Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Verticillium dahliae
(verticillium wilt)

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Datasheet

Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 01 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Verticillium dahliae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • verticillium wilt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.
Copyright©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.
SymptomsVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.
Copyright©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.
SymptomsVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms showing wilt caused in Acer plantanoides.©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).
Copyright©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).
SymptomsVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).
Copyright©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).
SymptomsVerticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt); symptoms, showing wilt caused in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).©David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

Preferred Common Name

  • verticillium wilt

Other Scientific Names

  • Verticillium albo-atrum f. angustum Wollenw.
  • Verticillium albo-atrum var. chlamydosporale Wollenw.
  • Verticillium albo-atrum var. dahliae (Kleb.) R. Nelson
  • Verticillium albo-atrum var. medium Wollenw.
  • Verticillium dahliae f. angustum (Wollenw.) J.F.H. Beyma
  • Verticillium dahliae f. cerebriforme J.F.H. Beyma
  • Verticillium dahliae f. chlamydosporale (Wollenw.) J.F.H. Beyma
  • Verticillium dahliae f. medium (Wollenw.) J.F.H. Beyma
  • Verticillium dahliae f. zonatum J.F.H. Beyma
  • Verticillium ovatum G.H. Berk. & A.B. Jacks.
  • Verticillium ovatum G.H. Berk. & A.B. Jacks.
  • Verticillium tracheiphilum Curzi
  • Verticillium trachiephilum Curzi

International Common Names

  • English: early dying (potato); tracheomycosis; verticilliosis
  • Spanish: tragueco-verticiliosis; verticilosis
  • French: flétrissure verticillienne; verticilliose

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Kransskimmel
  • Germany: Verticillium-Tracheomycosen; Verticillium-Welke
  • Italy: tracheo-verticilliosi
  • Netherlands: Verwelkingsziekte
  • Sweden: Vissnesjuka

