Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Vallisneria spiralis



Vallisneria spiralis (eelweed)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Vallisneria spiralis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eelweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • V. spiralis is considered to be native to southern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, and southwest Asia. Over the last century, the species has spread into central, northern and northwestern Europe, parti...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Vallisneria spiralis Linnaeus, 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • eelweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Vallisneria jacquini Savi
  • Vallisneria jacquiniana Sprengel
  • Vallisneria micheliana Sprengel
  • Vallisneria michelii Savi
  • Vallisneria pusilla Barbieri ex Bertoloni

International Common Names

  • English: channel grass; coiled vallisneria; eel grass; eelgrass; eelweed; tape grass; tapegrass; tapeweed
  • French: vallisnerie en spirale
  • Portuguese: saca-rolhas

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gemeine Wasserschraube
  • Italy: alga di chiana
  • Netherlands: wierblad

EPPO code

  • VAISP (Vallisneria spiralis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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V. spiralis is considered to be native to southern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, and southwest Asia. Over the last century, the species has spread into central, northern and northwestern Europe, particularly into artificially heated water bodies (Hussner and Lösch, 2005; Hutorowicz, 2006; Hutorowicz and Hutorowicz, 2008; Katsman and Kuchkina, 2009). There are also geographically disjunct introductions to the United Kingdom, North America, the West Indies and New Zealand. The use of the species as an aquarium plant, together with its ability to spread vegetatively, is considered to have facilitated its spread and invasiveness.

The reported occurrence of V. spiralis in British Columbia, Canada (Warrington, 1994) is now considered to be incorrect and V. americana to be the species present(Government of British Columbia, 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Hydrocharitales
  •                         Family: Hydrocharitaceae
  •                             Genus: Vallisneria
  •                                 Species: Vallisneria spiralis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Vallisneria spiralis is the type species of the genus Vallisneria, described by Linnaeus (1753) from its native habitat in southern Europe (Lowden, 1982). Worldwide, twelve species have been recognized recently by molecular techniques and a further 2-3 by morphological differences that were invariant at the molecular level (Les et al., 2008).

Although two varieties of V. spiralis were recognized by Lowden (1982), Vallisneria spiralis var. spiralis and Vallisneria spiralis var. denseserrulata Makino, molecular study supports the separation of these taxa as distinct species: V. spiralis and Vallisneria denseserrulata (Les et al., 2008).
The name V. spiralis has a history of being applied indiscriminately to similar rosette plants from Asia, Australia, Europe and North America (Jacobs, 2010). Recent studies indicate a more restricted native distribution but, particularly in south-west Asia and northern Africa, more detailed studies seem necessary to resolve species distributions. Australian records of V. spiralis var. denserrulata (Lowden, 1982) and Vallisneria spiralis var. procera(Rodway, 1896) have since been determined to be Vallisneria nana (Jacobs and Frank, 1997) and Vallisneria australis (Les et al., 2008), respectively.
Although genetic analysis has not been carried out on V. plants in New Zealand, morphological study has resolved there to be two naturalized species in that country: V. spiralis and V. australis (P Champion, NIWA, New Zealand, personal communication, 2010). However, Pacific Island records of V. spiralis, in the Hawaiian Islands (Staples et al., 2003) and New Caledonia (MacKee, 1994) warrant further investigation and confirmation given the comment by Jacobs and Frank (1997) that “V. spiralis is a temperate / warm temperate species in its narrowest interpretation”. In Australia, the tropical species are V. nana, Vallisneria triptera, Vallisneria annua and Vallisneriaerecta, replaced by V. australis in temperate areas (Jacobs and Frank, 1997; Les et al., 2008). Contrary to this, plants of V. spiralis from Lake Edward in equatorial Africa do align genetically with plants from southern Europe (Les et al., 2008).


