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha obliqua

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was first described by Macquart (1835) as Tephritis obliqua, although that name was confused and not recognized as pertaining to this species for many years. The species was also described as Anastrepha fraterculus var. mombinpraeoptans Seín, Anastrepha fraterculus var. ligata Lima, and Anastrepha trinidadensis Greene. Most records of Anastrepha acidusa (Walker) are misidentifications of this species. The current combination was proposed by Schiner in 1868.

Description

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For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. obliqua are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin. Furthermore, most Anastrepha spp. have a very characteristic wing pattern; the apical half of the wing has two inverted 'V'-shaped markings, one fitting within the other; and a stripe along the forward edge of the wing, which runs from near the wing base to about half-way along the wing length.

Identification to species is more difficult. In particular, for positive identification it is essential to dissect the aculeus (the distal, piercing part of the ovipositor that is normally retracted into the oviscape) of a female specimen. A. obliqua adults are difficult to separate from those of Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha zenildae,Anastrepha turpiniae, Anastrepha suspensa and several other species of the fraterculus group; if necessary, specimens should be referred to a specialist.

The body is predominantly yellow to orange-brown, and the setae are red-brown to dark-brown.

Head: yellow except ocellar tubercle brown. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Frons with three or more frontal setae, two orbital setae. Antenna not extended to ventral facial margin.

Thorax: mostly yellow to orange-brown, with the following areas yellow to white and often contrasting: postpronotal lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended nearly the full length of the scutum, slightly broadened posteriorly, ovoid; sublateral vitta extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; scutellum; propleuron; dorsal margin of anepisternum; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark-brown spot. Subscutellum without dark markings; mediotergite usually dark-brown laterally. Scutum entirely microtrichose or at most with small presutural, medial bare area.

Wing: 5.7-7.5 mm long. Vein M strongly curved apically. Vein R2+3 nearly straight. Pattern mostly orange-brown and moderate-brown. C-band and S-band usually connected along vein R4+5, but sometimes separated; marginal hyaline spot (or end of band) present in cell r1 at apex of vein R4+5. S-band with middle section between costa and vein Cu1 largely yellow to orange with narrow brown margins, darkening distally; distal section of band moderately broad, well-separated from apex of vein M. V-band with distal arm complete and connected to proximal arm; proximal arm extended to vein R4+5, sometimes connected to S-band.

Abdomen: tergites yellow to orange-brown, without dark-brown markings.

Male terminalia: lateral surstylus moderately long, in posterior view slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically. Phallus 2.3–2.7 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 0.8-0.9. Glans with basolateral membranous lobe, mostly membranous medially, with isolated, T-shaped apical sclerite.

Female terminalia: oviscape straight, 1.6-1.9 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 0.53-0.61 mm. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, hook-like, in triangular pattern. Aculeus length 1.30-1.65 mm; tip 0.16-0.21 mm long, 0.08-0.12 mm wide, gradually tapering, but with slight constriction proximal to serrate part, distal 0.67-0.82 mm serrate. Three spermathecae ovoid.

Immature Stages

Larva: it is very difficult, and in some cases impossible to identify larvae of Anastrepha species from morphological characteristics. The key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive key by Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for larval identification. Descriptions of A. obliqua larvae are provided by Berg (1979), Steck et al. (1990) and White and Elson-Harris (1994). White and Elson-Harris (1994) described the third-instar larva as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized; 7.5-9.0 mm long; 1.4-1.8 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ rounded, only slightly protuberant, with two to three very small sensilla; 7-10 oral ridges; accessory plates small; mandible moderately to heavily sclerotised, with a large slender curved apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: T1 with a broad anterior band of 5-10 discontinuous rows of small, sharply pointed spinules; T2 and T3 with two to five rows of spinules. Dorsal spinules absent from A1-A8. Creeping welts on A1-A8 with 7-11 rows of stout spinules. A8 with large dorsal tubercles and stout sensilla; intermediate areas well-developed with obvious sensilla; ventral sensilla small, but well defined.

Anterior spiracles: with 12-16 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits about three times as long as broad, with heavily sclerotised, dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hairs in dorsal and ventral bundles of 10-16 stout hairs branched in apical third; lateral bundles of three to six hairs similarly branched.

Anal area: lobes very large, protuberant, not grooved; surrounded by two to five discontinuous rows of small, sharp spinules.

