Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Vitis vinifera
(grapevine)

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Datasheet

Vitis vinifera (grapevine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Vitis vinifera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grapevine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); tip of a growing shoot of a cultivar.  Note the twice-forked tendrils, which are typically opposite two adjacent leaves, but not opposite each third leaf.
TitleGrowing shoot
CaptionVitis vinifera (grapevine); tip of a growing shoot of a cultivar. Note the twice-forked tendrils, which are typically opposite two adjacent leaves, but not opposite each third leaf.
Copyright©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); tip of a growing shoot of a cultivar.  Note the twice-forked tendrils, which are typically opposite two adjacent leaves, but not opposite each third leaf.
Growing shootVitis vinifera (grapevine); tip of a growing shoot of a cultivar. Note the twice-forked tendrils, which are typically opposite two adjacent leaves, but not opposite each third leaf.©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); mature leaf, with margins irregularly indented and deep basal sinus. The blade is generally 3-5 lobed, but in some cultivars is entire.
TitleLeaf
CaptionVitis vinifera (grapevine); mature leaf, with margins irregularly indented and deep basal sinus. The blade is generally 3-5 lobed, but in some cultivars is entire.
Copyright©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); mature leaf, with margins irregularly indented and deep basal sinus. The blade is generally 3-5 lobed, but in some cultivars is entire.
LeafVitis vinifera (grapevine); mature leaf, with margins irregularly indented and deep basal sinus. The blade is generally 3-5 lobed, but in some cultivars is entire. ©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); a black wine grape. Clusters are present on the basal part of the cane which originated in the spring from a winter bud of a 1- year-old cane. The leaves have been removed to expose the eyes (dormant or compound winter buds), and the lateral shoot behind the cluster formed in the same spring from a lateral bud.
TitleFruit
CaptionVitis vinifera (grapevine); a black wine grape. Clusters are present on the basal part of the cane which originated in the spring from a winter bud of a 1- year-old cane. The leaves have been removed to expose the eyes (dormant or compound winter buds), and the lateral shoot behind the cluster formed in the same spring from a lateral bud.
Copyright©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); a black wine grape. Clusters are present on the basal part of the cane which originated in the spring from a winter bud of a 1- year-old cane. The leaves have been removed to expose the eyes (dormant or compound winter buds), and the lateral shoot behind the cluster formed in the same spring from a lateral bud.
FruitVitis vinifera (grapevine); a black wine grape. Clusters are present on the basal part of the cane which originated in the spring from a winter bud of a 1- year-old cane. The leaves have been removed to expose the eyes (dormant or compound winter buds), and the lateral shoot behind the cluster formed in the same spring from a lateral bud.©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); a white wine grape during ripening. The green colour fades (in black grapes anthocyanins are rapidly accumulating in the skin), berry texture softens, sugars accumulate and the acidity decreases.
TitleFruit
CaptionVitis vinifera (grapevine); a white wine grape during ripening. The green colour fades (in black grapes anthocyanins are rapidly accumulating in the skin), berry texture softens, sugars accumulate and the acidity decreases.
Copyright©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); a white wine grape during ripening. The green colour fades (in black grapes anthocyanins are rapidly accumulating in the skin), berry texture softens, sugars accumulate and the acidity decreases.
FruitVitis vinifera (grapevine); a white wine grape during ripening. The green colour fades (in black grapes anthocyanins are rapidly accumulating in the skin), berry texture softens, sugars accumulate and the acidity decreases.©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); compact clusters of a white wine grape. The bunch is opposite the winter bud complex. The main axis of the cluster is known as the rachis. The region of the rachis extending from the cane to its first branch is called the peduncle or stem.
TitleFruit
CaptionVitis vinifera (grapevine); compact clusters of a white wine grape. The bunch is opposite the winter bud complex. The main axis of the cluster is known as the rachis. The region of the rachis extending from the cane to its first branch is called the peduncle or stem.
Copyright©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin
Vitis vinifera (grapevine); compact clusters of a white wine grape. The bunch is opposite the winter bud complex. The main axis of the cluster is known as the rachis. The region of the rachis extending from the cane to its first branch is called the peduncle or stem.
FruitVitis vinifera (grapevine); compact clusters of a white wine grape. The bunch is opposite the winter bud complex. The main axis of the cluster is known as the rachis. The region of the rachis extending from the cane to its first branch is called the peduncle or stem.©Anna Schneider/CNR, Turin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Vitis vinifera L.