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Freshwater plants with fibrous roots, short stem, horizontal runners, and submerged, linear, strap or tape shaped leaves up to 10 mm wide and 100 cm or more long arranged in a basal rosette; leaves with three to five parallel nerves, entire to finely toothed margins. Plants dioecious; inflorescence axillary. Staminate plants with numerous, minute imperfect flowers enclosed by a dehiscing two-valved, reflexed spathe, flowers with three sepals, one minute petal rudiment, one staminodium and two stamens; scapes thin, 1.0-1.3 mm wide, 10–30 mm long, flowers slightly zygomorphic, with obliquely extended stamens, hairs absent at base of androecium, staminodia adnate near the apex of the fused stigmatic lobes, with lobes shallowly cleft and conspicuously fringed. Pistillate plants with inflorescence subtended by a bivalve spathe; scapes long, extended to spirally coiled; flowers solitary, slightly zygomorphic, with three sepals 2.0–3.5 mm long, three minute transparent petal rudiments, three staminodia and three bifid stigmas borne on short, or highly reduced styles; staminodia small, inconspicuous, adnate to fused discordant stigmatic lobes; stigmas fringed; floral incision deepest between matching stigmatic lobes. Ovary inferior, unilocular; fruit elongate, approx. 9.5–10.0 cm long, ellipsoid, indehiscent; placentation parietal; seeds numerous, ellipsoid, striate, 1.3–2.0 mm long; endosperm absent (Lowden, 1982).

Descriptions and figures: Lowden (1982: 285, fig. 3a-j).


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Widespread in tropical and subtropical areas of both hemispheres. Native to southern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East and southwest Asia, but now spread to the north and northwest in France, Belgium, Netherlands, southern Britain, Poland and Russia. Introduced to North America, West Indies, New Zealand, New Caledonia and the Hawaiian Islands (but note comments under taxonomy regarding Pacific Island records).

Although commonly reported from India (e.g. Jana and Choudhuri, 1979; Rai et al., 1995), Lowden (1982) assigned most specimens he studied from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, along with those from South-East Asia, to V. spiralis var. denseserrulata. As var. denseserrulata is now considered a separate species (Les et al., 2008), clarification is needed on the identity and distribution of V. species though Asia.
In New Zealand, V. australis is present in Lake Pupuke and nearby, where it was first recorded in 1896 (Cheeseman, 1896). Only male plants are known, and this population has been variously recorded as V. spiralis, V. gigantea (e.g. de Winton et al., 2009), and V. americana (P Champion, NIWA, New Zealand, personal communication, 2010). Specimens cited as V. gigantea from the Avon River in the Canterbury region and at South Kaipara Head near Auckland (Healy and Edgar, 1980) are now considered to be misidentifications (de Winton et al., 2009).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeRai et al., 1995? V. denseserrulata
-West BengalPresentJana and Choudhuri, 1979? V. denseserrulata
IraqPresentNativeLowden, 1982Baghdad
Sri LankaPresent


Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeLes et al., 2008Lake Edward
EgyptPresentNativeAli et al., 1999River Nile
UgandaPresentLes et al., 2008Lake Edward

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiLocalisedIntroduced2001Staples et al., 2003O'ahu
-TexasPresentIntroduced<2008Les et al., 2008

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroducedLowden, 1982Provence Ciudad de la Habana (cultivated)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedLowden, 1982Lucea (cultivated)


AustriaPresentIntroducedLes et al., 2008
BelgiumPresentIntroducedMichel, 1951; Castagne, 1956
DenmarkPresentIntroducedJørgensen, 1927; Winge, 1927
FrancePresentCorillion, 1955; Lowden, 1982
GermanyPresentIntroducedHegi, 1965; Ant, 1966; Ant, 1970; Hussner and Lösch, 2005; Les et al., 2008
HungaryPresentNativeLowden, 1982Budapest, Thermas, Romanas
ItalyPresentNativeLowden, 1982Pisano, Pisa, Gardone Riviera
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedOostroom and Reichgelt, 1962
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive Gabka, 2002; Hutorowicz and Hutorowicz, 2008
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Katsman and Kuchkina, 2009
UKPresentIntroducedHarris and Lording, 1973; Preston and Croft, 1997


New CaledoniaLocalisedIntroducedMacKee, 1994
New ZealandLocalisedIntroduced1978Winton et al., 2009

History of Introduction and Spread

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Les et al. (2008) report what they consider to be the first authentic record of V. spiralis in North America, with the material collected in Texas. Previous reports of the species in North America are considered to be misidentifications of V. americana. Lowden (1982) did not find evidence of the species in the Americas, but reported “minor” introductions into Jamaica and Cuba.

