Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Anastrepha fraterculus
(South American fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anastrepha fraterculus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • South American fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. fraterculus has a broad host range, particularly in the family Myrtaceae, but it is also a pest of citrus and apples [Malus domestica] in some areas. It is the most important pest species of Anastrepha in subtropical areas...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anastrepha fraterculus, wing markings and venation.
TitleWing
CaptionAnastrepha fraterculus, wing markings and venation.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, wing markings and venation.
WingAnastrepha fraterculus, wing markings and venation.USDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
TitleGenitalia
CaptionAnastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
GenitaliaAnastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.USDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
TitleGenitalia.
CaptionAnastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
Genitalia.Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.USDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
TitleGenitalia.
CaptionAnastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.
Genitalia.Anastrepha fraterculus, genitalia.USDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, adult female.
TitleAdult
CaptionAnastrepha fraterculus, adult female.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Anastrepha fraterculus, adult female.
AdultAnastrepha fraterculus, adult female.USDA-ARS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

Preferred Common Name

  • South American fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrotoxa fraterculus (Wiedemann)
  • Anastrepha braziliensis Greene
  • Anastrepha costarukmanii Capoor
  • Anastrepha fraterculus var. soluta Bezzi
  • Anastrepha lambayecae Korytkowski & Ojeda
  • Anastrepha peruviana Townsend
  • Anastrepha pseudofraterculus Capoor
  • Anastrepha scholae Capoor
  • Anthomyia frutalis Weyenburgh
  • Dacus fraterculus Wiedemann
  • Tephritis mellea Walker
  • Trypeta fraterculus (Wiedemann)
  • Trypeta unicolor Loew

International Common Names

  • English: fruit fly, South American
  • Spanish: mosca de la ciruela; mosca de la fruta suramericana; mosca sudamericana de la fruta
  • French: mouche des fruits sud-américaine
  • Portuguese: mosca das frutas sul-americana

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfliege, Suedamerikanische

EPPO code

  • ANSTFR (Anastrepha fraterculus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. fraterculus has a broad host range, particularly in the family Myrtaceae, but it is also a pest of citrus and apples [Malus domestica] in some areas. It is the most important pest species of Anastrepha in subtropical areas of South America, thus it and Anastrepha ludens may be more of a threat of introduction to other subtropical areas of the world than other species of Anastrepha. It is invasive in the Galapagos Islands. As it is probably a complex of cryptic species whose ranges and delimitation remain unresolved, there is also the threat of introduction of particular cryptic species to other areas within the range of the complex. It is considered an A1 quarantine pest by EPPO.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Anastrepha
  •                                 Species: Anastrepha fraterculus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This is probably a complex of cryptic species, which has not yet been studied in sufficient detail to permit clear delimitation of the individual species. Data of various types, including isozymes, karyotypes, morphometric analysis of morphology, mating incompatability and pest status (e.g. Steck, 1991, 1999; Alberti et al., 2002; Hernández-Ortiz et al., 2004; Selivon et al., 2005; Vera et al., 2006), indicate that certain populations (e.g. Andean and lowland populations in Venezuela; sympatric populations in southern Brazil) are likely to be distinct species, but comprehensive analysis is needed to resolve the status of other populations from throughout the range of the complex.

The oldest name pertaining to the complex is Dacus fraterculus Wiedemann, 1830. The current combination was proposed by Wulp (1899). Numerous names are currently recognized as synonyms of A. fraterculus, but remain available and may become valid if the complex is split into multiple species.

Description

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For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. fraterculus are easily separated from those of other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing margin. Furthermore, most Anastrepha spp. have a very characteristic wing pattern; the apical half of the wing has two inverted 'V'-shaped markings, one fitting within the other; and a stripe along the forward edge of the wing, which runs from near the wing base to about half-way along the wing length.

Identification to species is more difficult. In particular, for positive identification it is essential to dissect the aculeus (the distal, piercing part of the ovipositor that is normally retracted into the oviscape) of a female specimen. A. fraterculus adults are difficult to separate from those of Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha zenildae and Anastrepha turpiniae, and to a lesser extent Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha suspensa, and several other species of the fraterculus group; if necessary, specimens should be referred to a specialist.