EPPO code

  • VERTDA (Verticillium dahliae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Family: Plectosphaerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Verticillium
  •                                 Species: Verticillium dahliae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 01 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBellahcene et al. (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentL'Institute National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge. (1941); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EswatiniPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
KenyaPresentHastie (1956); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentCauquil (1973); EPPO (2020)
MalawiAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentGoethal (1971)
MozambiquePresentCabral (1951); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentAtaga and Akueshi (1996)
RwandaPresentMaraite and Meyer (1977); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentUys et al. (1996); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentEbbels (1976); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresent, LocalizedJabnoun-Khiareddine et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentMatovu (1973); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentEPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentEPPO (2020)
AzerbaijanPresentPanteleev (1972); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedMa and Shezeng (2000); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentEPPO (2020)
-BeijingPresentChen YuHui et al. (2007)
-GansuPresentEPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentWang et al. (1987); Sun et al. (2016)
-HenanPresentWang XingFen et al. (1999); EPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Inner MongoliaPresentSun et al. (2016); Zhang et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadLu et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentWang et al. (1987)
-QinghaiPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentYang et al. (1994); Lu et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresent, WidespreadWang et al. (1987)
-ShanghaiPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ShanxiPresentYuan et al. (1990); Sun et al. (2016)
-SichuanPresentWang et al. (1987)
-XinjiangPresent, WidespreadZhang et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GeorgiaPresentAnon (1973)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentBharat (2004)
-KarnatakaPresentPatil and Anahosur (1973); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentKamat (1955); EPPO (2020)
-ManipurPresentRajesh Kumar et al. (2010)
-RajasthanPresentGaur and Dube (1974); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentIsaac et al. (1972); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentHamdollah-Zadeh (1993); Zamani-Zadeh and Zakii (1995); EPPO (2020)
IraqPresentMamluk (1974); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentBao et al. (1998); Tsror et al. (1998); Levin et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentHarada et al. (1997); Takeuchi and Horie (1998); Sumino and Abe (1999); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresent, WidespreadKitazawa and Suzui (1980); Sumino and Abe (1999)
-HonshuPresent, WidespreadTakeuchi and Horie (1998); EPPO (2020)
JordanPresentMamluk and Skaria (1979); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
KazakhstanPresentEPPO (2020)
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO (2020)
LebanonPresentChoueiri et al. (2004); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentTurkensteen (1987); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentPark YoungSeob et al. (1995); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentAl-Ahmad et al. (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TajikistanPresentEPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentKaraca et al. (1971); Onan and Karcilioğlu (1998); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO (2020)
UzbekistanPresentMukhamedalieva (1975); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIbrahimllari (1987)
AustriaPresent, LocalizedBedlan (1987); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresentVanachter (1990); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresentBell (1992); EPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentKaliterna et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
CyprusPresent, WidespreadMICHAELIDES (1963); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresentPlachka (1996); EPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresentEPPO (2014)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentArsenijevic (1977)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)
DenmarkPresentEPPO (2020)
EstoniaPresentSiimisker (1996)
FrancePresentAlabouvette and Bremeersch (1975); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentTjamos (1981); Elena (1999); Karadimos et al. (2000); Markakis et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
-CretePresentLigoxigakis and Vakalounakis (1994); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresentVajna et al. (1998); Vajna (1999); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadMesturino (1990); Luisi et al. (1994); Tosi and Zazzerini (1998); Bertetti et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
-SardiniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-SicilyPresentGiudice et al. (2010); Garibaldi et al. (2005)
MaltaPresentEPPO (2020)
MoldovaPresentEPPO (2020)
MontenegroPresentEPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Rijkers et al. (1992); Scholte (1993); EPPO (2020)Present, in all parts of the area, no pest records in Humulus lupulus.
PolandPresentLeski (1974); Zieliński and Sadowski (1994)
PortugalPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
RussiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Central RussiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated a)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)PresentGovorova (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentRekanovic et al. (2007)
SlovakiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SloveniaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
SpainPresentGarcía-Ruiz et al. (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
SwedenPresentSvensson and Lerenius (1987)
SwitzerlandPresentBolay (1988); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentTreskin and Podkatova (1957); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresentChurch and McCartney (1995); Harris and Yang (1996); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Channel IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresentEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentOmer et al. (2000)
-British ColumbiaPresentOmer et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentKrikun and Bernier (1987)
-New BrunswickPresentOmer et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadRobinson et al. (1957); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentMcKeen and Thorpe (1973); Dobinson et al. (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUys et al. (1996); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentTartier and Devaux (1977); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
NicaraguaPresentLITZENBERGER and STEVENSON (1957)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentLand et al. (2016); Anon (1973); EPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadBell (1992); Stapleton et al. (1993); Koike et al. (1994); Bhat et al. (1999); Maruthachalam et al. (2010); Gurung et al. (2015); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ColoradoPresent, WidespreadPowelson and Rowe (1993)
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadKEYWORTH (1952)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadWeingartner et al. (1974)
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadPowelson and Rowe (1993); Strausbaugh (1993)
-IllinoisPresentChen (1994); Eastburn and Chang (1994); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresent, LocalizedGreen et al. (1961)
-IowaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KansasPresentEPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentAnon (1973)
-MainePresent, WidespreadOmer et al. (2000)
-MarylandPresentEPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentOmer et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresent, LocalizedSlattery and Eide (1980)
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-MontanaPresentOmer et al. (2000)
-NebraskaPresentOmer et al. (2000)
-NevadaPresentSchnathorst et al. (1975)
-New JerseyPresentEPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresent, WidespreadBell (1992); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentOmer et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentBender and Shoemaker (1984)
-North DakotaPresent, WidespreadPowelson and Rowe (1993)
-OhioPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OklahomaPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-OregonPresentPutnam and Crowe (1999); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentOmer et al. (2000)
-Rhode IslandPresentBeckman (1973)
-South CarolinaPresentAnon (1973)
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadBell (1992)
-UtahPresent, WidespreadSCHAIBLE et al. (1951)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadDouhan and Johnson (2001); Johnson et al. (2013); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-WisconsinPresentWorf et al. (1994); Omer et al. (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentBell (1992); Allen (1995); Allen and Lonergan (1998); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentSampson (1972); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentCampbell and Griffiths (1973); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentEPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedBell (1992); Pinto et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentDrummond (1949); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI (Undated a)
ChilePresentLatorre et al. (1989); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentTurkensteen and Eduardo Nieto (1987)
PeruPresentMartin (1985); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Heteroconium chaetospira Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hypocrea rufa Antagonist
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist
Penicillium griseo-fulvum Pathogen
Pseudomonas chlororaphis Pathogen
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Pythium oligandrum Mycoparasite
Serratia plymuthica
Sphingomonas paucimobilis Pathogen
Talaromyces flavus Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Wood

