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Datasheet

Anastrepha grandis
(South American cucurbit fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha grandis (South American cucurbit fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha grandis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • South American cucurbit fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. grandis is a pest of various cultivated species of Cucurbitaceae, especially pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.), squash (Cucurbita spp.) and melon [Cucumis melo]. It occurs in the Andean countries,...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anastrepha grandis; larvae in pumpkin.
TitleLarvae
CaptionAnastrepha grandis; larvae in pumpkin.
CopyrightMedfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; larvae in pumpkin.
LarvaeAnastrepha grandis; larvae in pumpkin.Medfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; larva and damaged pumpkin.
TitleLarva
CaptionAnastrepha grandis; larva and damaged pumpkin.
CopyrightMedfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; larva and damaged pumpkin.
LarvaAnastrepha grandis; larva and damaged pumpkin.Medfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; larvae and pupae.
TitleLarvae and pupae
CaptionAnastrepha grandis; larvae and pupae.
CopyrightMedfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; larvae and pupae.
Larvae and pupaeAnastrepha grandis; larvae and pupae.Medfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; female fly on pumpkin.
TitleFemale
CaptionAnastrepha grandis; female fly on pumpkin.
CopyrightMedfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; female fly on pumpkin.
FemaleAnastrepha grandis; female fly on pumpkin.Medfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; female fly.
TitleFemale
CaptionAnastrepha grandis; female fly.
CopyrightMedfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; female fly.
FemaleAnastrepha grandis; female fly.Medfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis, adult female
TitleAdult female
CaptionAnastrepha grandis, adult female
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha grandis, adult female
Adult femaleAnastrepha grandis, adult femaleUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha grandis: dorsal habitus, female
TitleFemale
CaptionAnastrepha grandis: dorsal habitus, female
CopyrightTaina Litwak/Allen L. Norrbom
Anastrepha grandis: dorsal habitus, female
FemaleAnastrepha grandis: dorsal habitus, femaleTaina Litwak/Allen L. Norrbom
Anastrepha grandis; male fly.
TitleMale
CaptionAnastrepha grandis; male fly.
CopyrightMedfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis; male fly.
MaleAnastrepha grandis; male fly.Medfly Facility, Brazil
Anastrepha grandis, wing markings and venation; female, right wing.
TitleWing
CaptionAnastrepha grandis, wing markings and venation; female, right wing.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha grandis, wing markings and venation; female, right wing.
WingAnastrepha grandis, wing markings and venation; female, right wing.USDA-ARS
Anastrepha grandis: female right wing structure.
TitleWing
CaptionAnastrepha grandis: female right wing structure.
CopyrightG.J. Steck/Allen L. Norrbom
Anastrepha grandis: female right wing structure.
WingAnastrepha grandis: female right wing structure.G.J. Steck/Allen L. Norrbom
Anastrepha grandis, eversible membrane dorsobasal scales and aculeus tip, vental and lateral views.
TitleGenitalia
CaptionAnastrepha grandis, eversible membrane dorsobasal scales and aculeus tip, vental and lateral views.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha grandis, eversible membrane dorsobasal scales and aculeus tip, vental and lateral views.
GenitaliaAnastrepha grandis, eversible membrane dorsobasal scales and aculeus tip, vental and lateral views.USDA-ARS
Aculeus tip, ventral (a) and lateral (b) views.
TitleAculeus
CaptionAculeus tip, ventral (a) and lateral (b) views.
CopyrightYungas von Coroico/Allen L. Norrbom
Aculeus tip, ventral (a) and lateral (b) views.
AculeusAculeus tip, ventral (a) and lateral (b) views.Yungas von Coroico/Allen L. Norrbom

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha grandis (Macquart)

Preferred Common Name

  • South American cucurbit fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrotoxa grandis (Macquart)
  • Anastrepha latifasciata Hering 1935
  • Anastrepha schineri Hendel 1914a, b
  • Tephritis grandis Macquart, 1846
  • Trypeta grandis (Macquart)

International Common Names

  • English: South American fruit fly
  • Spanish: mosca de la fruta
  • French: mouche des fruits sud-américaine
  • Portuguese: mosca das cucurbitáceas Sul Americana

EPPO code

  • ANSTGR (Anastrepha grandis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. grandis is a pest of various cultivated species of Cucurbitaceae, especially pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.), squash (Cucurbita spp.) and melon [Cucumis melo]. It occurs in the Andean countries, Paraguay, southern Brazil, and northern Argentina. It has been intercepted at ports in the USA, indicating its potential for spread via infested fruits.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha grandis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page A. grandis was first described by Macquart (1846) as Tephritis grandis. Bezzi (1909) first classified it in the genus Anastrepha. It was subsequently described twice by Hendel (1914a, b) as Anastrepha schineri, and by Hering (1935) as Anastrepha latifasciata. Norrbom (1991) discussed additional nomenclatural details and type data for these names.