Preferred Common Name

  • grapevine

International Common Names

  • English: grape; grape vine; wine grape
  • Spanish: uva; vid; viña
  • French: vigne
  • Portuguese: videira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weinrebe
  • Italy: vite
  • Netherlands: wijndruif; wijnstock

EPPO code

  • VITVI (Vitis vinifera)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rhamnales
  •                         Family: Vitaceae
  •                             Genus: Vitis
  •                                 Species: Vitis vinifera

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Acanthacris ruficornis; Adoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle); Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth); Amaranthus graecizans (prostrate pigweed); Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed); Ampelophaga rubiginosa; Anacridium rubrispinum (red-spined tree locust); Antispila oinophylla; Aphis illinoisensis; Arabis mosaic virus (hop bare-bine); Arboridia adanae; Arboridia kakogowana; Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Autographa gamma (silver-Y moth); Botryosphaeria stevensii (Botryosphaeria disease, grapevine); Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); Botryotinia pseudofuckeliana (grapevine grey mould); Botrytis pseudocinerea; Brevipalpus chilensis (Chilean false red mite); Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); Broad bean wilt virus (lamium mild mosaic); Bromus tectorum (downy brome); Calepitrimerus vitis (grape leaf rust mite); Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense; Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma); Ceresa alta (buffalo treehopper); Ceroplastes sinensis (Chinese wax scale); Chenopodium album (fat hen); Clematis vitalba (old man's beard); Cnephasia longana (omnivorous leaf-tier); Colomerus vitis (grape erineum mite (USA)); Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew); Commelina diffusa (spreading dayflower); Coniella diplodiella (grapevine white rot); Coniella petrakii; Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane); Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane); Criconemella (ring nematode); Criconemella xenoplax (ring nematode); Cylindrocarpon olidum var. crassum; Cylindrocladiella parva; Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass); Dactylonectria pauciseptata; Datura stramonium (jimsonweed); Deilephila elpenor (large elephant hawkmoth); Drepanothrips reuteri (grape, thrips); Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila); Eleusine indica (goose grass); Elsinoë ampelina (grape anthracnose); Emex australis (Doublegee); Empoasca vitis (smaller green leafhopper); Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth); Eragrostis cilianensis (stink grass); Erysiphe necator (grapevine powdery mildew); Euphorbia helioscopia (sun spurge); Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); Eupoecilia ambiguella (grapevine moth); Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail moth); Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Eutypa lata (Eutypa dieback); Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug); Filago gallica (narrowleaf cottonrose); Fomitiporia mediterranea (esca disease); Forficula auricularia (European earwig); Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips); Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus; Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (chrome mosaic of grapevine); Grapevine deformation virus; Grapevine fanleaf virus (grapevine court-noué virus); Grapevine flavescence doree phytoplasma (flavescence dorée of grapevine); Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (leafroll disease); Grapevine Pinot gris virus; Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (Grapevine red blotch disease); Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus; Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus; Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus; Grapevine Syrah virus-1; Grapevine vein necrosis virus (vein necrosis of grapevine); Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1; Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas; Graphocephala atropunctata (blue-green sharpshooter); Guignardia bidwellii (black rot); Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); Harrisina metallica (western grapeleaf skeletonizer); Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode); Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope); Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); Heteronychus arator (African black beetle); Hippotion celerio (taro