References

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Alabouvette C, Bremeersch P, 1975. Two new diseases of sunflower crops in France. Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 61(11):626-636

Al-Ahmad M, Moselli N, Doksi A, 1992. Verticillium wilt of olive and the effects of variety, age of trees and other agricultural practices on disease development in middle and northern Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 10(2):131-139

Al-Ahmad MA, Mosli MN, 1993. Verticillium wilt of olive in Syria. Bulletin OEPP, 23(3):521-529

Alexander, L. J. , 1962. Susceptibility of certain Verticillium-resistant Tomato varieties to an Ohio isolate of the pathogen. Phytopathology, 52(10), 998-1000 pp.

Al-Hamidi MD, 1985. Studies on cotton wilt in the Syrian Arab Republic. Untersuchungen zur Baumwollwelke in der Syrischen Arabischen Republik., 71pp.; 37 ref

Allen S, Lonergan PA, 1998. Trends in Australian cotton diseases. Australian Cottongrower, 19(5):80-82, 84

Allen SJ, 1995. Plant quarantine and diseases of cotton. Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(1):70-73

Almany, G. R., De Arruda, M. P., Arthofer, W., Atallah, Z. K., Beissinger, S. R., Berumen, M. L., Bogdanowicz, S. M., Brown, S. D., Bruford, M. W., Burdine, C., 2009. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009. Mol. Ecol. Resources, 9, 1460‐1466.

Al-Rawahi AK, Hancock JG, 1998. Parasitism and biological control of Verticillium dahliae by Pythium oligandrum. Plant Disease, 82(10):1100-1106; 47 ref

Anon, 1941. Rapport annuel pour l'exercice 1939. L'Institute National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge

Anon, 1973. Reduction in yield of cotton caused by parasitic diseases in 1972. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:403

Anon, 1993. The Plant Health (Great Britain) Order 1993. London, UK: HMSO

Anon., 1987. Plant disease survey NSW 1986-87. 56th Annual Report, Plant Pathology Branch. Rydalmere, NSW, Australia: Biological and Chemical Research Institute.

Arbogast M, Powelson ML, Cappaert MR, Watrud LS, 2000. Response of potato cultivars to plant available water and Verticillium dahliae. In: Tjamos EC, Rowe RC, Heale JB, Fravel DR, eds. Advances in Verticillium Research and Disease Management. St. Paul, USA: APS Press, 180-186

Arsenijevic M, 1977. Verticillium dahliae as a parasite of peach in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 28(140):131-142

Asai WK, Stapleton JJ, 1994. The economic impact of Verticillium wilt on the establishment of a young almond orchard. Acta Horticulturae, No. 373:333-337

Ashworth LJ Jr, Gaona SA, 1982. Evaluation of clear polyethylene mulch for controlling Verticillium wilt in established pistachio nut groves. Phytopathology, 72(2):243-246

Ataga AE, Akueshi CO, 1996. Fungi associated with sunflower seed in Nigeria. Seed Research, 24(1):64-65; 3 ref

Atallah, Z. K., Hayes, R. J., Subbarao, K. V., 2011. Fifteen years of Verticillium wilt of lettuce in America's salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation, and abatement. Plant Disease, 95(7), 784-792. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-11-0075

Atallah, Z. K., Maruthachalam, K., Subbarao, K. V., 2012. Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce. Phytopathology, 102(11), 1071-1078. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-04-12-0