Description

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Adults

Norrbom (1991) re-described the adult and illustrated the thoracic dorsum, wing, and male and female terminalia. As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. grandis are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin.

The adults are mostly orange to red-brown. The setae are usually moderate red-brown.

Head: concolorous except dark-brown ocellar tubercle; three to five frontal setae; one to two orbital setae, posterior one often weak when present. Antennae extend 0.60-0.72 to lower facial margin.

Thorax: mesonotum 2.88-4.22 mm long. Scutum entirely microtrichose; mostly orange to red-brown; single distinct yellowish medial stripe from anterior margin to slightly posterior to acrostichal seta, moderately expanded posteriorly, extending laterally beyond acrostichal seta, but not reaching dorsocentral seta; no narrow yellowish stripe in line with dorsocentral seta, but dark-brown, sometimes poorly differentiated stripe slightly lateral to dorsocentral seta; distinct yellowish sublateral stripe from transverse suture to posterior margin, crossing intra-alar seta; scuto-scutellar suture usually with irregular medial dark-brown spot. Subscutellum and mediotergite orange-brown, broadly dark-brown to black laterally. Pleura with typical dark areas weakly differentiated except anepimeron usually with dark-brown spot. Katepisternal seta undifferentiated or weak, yellowish, no longer than postocellar seta.

Wing: length 7.95-10.3 mm. Vein R2+3 almost straight. Vein M moderately curved apically; section between bm-cu and r-m 2.18-2.69 times as long as section between r-m and dm-cu. Pattern faint yellow-brown to orange-brown, its margins often diffuse. Cell r2+3 entirely infuscated. Cell br with large hyaline area apical to bm-cu, extending more than halfway to r-m. Cell dm with large basal hyaline area. Cell bm hyaline. Proximal arm of V-band ending at M or extending anteriorly, often faintly, to R4+5 to fuse with S-band.

Abdomen: tergites unicolorous yellowish to orange.

Male terminalia: lateral surstylus broad basally, tapering apically to short blunt lobe; moderately long, section apical to apex of inner surstylus 0.95-1.33 times as long as basal section; posterior side distinctly concave. Proctiger with distinct lateral fold; sclerotized part narrowly divided into three sections or only weakly connected. Phallus 6.7-7.4 mm long; 1.7-2.33 times as long as mesonotum. Glans 0.55-0.68 mm long, relatively stout; acrophallus strong, stout and distinctly convoluted apically.

Female terminalia: oviscape 4.99-6.28 mm long; 1.4-1.59 times as long as mesonotum. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal scales in broad subtriangular pattern; 14-16 large hook-like scales in broadest row; largest scales 0.3 mm long. Aculeus 5.27-6.18 mm long, often as long as or longer than oviscape; tip 0.58-0.66 mm long, 0.16-0.18 mm wide, non-serrate, sides slightly convex, ventral surface with V-shaped ridge sub-basally, dorsal surface with V-shaped ridge at mid-length. Spermathecae ovoid to elongate ovoid.

Immature Stages

The key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive system of Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for the identification of A. grandis larvae. Steck and Wharton (1988) described and illustrated the egg, second- and third-instars and puparium in considerable detail. The following abbreviated descriptions include only the most important diagnostic characters.

Egg: the eggs are white, 2.06-2.25 mm long, and approximately 0.2 mm wide. Elongate ovoid and slightly curved, posterior end strongly, but gradually tapered from midpoint. Anterior (micropyle) end slightly nipple-shaped. Surface finely stippled at 400x magnification; no reticulation apparent.

Third-instar: the third-instar larvae are cream, 6.6-17.0 mm long and 1.6-2.7 mm wide. Elongate cylindrical, tapering anteriorly.

Head with 8-13 oral ridges. Mandible without secondary tooth. Anterior spiracle with 28-37 tubules. Thoracic and abdominal segment with spinules extending dorsally as follows: T1 six to eight rows, T2 with five to seven rows, T3 with four to six rows, A1 with two to five rows, A2 and A3 with one to three rows (in A2 and A3 not always traversing dorsum). Posterior spiracle with openings 3.0-5.3 times as long as wide; spiracular hairs with numerous processes, longer than width of spiracular openings. Anal lobes bifid, prominently protruding.

Puparium: the puparia are golden-brown, 8.0-9.1 mm long and 3.2-3.7 mm wide.