hawkmoth); Holocacista rivillei; Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy winged sharpshooter); Hoplolaimus seinhorsti (lance nematode); Lepidium draba (hoary cress); Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth); Lolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass); Longidorus (longidorids); Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug); Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover); Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Nattrassia mangiferae (branch wilt of apple); Naupactus xanthographus (South American fruit tree weevil); Neofusicoccum mediterraneam; Orgyia postica (cocoa tussock moth); Otiorhynchus sulcatus (vine weevil); Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); Parasaissetia nigra (pomegranate scale); Paratrichodorus porosus; Parthenolecanium corni (European fruit lecanium); Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); Paspalum distichum (knotgrass); Peach rosette mosaic virus (rosette mosaic of peach); Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (Petri disease); Phaeoacremonium hispanicum; Phaeoacremonium italicum; Phaeoacremonium tuscanicum; Phaeoacremonium viticola; Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Petri disease); Phakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus); Phalaenoides glycinae (vine moth); Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper); Phlyctinus callosus (vine calandra); Phomopsis viticola (Phomopsis cane and leaf spot); Phyllocnistis vitegenella; Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (cotton root rot); Phytophthora cryptogea (tomato foot rot); Planococcus ficus (grape mealybug); Plasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew); Platynota stultana (omnivorous leaf roller); Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed); Polygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria); Polyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite); Pratylenchus pratensis; Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode); Proeulia auraria (Chilean fruit tree leaf folder); Proeulia chrysopteris; Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); Pseudopezicula tracheiphila (red fire disease of grapevine); Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish); Raspberry ringspot virus (ringspot of raspberry); Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus (grapevine thrips); Rhizobium radiobacter (crown gall); Rhizobium rhizogenes (gall); Rhizobium vitis (crown gall of grapevine); Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot); Rotylenchus vitis; Rumex (Dock); Saissetia coffeae (hemispherical scale); Scaphoideus titanus; Scirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips); Senecio inaequidens (South African ragwort); Senecio vulgaris; Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail); Setaria viridis (green foxtail); Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard); Solanum nigrum (black nightshade); Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass); Sparganothis pilleriana; Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); Strawberry latent ringspot virus (latent ring spot of strawberry); Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger); Tetranychus kanzawai (kanzawa spider mite); Tetranychus pacificus (Pacific spider mite); Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite); Theba pisana (white garden snail); Theresimima ampellophaga (European grapeleaf skeletonizer); Theresimima ampelophaga (grapevine smoky, moth (Israel)); Theretra clotho; Theretra oldenlandiae (impatiens hawkmoth); Thrips hawaiiensis (Hawaiian flower thrips); Tomato black ring virus (ring spot of beet); Tomato ringspot virus (ringspot of tomato); Tomato spotted wilt virus (tomato spotted wilt); Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes); Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode); Urtica urens (annual nettle); Vicia villosa (hairy vetch); Viteus vitifoliae (grapevine phylloxera); Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (leafspot, canker); Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); Xiphinema (dagger nematode); Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode); Xiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode); Xiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode); Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode); Xyleborus dispar (pear blight beetle); Xylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines); Xylophilus ampelinus (canker of grapevine); Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle); Zygotylenchus guevarai