The body is predominantly yellow to orange-brown, and the setae are red-brown to dark-brown.

Head: yellow except ocellar tubercle brown. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Frons with three or more frontal setae, two orbital setae. Antenna not extended to ventral facial margin.

Thorax: mostly yellow to orange-brown, with the following areas yellow to white and often contrasting: postpronotal lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended nearly full-length of the scutum, slightly broadened posteriorly, ovoid; sublateral vitta extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; scutellum; propleuron; dorsal margin of anepisternum; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially usually with dark-brown spot. Subscutellum and mediotergite dark-brown laterally. Scutum entirely microtrichose or at most with small presutural, medial bare area.

Wing: vein M strongly curved apically. Vein R2+3 nearly straight. Pattern mostly orange-brown and moderate brown. C-band and S-band usually connected along vein R4+5, but sometimes separated; marginal hyaline spot (or end of band) present in cell r1 at apex of vein R4+5. S-band with middle section between costa and vein Cu1 largely yellow to orange with narrow brown margins, darkening distally; distal section of band relatively narrow, well-separated from apex of vein M. V-band with distal arm usually complete and connected to proximal arm; proximal arm extended to vein R4+5, not connected to S-band.

Abdomen: tergites yellow to orange-brown, without dark-brown markings.

Male terminalia: lateral surstylus moderately long, in posterior view slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically. Phallus 2.7-3.2 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 0.90-1.10. Glans with basolateral membranous lobe, mostly membranous medially, with isolated, T-shaped apical sclerite.

Female terminalia: oviscape straight, 1.40-2.15 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 0.59-0.75. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, hook-like, in triangular pattern. Aculeus length 1.50-1.95 mm; tip 0.20-0.30 mm long, 0.12-0.15 mm wide, gradually tapering, but with slight constriction proximal to serrate part, distal 0.50-0.67 serrate. Three spermathecae ovoid.

Immature Stages

Larva: it is very difficult, and in some cases impossible, to identify larvae of Anastrepha species from morphological characteristics. The key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive key by Carroll et al. (2004) are the best tools for larval identification. Descriptions of A. fraterculus larvae are provided by Weems (1980), Steck et al. (1990) and White and Elson-Harris (1994). White and Elson-Harris (1994) described the third-instar larva as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized; 8.0-9.5 mm long; 1.4-1.8 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ rounded, protuberant, with two to three peg-like sensilla; 7-10 oral ridges; accessory plates small; mandible heavily sclerotised, with a large slender curved apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: anterior margin of T1 with a broad, encircling band of 4-11 discontinuous rows of small, sharply pointed spinules; T2 and T3 with three to seven rows of smaller spinules encircling each segment. Dorsal spinules occasionally on A1-A3, but absent from A4-A8. Creeping welts with 7-12 rows of small spinules. A8 with dorsal and sensilla well-developed; intermediate areas obvious, with large sensilla; ventral sensilla present.

Anterior spiracles: with 14-18 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits about three times as long as broad, with heavily sclerotised, dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hair bundles large; dorsal and ventral bundles of 12-16 long hairs, many branched in apical third; lateral bundles of six to nine hairs similarly branched.

Anal area: lobes large, protuberant, not grooved, grooved, or bilobed; surrounded by two to four discontinuous rows of small, sharp spinules.

Distribution

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A record of A. fraterculus in Texas, USA (Stone, 1942; EPPO, 2014) published in previous versions of the Compendium is unreliable as the original source of the record (Stone, 1942) is old and was published before the fraterculus group and complex was distinguished (Norrbom et al., 1999). A. fraterculus is considered a quarantine pest in the USA and is regulated at ports of entry (PestID, 2016). USDA-APHIS has an ongoing Mexican fruit fly trapping network in southern Texas, which includes traps capable of attracting A. fraterculus, ensuring that it will be detected if it enters the area (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2010, 2015) and triggering response plans, including eradication (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2016). There have been no detections of A. fraterculus in the USA in six years of surveys from 2011 to 2016 (NAPIS, 2017).

