Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Verticillium dahliae
(verticillium wilt)

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Datasheet

Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Verticillium dahliae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • verticillium wilt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.
TitleSymptoms on Acer plantanoides
CaptionWilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.
CopyrightDavid Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.
Symptoms on Acer plantanoidesWilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.
TitleSymptoms on Acer plantanoides (in field)
CaptionWilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.
CopyrightDavid Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.
Symptoms on Acer plantanoides (in field)Wilt caused by V. dahliae in Acer plantanoides.David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.
TitleSymptoms on strawberry
CaptionWilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.
CopyrightDavid Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.
Symptoms on strawberryWilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.
TitleSymptoms on strawberry
CaptionWilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.
CopyrightDavid Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling
Wilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.
Symptoms on strawberryWilt caused by V. dahliae in strawberry.David Harris/Horticulture Research International-East Malling

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

Preferred Common Name

  • verticillium wilt

Other Scientific Names

  • Verticillium albo-atrum var. medium Wollenw.
  • Verticillium ovatum G.H. Berk. & A.B. Jacks.
  • Verticillium trachiephilum Curzi

International Common Names

  • English: early dying (potato); tracheomycosis; verticilliosis
  • Spanish: tragueco-verticiliosis; verticilosis
  • French: flétrissure verticillienne; verticilliose

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Kransskimmel
  • Germany: Verticillium-Tracheomycosen; Verticillium-Welke
  • Italy: tracheo-verticilliosi
  • Netherlands: Verwelkingsziekte
  • Sweden: Vissnesjuka