Minor host of:

Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); Albonectria rigidiuscula (green point gall); Aleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly); Alfalfa mosaic virus (alfalfa yellow spot); Ameroseius pavidus; Ametastegia; Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel); Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly); Anystis baccarum (whirligig mite); Aonidiella aurantii (red scale); Aonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale); Apate monachus (black borer); Aphis fabae (black bean aphid); Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid); Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); Armillaria luteobubalina (armillaria root rot); Artichoke Italian latent virus; Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion); Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); Aspidiotus nerii (Oleander scale); Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly); Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Botryosphaeria obtusa (black rot of apple); Botryosphaeria parva; Brevipalpus californicus (citrus flat mite); Campylocarpon fasciculare; Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Carnation ringspot virus; Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); Ceratitis rosa (Natal fruit fly); Ceroplastes rusci (fig wax scale); Chaetocnema confinis (flea beetle); Chenopodium polyspermum (Manyseeded goosefoot); Cherry leaf roll virus (walnut ringspot); Chinavia hilaris (green stink bug); Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale); Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle); Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle); Citrus exocortis viroid (citrus exocortis); clover phyllody phytoplasma (phyllody of clover); Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); Colletotrichum capsici (leaf spot of peppers); Colletotrichum nymphaeae; Conogethes punctiferalis (castor capsule borer); Conotrachelus nenuphar (plum curculio); Cornu aspersum (common garden snail); Costelytra zealandica (grass grub); Cucumber mosaic virus (cucumber mosaic); Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder); Cylindrocladiella lageniformis; Cylindrocladium peruvianum; Diabrotica speciosa (cucurbit beetle); Diaporthe helianthi (stem canker of sunflower); Diplodia corticola; Dociostaurus maroccanus (Moroccan locust); Endoclita signifer; Epicoccum nigrum (red blotch of grains); Eudocima fullonia (fruit-piercing moth); Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale); Euseius scutalis; Fumaria officinalis (common fumitory); Galium aparine (cleavers); Gibberella zeae (headblight of maize); Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot); Gonocephalum simplex (dusty brown beetle); Grapevine asteroid mosaic-associated virus; Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (European mole cricket); Haematonectria haematococca (dry rot of potato); Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode); Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode); Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm); Helopeltis antonii (tea bug); Hemicriconemoides mangiferae; Hemicycliophora arenaria (sheath nematode); Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow); Holocacista capensis; Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid); Hoplolaimus pararobustus (lance nematode); Hyphantria cunea (mulberry moth); Icerya seychellarum (Seychelles scale); Lasiodiplodia crassispora; Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa); Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax); Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass); Longidorus elongatus (needle nematode); Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth); Meloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode); Meloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode); Monilinia fructigena (brown rot); Murgantia histrionica (harlequin bug); Neofusicoccum australe; Neofusicoccum macroclavatum; Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme; Neonectria macrodidyma; Nicandra physalodes (apple of Peru); Noctua pronuba (common yellow underwing moth); Oligonychus coffeae (tea red spider mite); Oligonychus fileno; Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus (rough strawberry root weevil); Panonychus citri (citrus red mite); Panonychus ulmi (European red spider mite); Pantoea agglomerans (bacterial grapevine blight); Papaver rhoeas (common poppy); Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower); Pemphigus saliciradicis; Penicillium expansum (blue mould of stored apple); Penicillium viridicatum; Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass); Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth); Phaeoacremonium fraxinopennsylvanicum; Phaeoacremonium scolyti; Phenacoccus solani; Phomopsis cotoneastri; Phyllophaga (white grubs); Phytoplasma mali (apple proliferation); Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale); Plagionotus arcuatus; Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); Potato virus X (potato interveinal mosaic); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Pratylenchus thornei; Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato (USA)); Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (raspberry symptomless decline); Rastrococcus iceryoides (mango mealy bug); Richardia brasiliensis (white-eye (Australia)); Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode); Rumex crispus (curled dock); Scirtothrips aurantii (South African citrus thrips); Scutellonema brachyurus; Scutellonema clathricaudatum; Selenaspidus articulatus (West Indian red scale); Setaria faberi (giant foxtail); Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade); Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle); Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle); Sowbane mosaic virus; Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion); Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite); Thrips imaginis (plague thrips); Thrips tabaci (onion thrips); Tobacco necrosis virus (augusta disease of tulip); Tobacco ringspot virus; Trichodorus viruliferus (stubby root nematode); Truncatella angustata; Urophorus humeralis (pineapple sap beetle); Veronica persica (creeping speedwell); Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); Xylotrechus chinensis (tiger longicorn beetle)

Associated with (not a host):

Aureobasidium pullulans (blue stain of wood); Bacillus subtilis; Colaspis caligula; Cylindrocarpon liriodendri; Diaporthe ambigua (canker: pear); Diplodia africana; Diplodia olivarum; Longidorus carniolensis; Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); Metaseiulus occidentalis (western predatory mite); Orthotydeus californicus; Orthotydeus kochi; Phaeoacremonium alvesii; Phaeoacremonium iranianum; Phaeoacremonium parasiticum; Phaeoacremonium sicilianum; Phomopsis theicola; Phytonemus pallidus (strawberry mite); Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato); Schizophyllum commune (wood rot); Scirtothrips citri (California citrus thrips); Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani); Trichothecium roseum (fruit rot of tomato); Tylenchorhynchus mediterraneus; Zaprionus indianus