See also CABI/EPPO (1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

SloveniaAbsent

North America

BelizePresent, WidespreadNative
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadNative
El SalvadorPresent, WidespreadNative
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadNative
HondurasPresent, WidespreadNative
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNativeLowlands north to Nuevo Leon, absent from northwest
NicaraguaPresent, WidespreadNative
PanamaPresent, WidespreadNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadNative
United StatesPresent, Localized
-TexasPresent, Localized

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedNativeOccurs south to San Luis
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNativeAbsent from Amazonia
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmapaPresent
-BahiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-CearaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-GoiasPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-MaranhaoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParaibaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-PiauiPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeOriginal citation: Malavasi Zucchi (2000)
-SergipePresentNative
-TocantinsPresentNative
ChileAbsent, EradicatedEradicated 1964
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
EcuadorPresent, WidespreadNative and not invasive on the mainland, exotic and invasive on the Galapagos Islands, where it was first recorded in 1979
-Galapagos IslandsPresent
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresent, WidespreadNative
PeruPresent, WidespreadNative
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent, WidespreadNative
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadNative

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Chile No No Enkerlin et al. (1989) Eradicated after establishment
Galapagos Islands <1979 Yes No Foote (1982); Harper et al. (1989) Probably introduced from mainland Ecuador

Risk of Introduction

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EPPO lists A. fraterculus as an A1 quarantine pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1983) within the broad category 'non European Trypetidae'; it is also of quarantine significance to APPPC, CPPC and NAPPO. A. fraterculus, like the other Anastrepha spp., derives from tropical wet forest habitats and therefore represents a high risk to similar areas.

Consignments of fruits of Annona, Citrus, Fortunella, Malus, mango [Mangifera indica], peach [Prunus persica] and guava [Psidium guajava] from countries where A. fraterculus occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. For example, EPPO recommends that such fruits should come from an area where A. fraterculus does not occur, or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. Fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment (e.g. 13, 15 or 17 days at 0.5, 1 or 1.5°C, respectively) or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat (for example, keeping at 43°C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or by hot water immersion (Nascimento et al., 1992). Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Carneiro and Salles (1994) showed that an entomopathogenic fungus (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolate CG 260) could be used to treat larvae entering soil, which then die upon pupariation.

Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where A. fraterculus occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Such plants may be prohibited for importation.

Habitat

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A. fraterculus may be found in fruit-growing areas with suitable hosts and in natural forests.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Pest status varies among populations of the fraterculus complex. The populations in Mexico and Central America are less significant pests (e.g. of guava [Psidium guajava], rose apple [Syzygium jambos] and occasionally peach [Prunus persica] and mango [Mangifera indica], but not citrus or apple [Malus domestica]) than some populations in the Andes, southern Brazil, and Argentina that also attack apples, citrus and a variety of other crops (even blackberries [Rubus fruticosus]). Some populations range into subtropical areas in southern Brazil and Argentina and temperate elevations in the Andes, and are pests in those zones.

The complex as a whole is broadly polyphagous (Norrbom, 2004a), but the preferred hosts are Myrtaceae, particularly the native American guava (P. guajava). Other cultivated mytaceous hosts include other Psidium spp., Campomanesia spp., rose apple, Horn of plenty [Feijoa sellowiana], Surinam cherry [Eugenia uniflora] and other Eugenia spp. Prunus spp., especially peach, and loquat [Eriobotrya japonica] are commonly reported hosts. The most frequent introduced hosts in Mexico are S. jambos and Terminalia catappa [Indian-almond] (Hernandez-Ortiz, 1992). Apple, pear, kumquat [Fortunella spp.], peach, loquat and various Citrus spp. are among the cultivated crops attacked in southern Brazil, although most of the primary hosts are Myrtaceae (Salles, 1995b). Guava, Surinam cherry, grapefruit [Citrus paradisi], cherimoya [Annona cherimola], apricot [Prunus armeniaca], plum [Prunus domestica] and peach are significant hosts in Argentina (Ovruski et al., 2003; Segura et al., 2006).