EPPO code

  • VERTDA (Verticillium dahliae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Family: Plectosphaerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Verticillium
  •                                 Species: Verticillium dahliae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentEPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentPanteleev, 1972; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionMa and Shezeng, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentEPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresentChen et al., 2007
-HebeiPresentWang et al., 1987; Sun et al., 2016
-HenanPresentWang et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuWidespreadLu et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentWang et al., 1987
-Nei MengguPresentSun et al., 2016
-ShaanxiPresentYang et al., 1994; Lu et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongWidespreadWang et al., 1987
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresentYuan et al., 1990; Sun et al., 2016
-SichuanPresentWang et al., 1987
-XinjiangPresentZhang et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentCheo 1994; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentAnon, 1973
IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentBharat, 2004
-KarnatakaPresentPatil and Anahosur, 1973; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentKamat, 1955; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentRajesh et al., 2010
-RajasthanPresentGaur and Dube, 1974; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentIsaac et al., 1972; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentHamdollah-Zadeh, 1993; Zamani-Zadeh and Zakii, 1995; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentMamluk, 1974; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentBao et al., 1998; Tsror et al., 1998; EPPO, 2014; Levin et al., 2014
JapanPresentHarada et al., 1997; Takeuchi and Horie, 1998; Sumino and Abe, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadKitazawa and Suzui, 1980; Sumino and Abe, 1999
-HonshuWidespreadTakeuchi and Horie, 1998
JordanPresentNasar et al., 1998; Mamluk and Skaria, 1979; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentPark et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentChoueiri et al., 2004
PakistanPresentTurkensteen, 1987; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentEl Ahmad & Mouselli, 1990; Al-Ahmad et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentOnan etal., 1992; Karaca et al., 1971; Onan and Karcilioglu, 1998; EPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentMukhamedalieva, 1975; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBellahcene et al., 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentAnon, 1941; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentMichail et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentHastie, 1956; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentCauquil, 1973; EPPO, 2014
MalawiAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentGoethal, 1971
MozambiquePresentCabral, 1951; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentAtaga & Akeushi, 1996
RwandaPresentMaraite and Meyer, 1977; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentSwanepoel & De Kock, 1996; Uys et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandWidespreadBell, 1992
TanzaniaPresentEbbels, 1976; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaRestricted distributionJabnoun-Khiareddine et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentMatovu, 1973; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentEPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentAnon, 1988; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentOmer et al., 2000
-British ColumbiaPresentOmer et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentKrikun and Bernier, 1987
-New BrunswickPresentOmer et al., 2000
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadRobinson et al., 1957
-OntarioPresentMcKeen and Thorpe, 1973; Dobinson et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUys et al., 1996
-QuebecPresentTartier and Devaux, 1977; EPPO, 2014
MexicoWidespreadBell, 1992
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentAnon, 1973; Land et al., 2016
-ArizonaWidespreadBell, 1992
-ArkansasWidespreadBell, 1992
-CaliforniaPresentMichaelides et al., 1995; Bell, 1992; Stapleton et al., 1993; Koike et al., 1994; Bhat et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoWidespreadPowelson and Rowe, 1993
-ConnecticutWidespreadKeyworth, 1952
-FloridaWidespreadWeingartner et al., 1974
-IdahoWidespreadPowelson and Rowe, 1993; Strausbaugh, 1993
-IllinoisPresentChen, 1994; Eastburn and Chang, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaRestricted distributionGreen et al., 1961
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresentEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentAnon, 1973
-MaineWidespreadOmer et al., 2000
-MarylandPresentEPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentOmer et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaRestricted distributionSlattery and Eide, 1980
-MississippiWidespreadBell, 1992
-MissouriWidespreadBell, 1992
-MontanaPresentOmer et al., 2000
-NebraskaPresentOmer et al., 2000
-NevadaPresentSchnathorst et al., 1994
-New JerseyPresentEPPO, 2014
-New MexicoWidespreadBell, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentOmer et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentBender and Shoemaker, 1984
-North DakotaWidespreadPowelson and Rowe, 1993
-OhioPresentJoaquim et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaWidespreadBell, 1992
-OregonPresentHeffer et al., 1996; Putnam and Crowe, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentOmer et al., 2000
-Rhode IslandPresentBeckman, 1973
-South CarolinaPresentAnon, 1973
-TennesseeWidespreadBell, 1992
-TexasWidespreadBell, 1992
-UtahWidespreadSchaible et al., 1951
-WashingtonPresentJohnson et al., 1992; Douhan and Johnson, 2001; Johnson et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentMacGuidwin and Rouse, 1990; Worf et al., 1994; Omer et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentEPPO, 2014
NicaraguaPresentLitzenberger and Stevenson, 1957
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentPerez-Fernandez, 1997; EPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionBell, 1992; Pinto et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentDrummond, 1949; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentLatorre et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentTurkensteen & Eduardo Nieto, 1987
PeruPresentMartin, 1985; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIbrahimllari, 1987
AustriaRestricted distribution****Bedlan, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentVanachter, 1990; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentBell, 1992; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentKaliterna et al., 2016
CyprusWidespreadMichaelides, 1964; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentPlachka, 1996; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentEPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentEPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentSiimisker, 1996
Former USSRPresent
FrancePresentAlabouvette and Bremeersch, 1975; Fitt et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread****Fitt et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentTjamos, 1981; Elena, 1999; Karadimos et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014; Markakis et al., 2014
-CretePresentLigoxigakis and Vakalounakis, 1994; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentVajna et al., 1998; Vajna, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadMesturino, 1990; Luisi et al., 1994; Tosi and Zazzerini, 1998; Bertetti et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresentGaribaldi et al., 2005; Giudice et al., 2010
-SicilyPresentGaribaldi et al., 2005; Giudice et al., 2010
MaltaPresentEPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014
MontenegroPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; Rijkers et al., 1992; Scholte, 1993; EPPO, 2014Present, in all parts of the area, no pest records in Humulus lupulus.
PolandPresentLeski, 1974; Zielinski and Sadowski, 1994
PortugalPresentLucas & de Borges, 1972; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresent
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaWidespread
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentGovorova et al., 2000; Govorova et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentRekanovic et al., 2007
SpainPresentBlanco-Lopez et al., 1994; Bejarano-Alcazar et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014; García-Ruiz et al., 2014
SwedenPresentSvensson and Lerenius, 1987
SwitzerlandPresentBolay, 1988
UKPresentFitt et al., 1991; Church and McCartney, 1995; Harris and Yang, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentTreskin and Podkatova, 1957; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentArsenijevic, 1977

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentBell, 1992; Allen, 1995; Allen and Lonergan, 1998; EPPO, 2014; Chapman et al., 2016
-QueenslandPresentO'Brian & Hutton, 1981; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentSampson, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCampbell and Griffiths, 1973; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Heteroconium chaetospira Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hypocrea rufa Antagonist
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist
Penicillium griseo-fulvum Pathogen
Pseudomonas chlororaphis Pathogen
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Pythium oligandrum Mycoparasite
Serratia plymuthica
Sphingomonas paucimobilis Pathogen
Talaromyces flavus Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Wood

References

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Alabouvette C; Bremeersch P, 1975. Two new diseases of sunflower crops in France. Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 61(11):626-636

Al-Ahmad M; Moselli N; Doksi A, 1992. Verticillium wilt of olive and the effects of variety, age of trees and other agricultural practices on disease development in middle and northern Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 10(2):131-139

Al-Ahmad MA; Mosli MN, 1993. Verticillium wilt of olive in Syria. Bulletin OEPP, 23(3):521-529

Al-Hamidi MD, 1985. Studies on cotton wilt in the Syrian Arab Republic. Untersuchungen zur Baumwollwelke in der Syrischen Arabischen Republik., 71pp.; 37 ref.

Allen S; Lonergan PA, 1998. Trends in Australian cotton diseases. Australian Cottongrower, 19(5):80-82, 84.