Atallah, Z. K., Maruthachalam, K., Toit, L. du, Koike, S. T., Davis, R. M., Klosterman, S. J., Hayes, R. J., Subbarao, K. V., 2010. Population analyses of the vascular plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae detect recombination and transcontinental gene flow. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 47(5), 416-422. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2010.02.003

Atallah, Z. K., Maruthachalam, K., Vallad, G. E., Davis, R. M., Klosterman, S. J., Subbarao, K. V., 2011. Analysis of Verticillium dahliae suggests a lack of correlation between genotypic diversity and virulence phenotypes. Plant Disease, 95(10), 1224-1232. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-11-0110

Atallah, Z. K., Subbarao, K. V., 2012. Population biology of fungal plant pathogens. In: Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, (835) [ed. by Bolton, M., Thomma, B. P. H. J.]. New York, USA: Humana Press. 333-363.

Atibalentja, N., Eastburn, D. M., 1998. Verticillium dahliae resistance in horseradish germ plasm from the University of Illinois collection. Plant Disease, 82(2), 176-180. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.2.176

Auger SJ, Esterio GM, Jnrgensen EE, 1995. Immunodiagnosis of Verticillium dahliae Klebahn on grape (Vitis vinifera) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca). Fitopatologi^acute~a, 30(3):138-142; 5 ref

Baard SW, Wyk PWJ van, Pauer GDC, 1981. Structure and lysis of microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae in soil. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77(2):251-260

Baeza-Montañez L, Gómez-Cabrera R, García-Pedrajas MD, 2010. First report of verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae on mango trees (Mangifera indica) in Southern Spain. Plant Disease, 94(3):380-381. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bao JR, Katan J, Shabi E, Katan T, 1998. Vegetative-compatibility groups in Verticillium dahliae from Israel. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(3):263-269; 24 ref

Baradaran GR, Aminaee MM, Assari MJ, 2012. Identification of fungal diseases of Rosa damascena in Kerman province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 45(9):1087-1095. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Barasubiye, T., Parent, J. G., Hamelin, R. C., Laberge, S., Richard, C., Dostaler, D., 1995. Discrimination between alfalfa and potato isolates of Verticillium albo-atrum using RAPD markers. Mycological Research, 99(12), 1507-1512. doi: 10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80800-9

Barbara, D. J., Clewes, E., 2003. Plant pathogenic Verticillium species: how many of them are there?. Molecular Plant Pathology, 4(4), 297-305. doi: 10.1046/j.1364-3703.2003.00172.x

Beal E, Denton JO, Denton GJ, Scrace J, 2016. First report of Verticillium dahliae causing wilt in Impatiens New Guinea Group hybrids. New Disease Reports, 33:18. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/033/NDR_033018.pdf

Beckman CH, 1973. The incidence of verticillium species in soils, vines and tubers of Rhode Island-grown potatoes. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:928-932

Bedlan G, 1987. Pepper wilt. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):8

Bejarano-Alcazar J, Blanco-L=pez MA, Melero-Vara JM, JimTnez-Dfaz RM, 1996. Etiology, importance, and distribution of Verticillium wilt of cotton in southern Spain. Plant Disease, 80(11):1233-1238; 34 ref

Bell AA, 1992. Verticillium wilt. In: Hillocks RJ, ed. Cotton diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 87-126

Bellahcene M, Fortas Z, Fernandez D, Nicole M, 2005. Vegetative compatibility of Verticillium dahlia isolated from olive trees (Olea europea L.) in Algeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(9):963-967. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/Pdf2005/Sep/Bellahcene%20et%20al.pdf

Bender CG, Shoemaker PB, 1984. Prevalence of Verticillium wilt of tomato and virulence of Verticillium dahliae race 1 and race 2 isolates in western North Carolina. Plant Disease, 68(4):305-309

Berbegal, M., Garzón, C. D., Ortega, A., Armengol, J., Jiménez-Díaz, R. M., Jiménez-Gasco, M. M., 2011. Development and application of new molecular markers for analysis of genetic diversity in Verticillium dahliae populations. Plant Pathology, 60(5), 866-877. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02432.x

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