In New Zealand, V. spiralis is reported to have been present on the North Island in Lake Wiritoa in the Manawatu-Wanganui region, since 1978, and Meola Creek in the Auckland region since 1982 (de Winton et al., 2009). From 2001 to 2008, the species was documented from 82 sites in the Wellington region, mostly in garden pools. Since 2000 it has also been reported from the Northland region and the Opawa River at Blenheim in the Marlborough region on the South Island (de Winton et al., 2009; P Champion, NIWA, New Zealand, personal communication, 2010).
The species is also reported from the Hawaiian Islands (Staples et al., 2003) and New Caledonia (MacKee, 1994). In the Hawaiian Islands V. spiralis was found during freshwater stream survey projects to be locally naturalized and abundant on O’ahu, where it formed dense underwater mats that are the dominant vegetation in areas where found (Staples et al., 2003). As previously mentioned, these Pacific Island records warrant confirmation in the light of recent taxonomic study of V. spiralis.

Risk of Introduction

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Willby (2007) comments that, with respect to climate change, aquatic plants that are not at present invasive in the United Kingdom, including V. spiralis, may become so if climate change relaxes the barriers to growth. Similar comments are made by Hussner and Lösch (2005), who suggest that the species could become naturalized through Western and Central Europe if average temperatures rise by only one or two degrees.


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Static or flowing freshwater habitats, including lakes, ponds, water courses, and wetlands.

In the River Nile, in a study to assess the impact of river vessel traffic on aquatic vegetation, V. spiralis was found to be tolerant of high wave disturbance (Ali et al., 1999). As an exotic in the River Erft, V. spiralis was found in stagnant, slow and fast running (up to 0.8 m/s) water to depths of 1 m, and on muddy, sandy or gravelly sediment (Hussner and Lösch, 2005). The species preferred clear water, with growth retarded in turbid water. In New Zealand in depths of less than 9 m (Auckland Regional Council, 2010a).

Habitat List

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Irrigation channels Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat
Reservoirs Principal habitat
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Vallisneria is one of several genera in the Hydrocharitaceae in which staminate flowers detach completely from a spathe at the base of submerged male plants (Les et al., 2008). The flowers rise to the surface and open to form free-floating, raft-like structures which are dispersed by wind and currents. In this genus, as in two other genera in the family (Maidenia, Nechamandra), the pollen remains dry within elevated anthers and the anthers also remain dry within the perianth of the pistillate flower (Les et al., 2008). The pistillate flowers, attached to submerged plants by long, flexuous peduncles, orient their opening at the water surface and pollination occurs when anthers of the floating staminate flowers contact the stigmas of the pistillate flowers. After fertilization the peduncle coils into a spiral, thus drawing the developing fruit underwater where it matures (Les et al., 2008).
V. spiralis spreads asexually by means of runners (Hutorowicz and Hutorowicz, 2008).
Physiology and Phenology
An experimental study into the photosynthetic, photorespiratory and respiratory behaviour of three aquatic angiosperms, including V. spiralis, found that under constant conditions of light, temperature and initial gaseous composition there was considerable variation in the rates of dark and light respiration, as well as photosynthesis (Jana and Choudhuri, 1979). All three species were assumed to be basically C3 plants, since all showed photorespiration. Both photosynthesis and respiration rates generally declined with leaf age, with a possible increase in the rate of respiration with the approach of senescence.
Only female plants are known in New Zealand (P Champion, NIWA, New Zealand, personal communication, 2010).
In the River Erft, V. spiralis mostly grew in association with the native Sparganium emersum (Hussner and Lösch, 2005). V. spiralis dominates depths to 1.0 m, with S. emersum in the deeper more turbid waters. Where the species are not in competition, both occupy a broader niche.
Environmental Requirements
Known to tolerate low salinity and, in New Zealand, grows fastest in water temperatures of 25°C (Auckland Regional Council, 2010a).