Host of (source - data mining):

Acoloithus falsarius; Agriotes lineatus (wireworm); Aleurodothrips fasciapennis; Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Altica ampelophaga (leaf beetle, Mediterranien grape); Amphicerus bicaudatus (apple twig borer); Amphicerus bimaculatus; Amyelois transitella (navel orange worm); Anomala cuprea (oriental beetle); Anomala dubia; Argyrotaenia ljungiana; Asymmetrasca decedens; Cadra figulilella (raisin moth); Cerosterna scabrator; Coniocybe pallida; Cotinis nitida (june beetle, green); Ctenopseustis obliquana; Diaporthe medusaea; Dikrella cockerellii; Drosophila simulans; Edwardsiana rosae (rose leafhopper); Empoasca decipiens (leafhopper, cotton); Empoasca solani; Eotetranychus carpini (mite, yellow); Eotetranychus carpini vitis; Eotetranychus pruni; Eotetranychus willamettei (willamette mite); Erythroneura comes (grape leafhopper); Erythroneura elegantula (leafhopper, grape); Erythroneura variabilis (leafhopper, grape); Erythroneura ziczac (virginiacreeper leafhopper); Fidia viticida (grape rootworm); Frankliniella cestrum; Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Fusarium proliferatum; Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower); Gibberella sacchari (pineapple eye rot); Glyptoscelis squamulata (beetle, grape bud); Grapevine fleck virus (fleck of grapevine); Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot of grapevine); Grovesinia pyramidalis (zonate leaf spot of Indian jujube); Harrisina americana (grape leaf, skeletonizer); Hyalesthes obsoletus; Hyles livornica; Hypothenemus eruditus; Hypurus bertrandi (weevil, portulaca leafmining); Jacobiasca lybica (cotton jassid); Kalotermes flavicollis (termite, yellownecked dry-wood); Limothrips cerealium (corn, thrips); Lygus spinolae (plant bug, pale green); Macrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid); Margarodes prieskaensis (ground pearls); Margarodes vredendalensis (ground pearls); Melittia cucurbitae (squash vine borer); Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode); Metcalfa pruinosa (frosted moth-bug); Mucor circinelloides (post-harvest rot); Neonectria radicicola (black root of strawberry); Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); Noctua fimbriata; Nysius niger (false chinch bug); Oides scutellata; Orientus ishidae (mosaic leafhopper); Otiorhynchus ligustici (alfalfa snout beetle); Paranthrene asilipennis; Paranthrene regalis (grape clearwing, moth); Paranthrene simulans; Penicillium notatum (storage rot of cereals); Penicillium viticola; Peribatodes rhomboidaria (willow beauty); Perissopneumon ferox; Pestalotiopsis mangiferae (brown spot: mango); Phialophora parasitica (wilt: date palm); Phyllactinia guttata (powdery mildew of hardwood trees); Phyllocoptes vitis (acarinosis of vine); Planococcus minor (passionvine mealybug); Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom); Polychrosis viteana (grape berry, moth); Pseudococcus maritimus (grape mealybug); Pseudomonas syringae (bacterial blast); Pulvinaria vitis (cottony maple, scale); Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle); Rattus rattus (black rat); Retithrips syriacus (black vine thrips); Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Schistocerca nitens (gray bird grasshopper); Scirtothrips mangiferae (mango thrips); Sinoxylon perforans; Sphaeraspis vitis (ground pearls); Stelidota geminata; Stereum hirsutum (wood decay); Targionia vitis; Tenuipalpus granati; Tetranychus mcdanieli (mcDaniel spider mite); Theretra japonica; Trametes versicolor (wood decay); Vitacea polistiformis (grape root, borer); Xiphinema italiae; Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus (grape borer); Zeuzera coffeae (coffee carpenter); Zygina nivea; Zygina rhamni