Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Venturia inaequalis
(apple scab)

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Datasheet

Venturia inaequalis (apple scab)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Venturia inaequalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple scab
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Apple scab symptoms on fruit (Jonagold).
TitleSymptoms on fruit
CaptionApple scab symptoms on fruit (Jonagold).
CopyrightP. Creemers
Apple scab symptoms on fruit (Jonagold).
Symptoms on fruitApple scab symptoms on fruit (Jonagold).P. Creemers
Small scab spots on fruit (late infection on Golden Delicious).
TitleSymptoms on fruit
CaptionSmall scab spots on fruit (late infection on Golden Delicious).
CopyrightP. Creemers
Small scab spots on fruit (late infection on Golden Delicious).
Symptoms on fruitSmall scab spots on fruit (late infection on Golden Delicious).P. Creemers
V. inaequalis (Apple Scab): first symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionV. inaequalis (Apple Scab): first symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
V. inaequalis (Apple Scab): first symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field.
SymptomsV. inaequalis (Apple Scab): first symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
V. inaequalis (Apple Scab): late symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionV. inaequalis (Apple Scab): late symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
V. inaequalis (Apple Scab): late symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field.
SymptomsV. inaequalis (Apple Scab): late symptoms on apple variety Golden Delicious leaf in the field. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Sporulation of V. inaequalis in scab lesions on a McIntosh leaf.
TitleSporulation
CaptionSporulation of V. inaequalis in scab lesions on a McIntosh leaf.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Sporulation of V. inaequalis in scab lesions on a McIntosh leaf.
SporulationSporulation of V. inaequalis in scab lesions on a McIntosh leaf.©Alan L. Jones
Small scab spots on fruit during storage (pin-point scab).
TitleSymptoms on fruit
CaptionSmall scab spots on fruit during storage (pin-point scab).
CopyrightP. Creemers
Small scab spots on fruit during storage (pin-point scab).
Symptoms on fruitSmall scab spots on fruit during storage (pin-point scab).P. Creemers
Apple scab symptoms around calyx end of fruit from sepal infection.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionApple scab symptoms around calyx end of fruit from sepal infection.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Apple scab symptoms around calyx end of fruit from sepal infection.
SymptomsApple scab symptoms around calyx end of fruit from sepal infection.P. Creemers
Symptoms on petioles.
TitleSymptoms on petioles
CaptionSymptoms on petioles.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Symptoms on petioles.
Symptoms on petiolesSymptoms on petioles.P. Creemers
Symptoms on sepals.
TitleSymptoms on sepals
CaptionSymptoms on sepals.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Symptoms on sepals.
Symptoms on sepalsSymptoms on sepals.P. Creemers
Symptoms of V. inaequalis (Apple scab) along the base of a new shoot, after overwintering of scab on the tree.
TitleSymptoms on shoot
CaptionSymptoms of V. inaequalis (Apple scab) along the base of a new shoot, after overwintering of scab on the tree.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Symptoms of V. inaequalis (Apple scab) along the base of a new shoot, after overwintering of scab on the tree.
Symptoms on shootSymptoms of V. inaequalis (Apple scab) along the base of a new shoot, after overwintering of scab on the tree.P. Creemers
Germination of ascospores on artificial medium.
TitleAscospore germination
CaptionGermination of ascospores on artificial medium.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Germination of ascospores on artificial medium.
Ascospore germinationGermination of ascospores on artificial medium.P. Creemers
Cross-section of a pseudothecium of the apple scab fungus with pigmented mature ascospores in rows of eight ascospores per ascus.
TitleSEM
CaptionCross-section of a pseudothecium of the apple scab fungus with pigmented mature ascospores in rows of eight ascospores per ascus.
CopyrightJ.R. James
Cross-section of a pseudothecium of the apple scab fungus with pigmented mature ascospores in rows of eight ascospores per ascus.
SEMCross-section of a pseudothecium of the apple scab fungus with pigmented mature ascospores in rows of eight ascospores per ascus.J.R. James
Primary scab infection (arowed) on the blossom end (calyx) of a McIntosh apple.
TitleInfection
CaptionPrimary scab infection (arowed) on the blossom end (calyx) of a McIntosh apple.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Primary scab infection (arowed) on the blossom end (calyx) of a McIntosh apple.
InfectionPrimary scab infection (arowed) on the blossom end (calyx) of a McIntosh apple.©Alan L. Jones
Cracking of McIntosh fruit associated with large scab lesions late in the season.
TitleCracking
CaptionCracking of McIntosh fruit associated with large scab lesions late in the season.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Cracking of McIntosh fruit associated with large scab lesions late in the season.
CrackingCracking of McIntosh fruit associated with large scab lesions late in the season.©Alan L. Jones
Germination of a conidium of the apple scab fungus. The spore sends out a short germ tube with an appressorium at its tip from which the fungus penetrates the host tissue. Ascospores germinate similarly.
TitleSEM
CaptionGermination of a conidium of the apple scab fungus. The spore sends out a short germ tube with an appressorium at its tip from which the fungus penetrates the host tissue. Ascospores germinate similarly.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Germination of a conidium of the apple scab fungus. The spore sends out a short germ tube with an appressorium at its tip from which the fungus penetrates the host tissue. Ascospores germinate similarly.
SEMGermination of a conidium of the apple scab fungus. The spore sends out a short germ tube with an appressorium at its tip from which the fungus penetrates the host tissue. Ascospores germinate similarly.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G.Winter