Egg: the eggs of A. obliqua bear a conspicuous lobe on the anterior (micropyle) end, which projects outside the fruit peel and is believed to aid in respiration (Murillo and Jiron, 1994). This lobe is lacking in related species, thus eggs inside the abdomens of gravid females can provide a useful diagnostic character for this species.

Distribution

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See also CABI/EPPO (2011) and CABI/EPPO (1988, No. 90).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

BermudaAbsent, intercepted onlyWoodley and Hilburn, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MexicoWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Hernandez-Ortiz, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014Present north to southern Sinaloa, Aguascalientes and northern Veracruz
USAAbsent, formerly presentStone, 1942; Foote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaAbsent, intercepted onlyFoote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014Rarely trapped near ports, never established
-FloridaEradicatedIntroduced1931 Invasive McAlister, 1936; Steck, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014Present in Key West from 1930-1936, not currently established
-TexasEradicatedStone, 1942; Foote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014Infrequently trapped in Rio Grande Valley

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BahamasPresentWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BarbadosPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BelizePresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Costa RicaWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Jiron et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
CubaWidespreadNative Not invasive Macquart, 1835; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
DominicaWidespreadIntroduced<1933 Invasive Kisliuk and Cooley, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; EPPO, 2014
El SalvadorPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroduced2002 Invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroduced<1933 Invasive Kisliuk and Cooley, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
GuatemalaWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
HaitiWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
HondurasWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
JamaicaWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroduced<1933 Invasive Kisliuk and Cooley, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MontserratPresentIntroduced Invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Netherlands AntillesRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014Saint Maarten
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Sein, 1933; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Saint Kitts and NevisWidespreadIntroduced<1933 Invasive Kisliuk and Cooley, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced<1990 Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced2002 Invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Greene, 1934; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsWidespread Not invasive Kisliuk and Cooley, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, invalid recordNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014Was present only in north.
BrazilWidespreadNative Not invasive Lima da Costa, 1934; Stone, 1942; Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AcreWidespreadNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AlagoasPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AmapaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AmazonasPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-CearaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MaranhaoPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ParaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ParaibaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-PernambucoPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-PiauiPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative Not invasive Lima da Costa, 1934; Stone, 1942; Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentAguiar-Menezes and Menezes, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-RondoniaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-RoraimaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentNative Not invasive Malavasi Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-TocantinsPresentNative Not invasive Bomfim et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ChileAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
ColombiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Norrbom, 2004a; Nunez Bueno, 1981; Castañeda et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Molineros et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
GuyanaPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayRestricted distributionNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
PeruWidespreadNative Not invasive Korytkowski, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
SurinamePresentNative Not invasive White and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1942; Caraballo de Valdivieso, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. obliqua is known from Mexico south to northern Argentina, and from most of the West Indies. Its original native range is obscure. It is the only species of Anastrepha widespread in both the West Indies and the mainland. Although commonly known as the West Indian fruit fly, the original range of A. obliqua in the Antilles is uncertain, and in at least some of the Lesser Antilles it is an invasive species. It was originally described from Cuba and at least has long been present in the Greater Antilles. Its current distribution on the mainland and the Greater Antilles is presumed to be natural, but could have been affected by human activities.