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BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) Optimum <9 m
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum Tolerates low salinity
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 Optimum In New Zealand

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Local dispersal can be by both seed and runners. Waterfowl, flooding or human disturbance in flowing water can cause small fragments to break from the parent plant and form new colonies (Greater Wellington Regional Council, 2004 in ISSG, 2010).
Accidental Introduction
V. spiralis, along with Egeria densa and Myriophyllum aquaticum, are considered most likely to have been introduced to the River Erft in Germany as aquarium waste (Hussner and Lösch, 2005).
Intentional Introduction
In New Zealand, spread to new water bodies is considered to be a result of intentional planting (Auckland Regional Council, 2010a).

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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V. spiralis can impede water flow in irrigation canals and storage dams, affect drainage, choke hydro turbines, and impact on navigational, recreational and agricultural use of water bodies.

Impact: Biodiversity

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V. spiralis can form dense beds which displace other species of submerged hydrophytes (MAF Biosecurity New Zealand, 2010). In Polish lakes, this is attributed to its clonal mode of propagation and its maximum growth in autumn when native species are dormant (Hutorowicz, 2006; Hutorowicz and Hutorowicz, 2008). In other areas, such as in the River Erft in Germany, a dynamic arrangement of native and exotic species has resulted in a high a-diversity of primary producers which is considered to possibly have a positive influence on community composition (Hussner and Lösch, 2005).

Leaves of V. spiralis can provide substrate for epiphytic algae and associated fauna of rotifers and protists (Hutorowicz and Hutorowicz, 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control


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Environmental Services

Rooted submerged plant species are considered to have value for phytoremediation because of their soil binding roots, rhizomes and stolons which help facilitate colonization by benthic algae, other microbes and invertebrates (Vajpayee et al., 2001). V. has been found to reduce chromium, cadmium and copper levels in water under laboratory conditions (Sinha et al., 1994; Vajpayee et al., 2001). From the studies showing V. to effectively remove chromium from tannery effluent, the plant was proposed as suitable for the construction of wetlands for the amelioration of chromium containing waste water, with the proviso that methods for safe disposal of contaminated plants would be necessary (Vajpayee et al., 2001). However, in a study on the potential of aquatic plants to remove heavy metals from wastewater, V. spiralis was the least effective of the plants tested (Rai et al., 1995).
Experiments have also demonstrated the potential utility of V. spiralis for photoremediation of pulp and paper mill and distillery effluents (Singhal et al., 2003). Plants were effective in reducing COD, colour and sodium content of effluents.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Lowden (1982) used floral characters to separate rosulate V. species, and recognized only two: V. spiralis and V. americana. V. spiralis was delimited on the basis of stamens having free filaments not subtended by hairs and stigma lobes fringed and deeply divided. V. americana possessed fused filaments, androecial hairs, and unfringed, shallowly lobed stigmas. Lowden further subdivided V. spiralis into two varieties: var. spiralis, in which the minute staminodia originated near the apex of the fused stigma lobes, and var. denseserrulata, in which the minute staminodia nearer the base of the stigmalobes. The taxonomic system proposed by Lowden (1982) has since been considered problematic because it did not include vittate species and because of variability in the floral features he utilized (Les et al., 2008). Studies using morphological and molecular data support the retention of V. denseserrulata as a species.