Preferred Common Name

  • apple scab

Other Scientific Names

  • Endostigme inaequalis (Cooke) Syd.
  • Fusicladium pomi (Fr.) Lind
  • Helminthosporium pirinum Lib. (pro parte)
  • Sphaerella cinerascens Fuckel
  • Sphaerella inaequalis Cooke
  • Sphaeria cinerascens Fuckel
  • Spilocaea pomi Fr.
  • Spilosticta inaequalis (Cooke) Petr.

International Common Names

  • English: black spot: apple; scab: apple
  • Spanish: moteado del manzano; rona del manzano; sarna del manzano
  • French: tacon; tavelure du pommier; tavelure du sorbier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Lagerschorf: Apfel; Schorf: Apfel

EPPO code

  • VENTIN (Venturia inaequalis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Venturiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Venturia
  •                                     Species: Venturia inaequalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
BhutanPresentIMI Herbarium, undated; UK CAB International, 1985
ChinaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-ShaanxiPresentHu et al., 2008
IndiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Thakur et al., 2005
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IranPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IraqPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IsraelPresentUK CAB International, 1985
JapanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
JordanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
KazakhstanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Korea, DPRPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Korea, Republic ofPresentUK CAB International, 1985
LebanonPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PakistanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Russian Federation
-Russia (Asia)PresentUK CAB International, 1985
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
SyriaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
TaiwanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
TurkeyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
UzbekistanPresentMitenbaev and Khakimov, 2001

Africa

Congo Democratic RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1985
EgyptPresentUK CAB International, 1985
EthiopiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
GhanaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
KenyaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
LibyaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MadagascarPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MoroccoPresentUK CAB International, 1985
South AfricaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ZimbabwePresentIMI Herbarium, undated; UK CAB International, 1985

North America

CanadaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-OntarioPresentErrampalli, 2004
-QuebecPresentCharest et al., 2002
MexicoPresentUK CAB International, 1985
USAPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-IndianaPresentQuello et al., 2010
-MichiganPresentChapman et al., 2011
-OhioPresentChatfield et al., 2002
-VirginiaPresentMarine et al., 2007

Central America and Caribbean

El SalvadorPresentUK CAB International, 1985
GuatemalaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PanamaPresentUK CAB International, 1985

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
BoliviaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
BrazilPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-Santa CatarinaPresentSantos and Wamser, 2006
ChilePresentUK CAB International, 1985
ColombiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
EcuadorPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PeruPresentUK CAB International, 1985
UruguayPresentUK CAB International, 1985

Europe

AustriaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
BelarusPresentKamardina, 2008
BelgiumPresentUK CAB International, 1985
BulgariaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
CroatiaPresentBaric and Ciglar, 2006
CyprusPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Czech RepublicPresentMelounová et al., 2004
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentUK CAB International, 1985
DenmarkPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Faroe IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1985
FinlandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
FrancePresentUK CAB International, 1985
GermanyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
GreecePresentUK CAB International, 1985
HungaryPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IrelandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ItalyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
JerseyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
LithuaniaPresentLanauskas et al., 2009
MaltaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
NetherlandsPresentUK CAB International, 1985
NorwayPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PolandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PortugalPresentUK CAB International, 1985
RomaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Russian FederationPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-Russian Far EastPresentUK CAB International, 1985
SerbiaPresentRekanovic et al., 2007
SloveniaPresentMiklavc and Matko, 2010
SpainPresentMartínez-Bilbao and Murillo, 2005
SwedenPresentUK CAB International, 1985
SwitzerlandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
UKPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-Northern IrelandPresentCuthbertson and Murchie, 2003
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentUK CAB International, 1985

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-New South WalesPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Hetherington and Gunning, 2003
-QueenslandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-South AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-TasmaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-VictoriaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Villalta et al., 2002
New ZealandPresentUK CAB International, 1985

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aureobasidium pullulans Antagonist
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Aalbers P, 2001. Earthworms, partners in scab control. Fruitteelt (Den Haag), 91(31):12-14.

Agrios GN, 1997. Apple Scab. In: Plant Pathology. Fourth Edition. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 334-336.