Within the Lesser Antilles, Kisliuk and Cooley (1933) reported it (as Anastrepha acidusa) from Dominica, Martinique, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Trinidad and the Virgin Islands. They reported Anastrepha larvae (presumably of A. obliqua), but did not rear adults from Guadeloupe. They did not find it in Antigua, the Bahamas, Barbados, and St. Vincent. A survey from 1988-1990 confirmed its presence in Dominica and St. Lucia (EC Ambrose, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], St. Lucia, unpublished data). It has been present in Barbados since 2001 (I Gibbs, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Barbados, personal communication, 2004), in Grenada since 2002 (T Peters, Ministry of Agriculture, Botanic Gardens, St. George's, Grenada, personal communication, 2004), and in St. Vincent since 2002 (M Delpeche, Ministry of Agriculture, Richmond Hill, Kingstown, St. Vincent, West Indies, personal communication, 2004). White and Elson-Harris (1992) reported it from the Bahamas, but the basis for that record is unclear and it is probably erroneous. A. obliqua has not been collected in extensive trapping in the last decade (S Miller, Department of Agriculture, Nassau, Bahamas, personal communication, 2004). Reports of its introduction to Bermuda were erroneous (Woodley and Hilburn, 1994). It was established in southern Florida, USA (Key West) from 1930-1936 (McAlister, 1936), but there is no evidence of a breeding population being present since then (Steck, 2001). It has been trapped in California and Texas, USA, but is not established there.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Antigua and Barbuda Yes Norrbom (2004a); Norrbom (2004b) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Barbados 2001 Yes Norrbom (2004a); Norrbom (2004b) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Dominica <1933 Yes Kisliuk and Cooley (1933) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Florida <1930 No Steck (2001) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit. Infestation present in Key West 1930-1936
Grenada 2002 Yes Norrbom (2004a); Norrbom (2004b) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Guadeloupe <1933 Yes Kisliuk and Cooley (1933) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Martinique <1933 Yes Kisliuk and Cooley (1933) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Montserrat Yes Norrbom (2004a); Norrbom (2004b) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Netherlands Antilles Yes Norrbom (2004a); Norrbom (2004b) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Saint Kitts and Nevis <1933 Yes Kisliuk and Cooley (1933) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Saint Lucia <1990 Yes Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2002 Yes Norrbom (2004a); Norrbom (2004b) Accidental, presumably through transport of infested fruit

Risk of Introduction

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EPPO lists A. obliqua as an A1 quarantine pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1983) within the broad category 'non-European Trypetidae'; it is also of quarantine significance to APPPC, CPPC and NAPPO.

Consignments of fruits of Citrus spp., mango [Mangifera indica] and guava [Psidium guajava] from countries where A. obliqua occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation. Those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. For example, EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) that such fruits should come from an area where A. obliqua does not occur or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months prior to harvest. Fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment (for example, 13, 15 or 17 days at 0.5, 1 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (for example, keeping at 43°C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or by hot water immersion (Nascimento et al., 1992; Thomas and Mangan, 1995) or forced hot air quarantine treatment (Mangan and Ingle, 1992).

Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where A. obliqua occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Importation of such plants may be prohibited.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The main native hosts are Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae), but these are only of local interest. Mangoes [Mangifera indica], also Anacardiaceae, are the economically important host, on which the species has extended its range (Hernandez-Ortiz, 1992). Citrus spp. and guavas [Psidium guajava] are only occasional hosts. Like other Anastrepha spp., A. obliqua has been recorded incidentally on a wider range of fruits, both tropical and temperate, but these records are incidental occurrences, of no economic significance.

In common with other polyphagous and difficult to identify species, many host records cannot be substantiated and only records confirmed by Norrbom and Kim (1988) or subsequent reliable sources have been accepted here. Post 1988 records include Eugenia stipitata (Couturier et al., 1996).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Ampelocera hottleiUlmaceaeOther
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeOther
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
Brosimum alicastrum (breadnut)MoraceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeOther
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeOther
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Diospyros ebenaster (black sapote)EbenaceaeOther
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeOther
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
Passiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PassifloraceaeOther
Pouteria sapota (mammey sapote)SapotaceaeOther
Pouteria viridis (green sapote)SapotaceaeOther
Prunus dulcis (almond)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
Spondias (purple mombin)AnacardiaceaeMain
Spondias dulcis (otaheite apple)AnacardiaceaeOther
Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeOther
Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
Spondias tuberosaAnacardiaceaeOther
Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeOther
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeOther
Ziziphus joazeiroRhamnaceaeMain

Growth Stages

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Symptoms

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Attacked fruit can show signs of oviposition punctures, but these, or any other symptoms of damage, are often difficult to detect in the early stages of infestation. Much damage may occur inside the fruit before external symptoms are seen, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting. Very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

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The eggs are laid singly, below the skin of the host fruit. The larvae hatch within 3-12 days and feed for another 15-32 days. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after 15-19 days (longer in cool conditions); the adults occur throughout the year (Christenson and Foote, 1960), with little seasonal variation (Hedstrom, 1993).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 30

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceratoneuromyia indica Parasite Dominica Citrus
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae Dominica Citrus
Doryctobracon areolatus Parasite Larvae Dominica; Honduras Citrus; Spondias
Doryctobracon crawfordi Parasite Larvae Dominica Citrus
Doryctobracon trinidadensis Parasite Dominica Citrus
Opius bellus Parasite Larvae Dominica Citrus
Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Parasite Pupae Dominica Citrus
Utetes anastrephae Parasite Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several braconid larval parasitoids are recorded but their impact appears low, for example, Biosteres longicaudatus in 2.7% of larvae (Borge and Basedow, 1997). For further information, see Ohashi et al. (1997).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. can fly as far as 135 km (Fletcher, 1989) and therefore natural movement is an important means of spread.