V. denseserrulata differs to V. spiralis in having acute, rather than obtuse or rounded apices on mature leaves, longer peduncles (> 100 cm), and flattened, not ovoid, fruit cross sections (Les et al., 2008). V. spinulosa has similar differences to V. spiralis as V. denseserrulata, but additionally has fruit that are winged and triangular in cross-section.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


SPS measures
In New Zealand, V. spiralis is listed as a “surveillance pest plant”, and the pest strategy is to prevent their establishment or spread by prohibiting their sale, propagation, distribution and exhibition (Auckland Regional Council, 2010b). Entry to New Zealand is prohibited under national biosecurity regulations.
In New Zealand, the species is considered virtually impossible to eliminate once established, but small infestations can be controlled by divers hand-pulling plants (Auckland Regional Council, 2010a). Interference with established beds can make the problem worse by spreading viable vegetative fragments.
Physical/mechanical control
Small infestations can be removed by divers hand pulling plants (Auckland Regional Council, 2010a).
Biological control
Some generalist herbivorous fish, such as grass carp, have been proposed as biocontrol agents to reduce the biomass of aquatic pest plants in an area (Froude, 2002). However, Froude adds that browsing is not species specific, and both favoured and undesirable plants will be consumed.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Genetic studies across the genus V. have demonstrated that the name V. spiralis has been applied to a number of morphologically similar species (Les et al., 2008). Outside of it now recognized native range in southern Europe, such as in New Zealand, New Caledonia and the Hawaiian Islands, molecular confirmation of species identity is needed.


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Ali MM; Murphy KJ; Langendorff J, 1999. Interrelationships of river ship traffic with aquatic plants in the river Nile, upper Egypt. Hydrobiologia, 415:93-100.

Ant H, 1966. [English title not available]. (Vallisneria spiralis (Hydrocharitaceae) in der Lippe.) Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 61:537-539.

Ant H, 1970. [English title not available]. (Zur Ausbreitung der Sumpfschraube, Vallisneria spiralis (Hydrocharitaceae), im Norden ihres Areals.) Decheniana, 122:195-197.

Auckland Regional Council, 2010. Auckland regional pest strategy 2007-2012. Auckland regional pest strategy 2007-2012. unpaginated.

Auckland Regional Council, 2010. Pest plant: eel grass - Meola creek variety. Vallisneria spiralis. Pest plant: eel grass - Meola creek variety. Vallisneria spiralis. unpaginated.

Castagne E, 1956. [English title not available]. (Le Vallisneria spiralis L. en Belgique.) Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 88:33.

Cheeseman TF, 1896. Notice of establishment of Vallisneria spiralis in lake Takapuna, together with some remarks on its life-history. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 29:386-390.

Corillion R, 1955. [English title not available]. (Nouveaux progress du Vallisneria spiralis L. dans le Nord-Ouest de la France.) Bulletin de la Société Scientifique de Bretagne, 30:62-64.

Froude VA, 2002. Biological control options for invasive weeds of New Zealand protected areas. Science for Conservation, No. 199. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation, 68 pp.

Gabka M, 2002. [English title not available]. (Vallisneria spiralis (Hydrocharitaceae) - nowy gatunek we florze Polski.) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonika, 9:67-73.

Government of British Columbia, 2009. Identification keys to the aquatic plants of British Columbia. Environment Protection Division, Ministry of Environment, Government of British Columbia, unpaginated.

Harris S; Lording TA, 1973. Distribution of Vallisneria spiralis L. in the river Lea Navigation channel (Essex-Hertfordshire border). Watsonia, 9:253-256.

Healy AJ; Edgar E, 1980. Flora of New Zealand. Volume III. Wellington, New Zealand: P.D. Hasselberg, Government Printer., 220 pp.

Hegi G, 1965. Illustierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. Volume 1. München: Lehmann, unpaginated.

Hussner A; Lösch R, 2005. Alien aquatic plants in a thermally abnormal river and their assembly to neophyte-dominated macrophyte stands. Limnologica, 35:18-30.