Agrios GN, 1997. Classification of Plant Pathogenic Fungi. In: Plant Pathology. Fourth Edition. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 248-254.

Ainsworth GC, 1973. Introduction and keys to higher taxa. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS, eds. The Fungi, Vol. 4. New York, USA: Academic Press, 1-7.

Aldwinckle HS, Norelli JL, Bolar JP, Harman GE, 1999. Increased resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis) of transgenic apple plants expressing chitinases from Trichoderma. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit diseases. Fontevraud l'Abbaye, France, in press.

Ammermann E, Lorenz G, Schelberger K, Wenderoth B, Sauter H, Rentzea C, 1992. BAS 490 F - a broad-spectrum fungicide with a new mode of action. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1992. Volume 1. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 403-410

Aylor DE, 1998. The aerobiology of apple scab. Plant Disease, 82(8):838-849; 57 ref.

Baric B, Ciglar I, 2006. Role of integrated plant protection in integrated apple production. (Uloga integrirane za?tite bilja u integriranoj proizvodnji jabuka.) Pomologia Croatica, 12(4):275-283.

Baudry O, Orts R, 1999. Deux examples de reduction de traitements. Arboriculture-fruitiFre, 526: 35-40.

Beck A, Ritschel A, Schubert K, Braun U, Triebel D, 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the anamorphic genus Fusicladium s. lat. as inferred by ITS nrDNA data. Mycological Progress, 4:111-116.

Becker CM, Burr TJ, Smith CA, 1992. Overwintering of conidia of Venturia inaequalis in apple buds in New York orchards. Plant Disease, 76(2):121-126

Benaouf G, Parisi L, 1997. Pathogenicity of Venturia inaequalis strains from Malus floribunda 821: comparison with race 6 on apple clones. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases. Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):8-11.

Benhamou N, Picard K, 1999. Induced resistance: a novel plant defence strategy against pathogens. Phytoprotection, 80(3):137-168.

Berkett LP, Gotlieb AR, Bergdahl JA, 1991. Development of an antibody based diagnostic kit to monitor Venturia inaequalis ascospores. Phytopathology, 81:120.

Berrie AM, 1997. Managing apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) using AdemTM. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases. Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):32-41.

Biggs AR, 1997. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS, eds. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: The American Phytopathological Society, 6-9.

Bolar JP, Norelli JL, Harman GE, Brown SK, Aldwinckle HS, 2001. Synergistic activity of endochitinase and exochitinase from Trichoderma atroviride (T. harzianum) against the pathogenic fungus (Venturia inaequalis) in transgenic apple plants. Transgenic Research, 10(6):533-543; 33 ref.

Borejsza-Wysocki W, Lester C, Attygalle AB, Hrazdina G, 1999. Elicited cell suspension cultures of apple (Malus x domestica) cv. Liberty produce biphenyl phytoalexins. Phytochemistry, 50(2):231-235; 10 ref.

Bousset L, Blaise Ph, Kellerhals M, Gessler C, 1997. Mixtures of apple cultivars in orchards: effect on the scab epidemics. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases. Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):42-48.

Braun PG, McRae KB, 1992. Composition of a population of Venturia inaequalis resistant to myclobutanil. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(3):215-220

Braun U, Ritschel A, Schubert K, 2002. (1536) Proposal to conserve the generic name Fusicladium against Spilocaea (Hyphomycetes). Taxon, 51:557.

Brent JK, Hollomon DW, 1998. Fungicide resistance: the assessment of risk. Brussels, Belgium: Global Crop Protection Federation. FRAC Monograph No. 2, 1-48.

Brent K, 1995. Fungicide resistance in crop pathogens: How can it be managed? Fungicide Resistance Action Committee FRAC. World wide web site at: http://www.gcpf.org/frac/.

Broothaerts W, de Cubber K, Zaman S, Coppens S, Keulemans J, 2000. The feasibility of fungal disease resistance in apple by expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. In: Van der Plas LHW, Dons JJM, Vanderleyden J, de Loose M, eds. Application of biotechnology and molecular biology and breeding, gene expression and molecular breeding, genome analysis, Part 11. Proceedings of the XXV International Horticultural Congress. Brussels, Belgium, 2-7 August, 1998. Acta Horticulturae, 521:91-94.

Brown GS, Kitchener AE, Barnes S, 2000. Calcium hydroxide sprays for the control of black spot on apples: treatment effects on fruit quality. In: Fokkema NJ, Beek MA, van Steekelenburg NAM, Samyn G, Maas JL, Robinson TL, Verhoyen NMJ, eds. Culture techniques with special emphasis on environmental implications, Part 3. XXV International Horticultural Congress, Brussels, Belgium, 2-7 August, 1998. Acta Horticulturae, 513:47-52.