In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is the transport of fruits containing live larvae. For the EPPO region, the most important fruits liable to carry A. obliqua are mango (Mangifera indica), and to a lesser extent Citrus spp. and guava (Psidium guajava). A. obliqua has been intercepted in France on mangoes from Mexico. The various tropical fruit hosts that may be locally important in America are infrequently traded to Europe. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo. Yes
Land vehiclesAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
MailFruit in post. Yes
Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

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Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (EPPO/CABI, 1996). A. obliqua is recorded from Citrus spp., but they are not important hosts (Enkerlin et al., 1989). It mainly attacks mangoes (Mangifera indica) and other Anacardiaceae (Whervin, 1974).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Detection and Inspection

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No male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia and it is likely that traps already set for Rhagoletis cerasi in the cherry-growing areas of the EPPO region may attract Anastrepha spp. if they should ever occur in those areas. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. (Drew, 1982) and possible baits are ammonium acetate (Hedstrom and Jimenez, 1988), casein hydrolysate (Sharp, 1987) and torula yeast (Hedstrom and Jiron, 1985). The number of traps required per unit area is high; in a release and recapture test, Calkins et al. (1984) placed 18 traps per 0.4 ha and only recovered about 13% of the released flies.

Some studies have shown that egg morphology can be used to separate closely related species found in host fruits (Murillo and Jiron, 1994). The larvae of some species may also be differentiated using cuticular hydrocarbons (Sutton and Carlson, 1993). Neither method has yet been generalized for application outside of very specific circumstances.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The adults of A. obliqua are difficult to separate from those of various other species of the fraterculus group, such as the A. fraterculus complex, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha turpiniae and Anastrepha suspensa. The females can be distinguished by the dimensions and shape of the aculeus, particularly its tip, which is two-thirds to three-fourths serrate. The adults lack the dark-brown spot on the scutoscutellar suture and lateral dark-brown mark on the subscutellum that are usually present in the above species.

The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications. The third-instar larvae are very similar to those of A. suspensa and the A. fraterculus complex, and these species usually cannot be distinguished (Steck et al., 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them, and by the selection of suitable varieties (Jiron, 1996). Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989). Practical details are given by Bateman (1982). Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies. The use of natural plant substances, such as a leaf infusion of Piper auritum combined with gathering fallen fruit resulted in local eradication (Perales-Segovia et al., 1996).

Many baits have been evaluated including those based on yeasts (Fragenas et al., 1996), borated hydrolysed protein and yeast (Jiron and Soto-Manitiu, 1989), human urine (Hedstrom, 1988) and molasses (Hedstrom and Jiron, 1985). The longevity of some baits were compared by Malo (1992).

Phytosanitary Measures

Consignments of fruits of Citrus spp., mango [Mangifera indica] and guava [Psidium guajava] from countries where A. obliqua occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation. Those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. For example, EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) that such fruits should come from an area where A. obliqua does not occur or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months prior to harvest. Fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment (for example, 13, 15 or 17 days at 0.5, 1 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (for example, keeping at 43°C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or by hot water immersion (Nascimento et al., 1992; Thomas and Mangan, 1995) or forced hot air quarantine treatment (Mangan and Ingle, 1992).

Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity.

Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where A. obliqua occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Importation of such plants may be prohibited.

References

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Aguiar-Menezes EL; Menezes EB, 2001. Seasonal parasitism and population fluctuation of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Anastrepha fruit fly parasitoids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Seropedica, RJ, Brazil. (Parasitismo sazonal e flutuação populacional de Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitóides de espécies de Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), em Seropédica, RJ.) Neotropical Entomology, 30(4):613-623.

Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 2nd edn. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128.

Berg GH, 1979. Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria. San Salvador El Salvador, 36 pp.

Bomfim DA do; Uchôa-Fernandes MA; Bragança MAL, 2007. [English title not available]. (Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea) em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do estado do Tocantins, Brasil.) Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 51:217-223.

Borge MNR; Basedow T, 1997. A survey on the occurrence and flight periods of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a fruit growing area in southwest Nicaragua, 1994/95. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(4):405-412; 26 ref.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2011. Anastrepha obliqua. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 90 (2nd revision).