Hutorowicz A, 2006. Vallisneria spiralis L. (Hydrocharitaceae) in lakes in the vicinity of Konin (Kujawy Lakeland). Biodiversity: Research and Conservation, 1-2:154-158.

Hutorowicz A; Hutorowicz J, 2008. Seasonal development of Vallisneria spiralis L. in a heated lake. Ecological Questions, 9:79-86.

ISSG, 2010. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Jacobs S, 2010. Evolution of Vallisneria. Evolution of Vallisneria. unpaginated.

Jacobs SWL; Frank KA, 1997. Notes on Vallisneria (Hydrocharitaceae) in Australia, with descriptions of two new species. Telopea, 7(2):111-118.

Jana S; Choudhuri MA, 1979. Photosynthetic, photorespiratory and respiratory behaviour of three submersed aquatic angiosperms. Aquatic Botany, 7(1):13-19.

Jørgensen CA, 1927. Chromosomes and sex in Vallisneria. Journal of Genetics, 18:63-75.

Katsman EA; Kuchkina MA, 2009. Invasion of Vallisneria spiralis L. into the Desnogorskoe waterbody. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 2009(2):9-13.

Les DH; Jacobs SWL; Tippery NP; Chen L; Moody ML; Wilstermann-Hildebrand M, 2008. Systematics of Vallisneria (Hydrocharitaceae). Systematic Botany, 33:49-65.

Linnaeus C, 1753. Species Plantarum. Volume II. Stockholm, Sweden: Impensis Laurentii Salvii, unpaginated.

Lowden RM, 1982. An approach to the taxonomy of Vallisneria L. (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Botany, 13:269-298.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

MAF Biosecurity New Zealand, 2010. Eelgrass: Vallisneria spiralis. Eelgrass: Vallisneria spiralis. unpaginated.

Michel E, 1951. [English title not available]. (Vallisneria spiralis L.) Les Naturalistes Belges, 32:145-149.

Oostroom SJvan; Reichgelt TJ, 1962. [English title not available]. (Een Nederlandse vondst van Vallisneria spiralis L.) Gorteria, 1(6):61-62.

Preston CD; Croft JM, 1997. Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland. Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland., 365 pp.

Rai UN; Sinha S; Tripathi RD; Chandra P, 1995. Wastewater treatability potential of some aquatic macrophytes: removal of heavy metals. Ecological Engineering, 5:5-12.

Rodway L, 1896. Botanical notes. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 1895:51-54.

Singhal V; Kumar A; Rai JPN, 2003. Phytoremediation of pulp and paper mill and distillery effluents by channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis). Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 62(4):319-328.

Sinha S; Gupta M; Chandra P, 1994. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of Cu and Cd. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 33:75-84.

Staples GW; Imada CT; Herbst DR, 2003. New Hawaiian plant records for 2001. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 74:7-21.

Vajpayee P; Rai UN; Ali MB; Tripathi RD; Yadav V; Sinha S; Singh SN, 2001. Chromium-induced physiologic changes in Vallisneria spiralis L. and its role in phytoremediation of tannery effluent. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67(2):246-256.

Warrington PD, 1994. Identification keys to the aquatic plants of British Columbia. Identification keys to the aquatic plants of British Columbia. Resource Information Standards Committee, Government of British Columbia, unpaginated. [Ric Report 029. .]

Willby NJ, 2007. Managing invasive aquatic plants: problems and prospects. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17:659-665.

Winge O, 1927. Chromosome behaviour in male and female individuals of Vallisneria spiralis and Najas marina. Journal of Genetics, 18:99-107.

Winton MDde; Champion PD; Clayton JS; Wells RDS, 2009. Spread and status of seven submerged pest plants in New Zealand lakes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 43(2):547-561.

Links to Websites

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Auckland Regional Council, New Zealand
Biosecurity New Zealand
Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Compendium of Weeds
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


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18/03/10 Original text by:

John Lewis, ES Link Services Pty Ltd Queensberry Place, North Melbourne, Vic. 3051, Australia

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