In common with other polyphagous and difficult to identify species, many host records cannot be substantiated and only records confirmed by Norrbom (2004a) or subsequent reliable sources have been accepted here.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acca sellowianaMyrtaceaeUnknown
Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)ActinidiaceaeOther
    Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
      Alchornea latifoliaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
      Ampelocera hottleiUlmaceaeOther
      Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
      Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeOther
      Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeOther
        Annona rugulosaUnknown
        Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeOther
          Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
          Butia eriospathaArecaceaeOther
          Byrsonima crassifolia (wild cherry)MalpighiaceaeUnknown
          Calycolpus moritzianusUnknown
          CampomanesiaMyrtaceaeUnknown
          Campomanesia adamantiumUnknown
          Campomanesia espiritosantensisMyrtaceaeUnknown
          Campomanesia guazumifoliaUnknown
          Campomanesia lineatifoliaUnknown
          Campomanesia pubescensUnknown
          Campomanesia xanthocarpaMyrtaceaeMain
          Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
          Celtis iguanaeaUnknown
          Chrysophyllum gonocarpumSapotaceaeMain
          CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
          Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
          Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree)RutaceaeOther
          Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
          Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
          Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
          Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeOther
          Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
          Coffea liberica (Liberian coffee tree)RubiaceaeOther
            Crataegus (hawthorns)RosaceaeUnknown
            Cryptocarya aschersonianaLauraceaeUnknown
            Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
            Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeOther
            Diospyros malabaricaEbenaceaeOther
              Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeMain
              EugeniaMyrtaceaeUnknown
              Eugenia brasiliensis (brazil cherry)MyrtaceaeMain
              Eugenia dysentericaMyrtaceaeUnknown
              Eugenia involucrataMain
              Eugenia lambertianaUnknown
              Eugenia myrcianthesUnknown
              Eugenia platyphyllaUnknown
              Eugenia platysemaUnknown
              Eugenia pyriformisMyrtaceaeMain
              Eugenia stipitataMyrtaceaeOther
              Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeMain
              Feijoa sellowiana (Horn of plenty)MyrtaceaeMain
                Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeMain
                  Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                  Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry)RosaceaeOther
                    Garcinia brasiliensisClusiaceaeUnknown
                    Hexachlamys edulisMyrtaceaeUnknown
                    IngaFabaceaeUnknown
                    Inga edulis (ice-cream bean)FabaceaeOther
                    Inga marginataFabaceaeOther
                    Inga michelianaUnknown
                    Inga paternoFabaceaeUnknown
                    Inga sellowianaUnknown
                    Juglans australisJuglandaceaeOther
                    Juglans neotropica (andean walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
                      Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
                        MalpighiaMalpighiaceaeUnknown
                        Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeUnknown
                        Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeUnknown
                        Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeOther
                          Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
                          Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                          Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
                          Mosiera longipesMyrtaceaeUnknown
                          Mouriri acutifloraUnknown
                          Mouriri glaziovianaUnknown
                          Myrcianthes pungensMyrtaceaeUnknown
                          Myrciaria cauliflora (jaboticaba)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                          Myrciaria floribundaMyrtaceaeUnknown
                          Myrciaria glaziovianaUnknown
                          • Araujo et al. (2019)
                          Myrciaria glomerataUnknown
                          Myrciaria strigipesUnknown
                          Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
                            Passiflora alataOther
                              Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower)PassifloraceaeUnknown
                              Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeUnknown
                              • Araujo et al. (2019)
                              Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (banana passionfruit)PassifloraceaeUnknown
                              • Vera et al. (2006)
                              Peritassa campestrisSalaciaUnknown
                              • Araujo and Zucchi (2006)
                              Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                              PicramniaUnknown
                              Plinia caulifloraUnknown
                              Plinia edulisMyrtaceaeUnknown
                              Pouteria caimitoSapotaceaeOther
                              Pouteria gardnerianaSapotaceaeUnknown
                              • Araujo and Zucchi (2006)
                              Pouteria obovataSapotaceaeOther
                                Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
                                Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
                                Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
                                Prunus dulcis (almond)RosaceaeOther
                                Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeUnknown
                                Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                • Araujo and Zucchi (2006)
                                Psidium acutangulumMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                Psidium guineense (Guinea guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                Psidium kennedyanumUnknown
                                Psidium myrtoidesUnknown
                                Psidium sartorianumMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
                                Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
                                Quassia guianensisSimaroubaceaeOther
                                  Rollinia laurifoliaUnknown
                                  Rollinia sericeaAnnonaceaeUnknown
                                  Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Rubus glaucusRosaceaeOther
                                  Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Rubus ulmifoliusRosaceaeUnknown
                                  Sideroxylon capiri subsp. tempisqueUnknown
                                  Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                  Solanum quitoense (naranjilla)SolanaceaeOther
                                    Spondias (purple mombin)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                    Spondias dulcis (otaheite apple)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                    • Araujo et al. (2019)
                                    Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                    Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                    Spondias tuberosaAnacardiaceaeMain
                                      Syagrus romanzoffiana (queen palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                      • Araujo et al. (2019)
                                      Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeMain
                                      Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                                      Syzygium uniflorumUnknown
                                      Talisia olivaeformisSapindaceaeOther
                                        Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
                                        Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                            Ziziphus joazeiroRhamnaceaeMain
                                              Zuelania guidoniaFlacourtiaceaeOther