Calkins CO; Schroeder WJ; Chambers DL, 1984. Probability of detecting Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations with McPhail traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(1):198-201.

Caraballo de Valdivieso J, 1981. Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. MS thesis. Maracay, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela.

Castañeda Mdel R; Osorio F A; Canal NA; Galeano PÉ, 2010. Species, distribution and hosts of the genus Anastrepha Schiner in the Department of Tolima, Colombia. (Especies, distribución y hospederos del género Anastrepha Schiner en el Departamento del Tolima, Colombia.) Agronomía Colombiana, 28(2):265-271. http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/agc/v28n2/v28n2a16.pdf

Christenson LD; Foote RH, 1960. Biology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 5:171-192.

CIE, 1988. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 90 (revised). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Couturier G; Tanchiva E; Gonzales J; Cardenas R; Inga H, 1996. Observations preliminaires sur les insectes nuisibles a l'araza (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, Myrtaceae), nouvelle culture fruitiere an Amazonie. Fruits Paris, 51:229-239.

Drew RAI, 1982. Fruit fly collecting. In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA, eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, 2nd edition. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 129-139.

Enkerlin D; Garcia RL; Lopez MF, 1989. Pest status; Mexico, Central and South America, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 3(3A):83-90. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

EPPO, 1983. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 6. EPPO Bulletin, 13(1). unnumbered.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fletcher BS, 1989. Ecology; movements of tephritid fruit flies. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 209-219.

Foote RH; Blanc FL; Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock.

Fragenas NN; Gonzalez E; T Hernandez Jde la; Casares R; Lander E, 1996. Elaboracion y evaluacion de atrayentes para la mosca del mango Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Boletin de Entomologia Venezolana, 11:19-25.

Government of Saint Lucia, 2012. Dengue Fever Alert - Fight the Aedes aegypti Mosquito!. http://www.stlucia.gov.lc/agencies/health/alerts/dengue_fever_alert_-_fight_the_ades_aegypti_mosquito!.htm

Greene CT, 1934. A revision of the genus Anastrepha based on a study of the wings and on the length of the ovipositor sheath (Diptera: Trypetidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 36:127-179.

Hedstrom I, 1988. Use of a natural substance in the capture of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical, 36(2A):269-272

Hedstrom I; Jimenez J, 1988. Field evaluation of attractants in the capture of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera, Tephritidae), pests of fruit trees in tropical America. II. Ammonium acetate and torula with sodium borate. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 32(2):319-322.

Hedström I, 1993. Population dynamics and host relationships of Neotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in seasonal and non-seasonal environments. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(4):400-410; 53 ref.

Hedström I; Jirón LF, 1985. Field evaluation of attractants in the trapping of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera, Tephritidae), pests of fruit trees in tropical America. I. Molasses and torula yeast. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 29(3/4):515-520.

Hernandez-Ortiz V, 1992. El género Anastrepha en México. Taxonomfa, distribución y sus plantas huéspedes. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologfa.

Jir=n LF, 1996. Management guidelines for Anastrepha obliqua associated with mango in Central America. Fruits (Paris), 51(1):25-30; 23 ref.

Jirón LF; Soto-Manitiu J, 1989. Field evaluation of attractant substances on the catch of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae), pest of fruit in tropical America. III. Borated hydrolysed protein and borated torula yeast. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 33(2):353-356

Jirón LF; Soto-Manitiu J; Norrbom AL, 1988. A preliminary list of the fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist, 71(2):130-137

Kisliuk M; Cooley DE, 1933. Fruit-fly survey in the West Indies, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, and Peru. Department of Agriculture, Plant Quarantine Service Regulatory Announcements, 227-243.

Korytkowski CA, 2001. [English title not available]. (Situación actual del género Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el Perú) Revista Peruana de Entomología, 42:97-158.

Lima AM da Costa, 1934. Moscas de frutas do genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Trypetidae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 28:487-575.

Macquart JPM, 1835. [English title not available]. (Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Dipteres. Tome deuxieme. Ouvrage accompagne de planches. Collection accompagnee de planches) In: Nouvelles suites a Buffon, formant, avec les oeuvres de cet auteur, un cours complet d'histoire naturelle [ed. by Roret NE] Paris, France.