Allen SJ, 1995. Plant quarantine and diseases of cotton. Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(1):70-73

Al-Rawahi AK; Hancock JG, 1998. Parasitism and biological control of Verticillium dahliae by Pythium oligandrum. Plant Disease, 82(10):1100-1106; 47 ref.

Anon, 1941. Rapport annuel pour l'exercice 1939. L'Institute National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge.

Anon, 1973. Reduction in yield of cotton caused by parasitic diseases in 1972. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:403.

Anon, 1993. The Plant Health (Great Britain) Order 1993. London, UK: HMSO.

Anon., 1987. Plant disease survey NSW 1986-87. 56th Annual Report, Plant Pathology Branch. Rydalmere, NSW, Australia: Biological and Chemical Research Institute.

Arbogast M; Powelson ML; Cappaert MR; Watrud LS, 2000. Response of potato cultivars to plant available water and Verticillium dahliae. In: Tjamos EC, Rowe RC, Heale JB, Fravel DR, eds. Advances in Verticillium Research and Disease Management. St. Paul, USA: APS Press, 180-186.

Arsenijevic M, 1977. Verticillium dahliae as a parasite of peach in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 28(140):131-142

Asai WK; Stapleton JJ, 1994. The economic impact of Verticillium wilt on the establishment of a young almond orchard. Acta Horticulturae, No. 373:333-337

Ashworth LJ Jr; Gaona SA, 1982. Evaluation of clear polyethylene mulch for controlling Verticillium wilt in established pistachio nut groves. Phytopathology, 72(2):243-246

Ataga AE; Akueshi CO, 1996. Fungi associated with sunflower seed in Nigeria. Seed Research, 24(1):64-65; 3 ref.

Auger SJ; Esterio GM; Jnrgensen EE, 1995. Immunodiagnosis of Verticillium dahliae Klebahn on grape (Vitis vinifera) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca). Fitopatologi^acute~a, 30(3):138-142; 5 ref.

Baard SW; Wyk PWJ van; Pauer GDC, 1981. Structure and lysis of microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae in soil. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77(2):251-260

Baeza-Montañez L; Gómez-Cabrera R; García-Pedrajas MD, 2010. First report of verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae on mango trees (Mangifera indica) in Southern Spain. Plant Disease, 94(3):380-381. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bao JR; Katan J; Shabi E; Katan T, 1998. Vegetative-compatibility groups in Verticillium dahliae from Israel. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(3):263-269; 24 ref.

Baradaran GR; Aminaee MM; Assari MJ, 2012. Identification of fungal diseases of Rosa damascena in Kerman province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 45(9):1087-1095. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Beal E; Denton JO; Denton GJ; Scrace J, 2016. First report of Verticillium dahliae causing wilt in Impatiens New Guinea Group hybrids. New Disease Reports, 33:18. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/033/NDR_033018.pdf

Beckman CH, 1973. The incidence of verticillium species in soils, vines and tubers of Rhode Island-grown potatoes. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:928-932.

Bedlan G, 1987. Pepper wilt. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):8

Bejarano-Alcßzar J; Blanco-L=pez MA; Melero-Vara JM; JimTnez-Dfaz RM, 1996. Etiology, importance, and distribution of Verticillium wilt of cotton in southern Spain. Plant Disease, 80(11):1233-1238; 34 ref.

Bell AA, 1992. Verticillium wilt. In: Hillocks RJ, ed. Cotton diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 87-126

Bellahcene M; Fortas Z; Fernandez D; Nicole M, 2005. Vegetative compatibility of Verticillium dahlia isolated from olive trees (Olea europea L.) in Algeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(9):963-967. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/Pdf2005/Sep/Bellahcene%20et%20al.pdf

Bender CG; Shoemaker PB, 1984. Prevalence of Verticillium wilt of tomato and virulence of Verticillium dahliae race 1 and race 2 isolates in western North Carolina. Plant Disease, 68(4):305-309

Berg G; Ballin G, 1994. Bacterial antagonists to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Journal of Phytopathology, 141(1):99-110; 39 ref.

Bertetti D; Poli A; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2011. First report of Verticillium wilt on Coleus verschaffeltii in Italy. (Attacchi di Verticillium dahliae Kleb. su Coleus verschaffeltii in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:87-89. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D; Poli A; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2012. New fungal pathogens found on 2 hosts grown in Italy: Verticillium dahliae on Coleus verschaffeltii and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Aquilegia flabellata. (Nuovi parassiti fungini riscontrati su due ospiti coltivati in Italia: Verticillium dahliae su Coleus verschaffeltii e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum su Aquilegia flabellata.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:32-33. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D; Rapetti S; Martini P; Repetto L; Poli A; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2012. First report in Italy of Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. on New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides Murr.). (Presenza in Italia della tracheoverticilliosi causata da Verticillium dahliae Kleb. su spinacio della Nuova Zelanda (Tetragonia tetragonioides Murr.).) Protezione delle Colture, No.5:28-30. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bharat NK, 2004. Two new diseases of pistachionut in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research (Ludhiana), 19(2):188.