                                                Growth Stages

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                                                Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

                                                Symptoms

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                                                Attacked fruit can show signs of oviposition punctures, but these, or any other symptoms of damage, are often difficult to detect in the early stages of infestation. Much damage may occur inside the fruit before external symptoms are seen, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting. Very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                Fruit / internal feeding

                                                Biology and Ecology

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                                                A. fraterculus eggs are laid below the skin of the host fruit. Many Anastrepha spp. lay their eggs deeper inside the fruit or in the seeds. The life cycle includes: the egg, three larval stages, pupa and adult. Salles (2000) presented a table showing the length of development at temperatures from 15-30°C. At 25°C the eggs hatch in 2.6-3.2 days and the larvae feed for another 11-14 days (up to 34.5 days at 15°C). Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after 10-15 days (43.2 days at 15°C) and may live up to 161 days in laboratory conditions. Salles (2000) reported that females can produce 278-437 eggs. The adults occur throughout the year (Christenson and Foote, 1960). They have no winter diapause or quiescence in more temperate areas such as southern Brazil (Salles, 1993). Reproductive behaviour in the laboratory and field has been studied by Lima et al. (1994).

                                                Climate

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                                                ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
                                                Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                                Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                                                Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                26 35

                                                Natural enemies

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                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                Aganaspis pelleranoi Parasite
                                                Coptera haywardi Parasite
                                                Doryctobracon areolatus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
                                                Doryctobracon brasiliensis Parasite Larvae
                                                Opius bellus Parasite Larvae
                                                Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Parasite
                                                Trichopria anastrephae Parasite Cruz et al. (2011)
                                                Utetes anastrephae Parasite Larvae

                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                Average parasitism ranged from 0.44 to 29.3% (Aluja et al., 1990). For further information, see Loiacono (1981) and Salles (1996).

                                                Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                There is evidence that adults of Anastrepha spp. can fly up to 135 km (Fletcher, 1989) and therefore natural movement can be an important means of spread.

                                                In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is the transport of fruit containing live larvae. For most regions, the most important fruits liable to carry A. fraterculus are guavas [Psidium guajava] and other Myrtaceae; Citrus, Malus and Prunus are attacked in some areas. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

                                                Pathway Causes

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                                                CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                Crop production Yes Yes

                                                Pathway Vectors

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                                                VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                AircraftImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
                                                Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag. Yes
                                                Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo. Yes
                                                Land vehiclesAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
                                                LuggageImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
                                                MailFruit in post. Yes
                                                Plants or parts of plantsImmatures in fruit Yes Yes
                                                Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

                                                Plant Trade

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                                                Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                Bark
                                                Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                Leaves
                                                Roots
                                                Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                                Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                Wood

                                                Impact Summary

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                                                CategoryImpact
                                                Economic/livelihood Negative

                                                Impact

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                                                Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of introduced Ceratitis capitata (EPPO/CABI, 1996). A. fraterculus is an important pest of guavas [Psidium guajava] (and locally significant Myrtaceae) and mangoes [Mangifera indica], and also to some extent of Citrus and Prunus spp. (Hernandez Ortiz, 1992; White and Elson Harris, 1994). Some populations in South America, particularly in southern Brazil to northern Argentina, and in the Andean countries, are considered more significant pests than those in Mexico and Central America, and these probably represent different cryptic species.