Malavasi A Zucchi RA, 2000. Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Riberão Preto, Brazil: Holos, 327 pp.

Malo EA, 1992. Effect of bait decomposition time on capture of Anastrepha fruit flies. Florida Entomologist, 75(2):272-274

Mangan RL; Ingle SJ, 1992. Forced hot-air quarantine treatment for mangoes infested with West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1859-1864

Mangan RL; Ingle SJ, 1994. Forced hot-air quarantine treatment for grapefruit infested with Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(6):1574-1579

McAlister Jr LC; 1936, April. Observations on the West Indian Fruit Fly at Key West in 1932-33. Journal of Economic Entomology, 29(2):440-445 pp.

Molineros J; Tigrero JO; Sandoval D, 1992. Diagnostico de la situacion actual del problema de las moscas de la fruta en el Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Direccion de Investigaciones, 53 pp.

Murillo T; Jiron LF, 1994. Egg morphology of Anastrepha obliqua and some comparative aspects with eggs of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 77(3):342-348

Nascimento AS; Malavasi A; Morgante JA; Duarte ALA, 1992. Hot-water immersion treatment for mangoes infested with Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(2):456-460

Norrbom AL, 2004. Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species Database. http://www.barc.usda.gov:591/diptera/Tephritidae/TephName/search

Norrbom AL, 2004. Host plant database for Anastrepha and Toxotrypana (Diptera: Tephritidae: Toxotrypanini). Diptera Data Dissemination Disk (CD-ROM) 2.

Norrbom AL; Foote RH, 1989. Taxonomy and zoogeography; the taxonomy and zoogeography of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit flies; Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 3(A). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 15-26.

Norrbom AL; Kim KC, 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Hyattsville, MD, USA: US Dept. Agric., Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Núñez Bueno L, 1981. [English title not available]. (Contribucion al reconocimiento de las moscas de las frutas (Diptera: Tephriridae [sic]) en Colombia.) Revista do Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Bogotá, 16:173-179.

Ohashi OS; Dohara R; Zucchi RA; Canal DNA, 1997. Occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Malpighia punicifolia L. in Para state. Anais da Sociedade Entomolo^acute~gica do Brasil, 26(2):389-390; 6 ref.

Perales-Segovia C; Bravo-Mojica H; Leyva-Vazquez JL; Martinez-Garza A, 1996. Sustancias vegetales para el control de moscas de la fruta. Agrociencia, 30:411-415.

Roessler Y, 1989. Control; insecticides; insecticidal bait and cover sprays. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies. Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 329-336.

Schiner IR, 1868. [English title not available]. (1. Abtheilung) In: Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair Vienna, Austria: Karl Gerold's Sohn, vi + 388 pp.

Seín; Jr F, 1933. Anastrepha (Trypetydae [sic], Diptera) fruit flies in Puerto Rico. Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Puerto Rico, 17:183-196.

Sharp JL, 1987. Laboratory and field experiments to improve enzymatic casein hydrolysate as an arrestant and attractant for Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 70(2):225-233.

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M, 1997. Ceratitis capitata. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 146-152.

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M, 1997. Ceratitis capitata. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 146-152.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Steck GJ, 2001. Concerning the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 84(2):320-321.

Steck GJ; Carroll LE; Celedonio-Hurtado H; Guillen-Aguilar J, 1990. Methods for identification of Anastrepha larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae), and key to 13 species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 92(2):333-346

STONE A, 1942. The Fruitflies of the Genus Anastrepha. Miscellaneous Publications. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C., 112 pp.

Sutton BD; Carlson DA, 1993. Interspecific variation in tephritid fruit fly larvae surface hydrocarbons. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 23(2):53-65

Thomas DB; Mangan RL, 1995. Morbidity of the pupal stage of the Mexican and West Indian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) induced by hot-water immersion in the larval stage. Florida Entomologist, 78(2):235-246

USDA, 1994. Treatment manual. Frederick, USA: USDA/APHIS.

Whervin LWvan, 1974. Some fruitflies (Tephritidae) in Jamaica. PANS, 20(1):11-19.

White IM; Elson-Harris MM, 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 601 pp.

White IM; Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Their Identification and Bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

White IM; Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Reprint with addendum.

Woodley NE; Hilburn DJ, 1994. The Diptera of Bermuda. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 28(2):64 pp.

Links to Websites

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Featured Creatureshttp://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/

Contributors

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27/02/2008 Updated by:

Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

Distribution Maps

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