Bhat RG; Subbarao KV; Bari MA, 1999. First report of Verticillium dahliae causing artichoke wilt in California. Plant Disease, 83(8):782; 2 ref.

Blanco-L=pez MA; Rodrfguez Jurado D; JimTnez-Dfaz RM, 1994. Verticillium wilt of olive. Agricultura, Revista Agropecuaria, 63(746):777-780; 5 ref.

Bletsos FA; Thanassoulopoulos CC; Roupakias DG, 1999. Water stress and Verticillium wilt severity on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Journal of Phytopathology, 147(4):243-248; 18 ref.

Blomquist CL; Rooney-Latham S; Haynes JL; Scheck HJ, 2011. First report of Verticillium wilt on field-grown cosmos caused by Verticillium dahliae in California. Plant Disease, 95(3):361. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bolay A, 1988. Decline of fruit trees due to soil fungi. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 20(5):265-270

Botseas DD; Rowe RC, 1994. Development of potato early dying in response to infection by two pathotypes of Verticillium dahliae and co-infection by Pratylenchus penetrans. Phytopathology, 84(3):275-282

Bourbos VA; Skoudridakis MT, 1996. Soil solarization for the control of Verticillium wilt of greenhouse tomato. Phytoparasitica, 24(4):277-280; 13 ref.

Bowers JH; Nameth ST; Riedel RM; Rowe RC, 1996. Infection and colonization of potato roots by Verticillium dahliae as affected by Pratylenchus penetrans and P. crenatus. Phytopathology, 86(6):614-621; 46 ref.

Bruni O, 1970. New investigations on the sunflower disease caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Publicacion Tecnica, Estacion Experimental Regional Agropecuaria Pergamino, No. 39:29 pp.

Busch LV; Smith EA; Njoh-Elango F, 1978. The effect of weeds on the value of rotation as a practical control for Verticillium wilt of potato. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 58(3):61-64

Butterfield EJ; DeVay JE; Garber RH, 1978. The influence of several crop sequences on the incidence of Verticillium wilt of cotton and on the population of Verticillium dahliae in field soil. Phytopathology, 68(8):1217-1220

Cabral A, 1951. O 'wilt' na Provfncia do Sul do Save. Agronomia Lusitana, 13:13-18.

Campbell WP; Griffiths DA, 1973. Pathogenicity of Verticillium dahliae to potato in Victoria, Australia. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(9):735-738

Cappaert MR; Powelson ML; Christensen NW; Crowe FJ, 1992. Influence of irrigation on severity of potato early dying and tuber yield. Phytopathology, 82(12):1448-1453

Cappaert MR; Powelson ML; Christensen NW; Stevenson WR; Rouse DI, 1994. Assessment of irrigation as a method of managing potato early dying. Phytopathology, 84(8):792-800

Carder JH; Barbara DJ, 1994. Molecular variation within some Japanese isolates of Verticillium dahliae. Plant Pathology, 43(5):947-950

Cauquil J, 1973. Boll rot of cotton: establishing a control method. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 28(2):307-322

Celetti MJ; Johnston HW; Platt HW, 1990. A note on the incidence of soilborne fungi in six crops used in rotation with potatoes. Phytoprotection, 71(2):97-100; 18 ref.

Chen J; Bird GW; Mather RL, 1995. Impact of multi-year cropping regimes on Solanum tuberosum tuber yields in the presence of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. Journal of Nematology, 27(4SUPP):654-660; 24 ref.

Chen W, 1994. Vegetative compatibility groups of Verticillium dahliae from ornamental woody plants. Phytopathology, 84(2):214-219

Chen YuHui; Liu FuZhong; Lian Yong, 2007. The pathogens and the biological characteristics from yellowing and wilted eggplant in part of Beijing Area. China Vegetables, No.11:16-19. http://zgsc.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Cheo CC, 1944. Verticillium wilt of cotton in Yunnan. Chinese Journal of Scientific Agriculture, 4:258-263.

Choueiri E; El-Zammar S; Jreijiri F; Mnayer D; Massaad R; Saad AT; Hanna L; Varveri C, 2004. Phytosanitary status of potato in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. Bulletin OEPP, 34(1):117-121.

Church VJ; McCartney HA, 1995. Occurrence of Verticillium dahliae on sunflower (Helianthus annus) in the UK. Annals of Applied Biology, 127(1):49-56; 8 ref.

Ciccarese F; Amenduni M; Schiavone D; Cirulli M, 1994. Effect of Verticillium wilt on the yield of susceptible and "slow-wilting" resistant eggplants in the field. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 33(3):212-216

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