Distribution

Top of page A. grandis is present in Western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina and southern Brazil. There is one questionable record from Panama (Stone, 1942) based on an intercepted specimen. In the Andean countries, A. grandis appears restricted to lower elevations of the Andean cordillera and bordering areas. It has not been detected in the lowland coastal melon-growing region of Ecuador (Harper, 1987). In Venezuela, A. grandis is known from the states of Aragua, Carabobo, Barinas and Zulia (Caraballo, 1981), and in Brazil it has been reported from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Norrbom, 1991; Malavasi and Zucchi, 2000). It has not been reported from the Guianas, eastern Venezuela, Amazonia or northeastern Brazil. In the latter country it has been collected only as far north as Bahia (Bondar, 1950), Goiás, and Mato Grosso (Zucchi, 1978) and has not been detected in the north despite extensive surveys (see Malavasi and Zucchi, 2000).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
USAAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

PanamaRestricted distributionStone, 1942a; Norrbom, 1991; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaLocalisedNative Not invasive Stone, 1942a; Blanchard, 1961; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014Present only in the north (Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Misiones, Salta)
BoliviaPresentNative Not invasive Hendel, 1914b; Stone, 1942a; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Stone, 1942a; Malavasi and Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014Occurs north to Bahia, Goiás and Mato Grosso
-BahiaPresentNative Not invasive Bondar, 1950; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; Uchoa and Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; Uchoa and Zucchi, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentNative Not invasive Zucchi, 1978; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; Aguiar-Menezes and Menezes, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; Kovaleski et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative Not invasive Hering, 1935; Zucchi, 1978; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentNative Not invasive Bezzi, 1919a; Fischer, 1934; Zucchi, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaLocalisedNative Not invasive Stone, 1942a; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorLocalisedNative Not invasive Norrbom, 1991; Tigrero, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayPresentNative Not invasive Bezzi, 1919a; Stone, 1942a; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PeruLocalisedNative Not invasive Korytkowski and Ojeda, 1969; Norrbom, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Korytkowski, 2001; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaLocalisedNative Not invasive Stone, 1942b; Boscán et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014Present in Aragua, Carabobo, Barinas and Zulia

Risk of Introduction

Top of page A. grandis is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (Autumn 2000).

Habitat

Top of page Little is known of the habitat preferences of A. grandis. In several countries in which it occurs, it has not been collected in certain dry, melon [Cucumis melo]-producing areas, such as western Ecuador and northeastern Brazil (Harper, 1987; Malavasi and Zucchi, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. grandis has been reported to attack the fruits of various native and introduced species of Cucurbitaceae (see Norrbom, 2000 for a full list of host records). The primary hosts appear to be species of Cucurbita, including Cucurbitamoschata (pumpkin), Cucurbitamaxima (giant pumpkin) and Cucurbitapepo (ornamental gourd). In addition, A. grandis has been reported to attack melon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus), and calabash gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Fischer (1934) reported an incidental rearing from guava (Psidium guajava). Records from Citrus and Passiflora alata are doubtful.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

Symptoms

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The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit and tunnel through it to exit for pupation. The larval feeding often causes premature fruit drop from the plant and usually rotting of the damaged tissues.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / premature drop

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Nascimento et al. (1988) and Silva and Malavasi (1993b, 1996) studied various biological parameters of this species involving oviposition, mating and duration of life stages. The females lay eggs in clutches of up to 110, and, as in many other species of Anastrepha, after laying eggs in a fruit, the female marks its surface with a pheromone that deters oviposition by other females. There are three larval instars, all of which feed inside the fruit. When mature, the third instars tunnel out of the fruit to pupariate in the soil. Silva and Malavasi (1996) found the development time to be 3-7 days for the egg, 13-28 days (mean 17.7 days) for the larvae (three instars), and 14-23 days (mean 19.7 days) for the puparium. Silva and Malavasi (1993a) found that larvae developing in melons [Cucumis melo] had a higher mortality rate than those in pumpkins [Cucurbita moschata].

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
10 30

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural dispersal, as far as is known, is almost entirely by the adults. Their flight range has not been determined, but other species of Anastrepha are known to be able to disperse many kilometres.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of page A. grandis is a pest of the fruits of various native and introduced species of Cucurbitaceae in many areas of South America (Norrbom, 2000). It is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ, and has received considerable attention in regard to the extent to which it attacks melons [Cucumis melo], grown commercially in a number of South American countries (Harper, 1987; Silva and Malavasi, 1993a). Several species of Cucurbita, including Cucurbitapepo, are more common hosts, and there are also records of A. grandis attacking watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (Lima, 1926, 1934; Gonçalves, 1938; Bondar, 1950), and calabash gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) (Caraballo, 1981).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The adults of this species differ from all other species of Anastrepha by the narrow, dark brown dorsocentral vittae on the scutum and from most by its very large size. The female is further distinguished by the unusually long ovipositor and stiletto-like shape of the aculeus tip, which has two V-shaped ridges, one dorsally and one ventrally. A. grandis also differs from most other species of Anastrepha in having rather diffuse markings with a complete S-band that is broadly fused to the C-band along the costa, so that there is no hyaline area in cell r1 distal to the apex of vein R1. It differs from the other species with this type of wing pattern except Anastrephashannoni in having cell r2+3 entirely infuscated, and from A. shannoni in having a hyaline area in cell br, the abdomen without red-brown lateral areas, and in terminalia length (Norrbom, 1991). The third-stage larva differs from those of all other species of Anastrepha described to date by the number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, 28-37 in A. grandis, no more than 23 in the other species (Steck and Wharton, 1988; Steck et al., 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Little has been published on control methods for this species. Malavasi et al. (1990) discussed trapping methods and attractants.