                                                Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                Invasiveness
                                                • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                • Has a broad native range
                                                • Abundant in its native range
                                                • Highly adaptable to different environments
                                                • Is a habitat generalist
                                                • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                                                • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                • Has high reproductive potential
                                                • Has high genetic variability
                                                Impact outcomes
                                                • Host damage
                                                • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                Likelihood of entry/control
                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
                                                • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                                • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                • Difficult/costly to control

                                                Detection and Inspection

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                                                No male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. (White and Elson-Harris, 1994) and possible baits are ammonium acetate (Hedstrom and Jimenez, 1988), casein hydrolysate (Sharp, 1987) and torula yeast (Hedstrom and Jiron, 1985). The number of traps required per unit area is high. In a release and recapture test, Calkins et al. (1984) placed 18 traps per 0.4 ha and only recovered approximately 13% of the released flies.

                                                Some studies have shown that egg morphology can be used to separate closely related species found in host fruits (Souza et al., 1983; Murillo and Jiron, 1994). The larvae of some species may also be differentiated using cuticular hydrocarbons (Sutton and Carlson, 1993). Neither method has yet been generalized for application outside of very specific circumstances.

                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                Identification of the fraterculus complex and closely related species is very difficult and is based mainly on measurements and subtle differences in the shape of the aculeus and its tip (Araujo et al., 1996; Araujo and Zucchi, 2006). The species most likely to be confused with A. fraterculus are Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha suspensa, and especially Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha zenildae and Anastrepha turpiniae.

                                                A. obliqua differs in having the subscutellum entirely orange, not dark-brown laterally. It also lacks the medial spot on the scuto-scutellar suture that is usually present in the fraterculus complex. The aculeus tip is more serrate and less tapered basal to the serrate part. A. suspensa has the apical part of the S-band (the band on the anterior apical margin of the wing) much broader and touching or almost touching the apex of vein M. The other three species are distinguished from the fraterculus complex by the length of the aculeus and its tip, although there is slight overlap in these characters among these species. A. sororcula has a shorter aculeus, with a shorter, stouter tip, whereas A. zenildae and A. turpiniae have longer aculeus tips.

                                                The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications. The third-stage larva is very similar to those of A. obliqua and A. suspensa, and these species usually cannot be distinguished (Steck et al., 1990). The larvae of A. sororcula, A. zenildae and A. turpiniae have not been described.

                                                Prevention and Control

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                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them. Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989). Practical details are given by Bateman (1982). Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays in that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on most natural enemies. However, Nasca et al. (1983) warned that bait sprays could have a substantial effect on Chrysopidae (Neuroptera), which are natural enemies of many pests.

                                                The toxicity to A. fraterculus of different insecticides used in baits was recently compared by Salles (1995) and Lerenzato et al. (1984). They advocated control measures be applied when 0.5-1.0 flies per day per trap were found. Like many fruit flies, shape and colour play a role in host seeking behaviour and Cytrynowicz et al. (1982) found a preference for yellow spheres. The sterile insect technique was tried in Peru (Gonzalez et al., 1971), but has not been applied on a realistic scale.

                                                References

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                                                Almeida, L. B. M. de, Coelho, J. B., Uchoa, M. A., Gisloti, L. J., 2019. Diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) and their host plants in a conservation unit from midwestern Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 102(3), 562-570. doi: 10.1653/024.102.0333

                                                Aluja M, Guillen J, Liedo P, Cabrera M, Rios E, Rosa G de la, Celedonio H, Mota D, 1990. Fruit infesting tephritids (Dipt.: Tephritidae) and associated parasitoids in Chiapas, Mexico. Entomophaga, 35(1):39-48

                                                Aluja, M., Guillén, J., Rosa, G. de la, Cabrera, M., Celedonio, H., Liedo, P., Hendrichs, J., 1987. Natural host plant survey of the economically important fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of Chiapas, Mexico. Florida Entomologist, 70(3), 329-330. doi: 10.2307/3495066

                                                Aluja, M., Rull, J., Sivinski, J., Norrbom, A. L., Wharton, R. A., Macías-Ordóñez, R., Díaz-Fleischer, F., López, M., 2003. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated native parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in the tropical rainforest biosphere reserve of Montes Azules, Chiapas, Mexico. Environmental Entomology, 32(6), 1377-1385. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-32.6.1377

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                                                27/02/2008 Updated by:

                                                Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

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