References

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Aguiar-Menezes EL; Menezes EB, 2000. Moscas-das-frutas nos estados brasileiros. Rio de Janeiro. In: Malavasi A, Zucchi RA, eds. Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado. Riber¦o Preto, Brazil: Holos, 259-263.

Anon., 2000. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/Diptera/tephriti/Anastrep/grandis.htm.

Bezzi M, 1909. Le specie dei generi Ceratitis, Anastrepha e Dacus. Bol. R. Scuola Super. d'Agr., Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Portici, 3:273-313.

Bezzi M, 1919a. Una nuova specie brasiliana del genere Anastrepha (Dipt.). Bol. R. Scuola Super. d'Agr., Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Portici, 13:3-14.

Bezzi M, 1919b. Descoberta de uma nova mosca das fructas no Brazil. Chacaras e Quintaes, 373-374.

Blanchard EE, 1937. Dipteros argentinos nuevos o poco conocidos. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argentina, 9:35-58.

Blanchard EE, 1961. Especies argentinas de género Anastrepha Schiner (sens. lat.) (Diptera, Trypetidae). Revista de Investigaciones Agricolas (Buenos Aires), 15:281-342.

Bondar G, 1950. Moscas de frutas na Bahia. Bol. do Campo, 34:13-15.

Boscán de Martfnez N; Dedordy JR; Requena JR, 1980. Estado actual de la distribucion geografica y hospederas de Anastrepha spp. (Diptera - Trypetidae) en Venezuela. Agron. Trop., 30:55-63.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Anastrepha grandis. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 617. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caraballo de Valdivieso J, 1981. Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. MS thesis. Maracay, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela.

Carroll LE; Norrbom AL; Dallwitz MJ; Thompson FC, 2004. Pest fruit flies of the world - larvae. http://delta-intkey

Castañeda Mdel R; Osorio F A; Canal NA; Galeano PÉ, 2010. Species, distribution and hosts of the genus Anastrepha Schiner in the Department of Tolima, Colombia. (Especies, distribución y hospederos del género Anastrepha Schiner en el Departamento del Tolima, Colombia.) Agronomía Colombiana, 28(2):265-271. http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/agc/v28n2/v28n2a16.pdf

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernandez Yepez F, 1953. Contribucion al estudio de las moscas de las frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Trypetidae) de Venezuela. II Congreso de Ciencias Naturales y Afines (Caracas) Cuaderno no. 7, 1-42.

Fischer CR, 1932. Nota taxonomica e biologica sobre Anastrepha grandis Macq. (Dipt., Trypetidae). Rev. Entomol. (S¦o Paulo), 2:302-310.

Fischer CR, 1934. Variat¦o das cerdas frontaes e outras motas sobre duas especies de Anastrepha Dipt. Trypetidae). Rev. Entomol. (S¦o Paulo), 4:18-22.

Garcia FRM; Corseuil E, 1998. Análise faunfstica de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) em pomares de pessegueiro em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Rev. Bras. Zool., 15:1111-1117.

Gontalves CR, 1938. As moscas de fruitas e seu combate. Experiencias e estudos realisados em 1936. Publ. Min. Agric., Dep. Nac. Prod. Veg., Serv. Def. Sanit. Veg. (Rio J.) No. 12, 1-43.

Greene CT, 1934. A revision of the genus Anastrepha based on a study of the wings and on the length of the ovipositor sheath (Diptera: Trypetidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 36:127-179.

Harper JD, 1987. Final report to ASOFRUT on the Anastrepha grandis project on honey dew in western Ecuador. Unpublished.

Hendel F, 1914a. Analytische Ubersicht über die Anastrepha-Arten (Dipt.). Wien Entomol. Z., 33:66-70.

Hendel F, 1914b. Die Bohrfliegen Südamerikas. K. Zool. Anthrop.-Ethnogr. Mus. Abhandl. Ber. (1912), 14:1-84.

Hering EM, 1935. Neue südamerikanische Bohrfliegen aus dem Stettiner Museum. (9. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Trypetidae.) (Dipt.). Stettin. Entomol. Ztg., 96:225-229.

Korytkowski C; Ojeda Pe±a D, 1968. Especies del genero Anastrepha Schiner 1868 en el nor-oeste peruano. Rev. Peru. Entomol., 11:32-70.

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26/02/2008 Updated by:

Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

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