BTnaouf G, Parisi L, 2000. Genetics of host-pathogen relationships between Venturia inaequalis races 6 and 7 and Malus species. Phytopathology, 90(3):236-242; 42 ref.

Buchenauer H, 1990. Physiological reactions in the inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi. In: Bowers WS, Ebing W, Martin D, Wegler R, eds. Chemistry of Plant Protection 6. Controlled release, biochemical effects of pesticides, inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 217-292.

Carisse O, Dewdney M, 2002. A review of non-chemical approaches for the control of apple scab. Phytoprotection, 83(1):1-29.

Carisse O, Philion V, Rolland D, Bernier J, 2000. Effect of fall application of fungal antagonists on spring ascospore production of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology, 90(1):31-37; 44 ref.

Carisse O, Svircev A, Smith R, 1999. Integrated biological control of apple scab. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases, Fontevraud l'Abbaye, France, in press.

Chapman KS, Sundin GW, Beckerman JL, 2011. Identification of resistance to multiple fungicides in field populations of Venturia inaequalis. Plant Disease, 95(8):921-926. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Charest J, Dewdney M, Paulitz T, Philion V, Carisse O, 2002. Spatial distribution of Venturia inaequalis airborne ascospores in orchards. Phytopathology, 92(7):769-779.

Chatfield JA, Draper EA, Herms DA, Cochran KD, 2002. Apple scab on crabapples at Secrest Arboretum: 2001. Special Circular - Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, No.186:93-96.

Chevreau E, Dupuis F, Ortolan C, Parisi L, 2001. Transformation of apple for durable scab resistance: expression of a puroindoline gene in susceptible and resistant (Vf) genotypes. In: Sorvari S, Karhu S, Kanervo E, Pihakaski S, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on In Vitro Culture and Horticultural breeding. Acta Horticulturae 560:323-326.

Cimanowski J, Bielenin A, Ciecierski W, 1997. Effect of autumn urea application on ascospore production of Venturia inaequalis and on control of apple scab. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases, Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):64-68.

Corbett JR, Wright K, Baillie AC, 1984. The biochemical mode of action of pesticides. London, UK: Academic Press, 382 pp.

Creemers P, 1997. Les strobilurines, une nouvelle generation de fongicides pour la lutte contre la tavelure et l'oidium. Fruit Belge, 65(467):87-95.

Creemers P, 1998. Difesa dalla ticchiolatura del melo e strategie anti-resistenza nei confronti dei fungicidi curativi. Informatore-Fitopatologico, 48(3):40-46.

Creemers P, 1998. Durchdachte SchorfbekSmpfung : FlexibilitSt als Herausforderung. Obstbau, 23:209-212.

Creemers P, 2001. MTthodes alternatives de lutte contre les maladies cryptogamiques: RTsistance induite par des produits naturels et lutte biologique contre les maladies de conservation par des levures. Le Fruit Belge, 494(69):201-209.

Creemers P, Brugmans W, Vanmechelen A, 1995. The anilino-pyrimidines, an interesting new fungicide family to control fungal diseases in fruit culture. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 60(2b):353-360; 6 ref.

Creemers P, De Vleeschauwer, Mappes D, Defloor K, 1996. BAS 490 02 F, a new fungicide to control scab and mildew in apple and pear. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 61(2a):431-441.

Creemers P, Vandergeten J, Vanmechelen A, 1988. Variability in sensitivity of field isolates of Venturia sp. to demethylation inhibitors. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(2b):577-587

Creemers P, Vanmechelen A, 1999. Managing fungal diseases on pome fruits in relation with anti-resistance strategies for modern fungicides. In: Lyr H, Russell PE, Dehne HW, Sisler HD, eds. Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds. 12th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, Thuringia, Germany, 24th-29th May 1998. Andover, UK: Intercept Ltd., 257-266.

Creemers P, Vanmechelen A, 2000. Scab infection risks in relation to biological factors and the optimum spray-timing of modern fungicide families. In: Muller W, Polesny F, Verheyden C, Webster AD, eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on integrated fruit production, Leuven, Belgium, 27 July-1 August 1998. Acta-Horticulturae, 525:133-140.

Creemers P, Vanmechelen A, 2001. Strategies and product selection in apple scab control. Parasitica, 57(1/3):13-31; 13 ref.

Creemers P, Vanmechelen A, Herbots A, 1996. Reduced spray program for the control of apple scab, with the integration of fungicidal properties, climatological and biological conditions. International conference on integrated fruit production, at Cedzyna, Poland, 28 August-2 September 1995. Bulletin OILB-SROP, 19(4):175-181.

Cuthbertson AGS, Murchie AK, 2003. The impact of fungicides to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) on the predatory mite Anystis baccarum and its prey Aculus schlechtendali (apple rust mite) in Northern Ireland Bramley orchards. Crop Protection, 22(9):1125-1130.

Daniels A, Birchmore RJ, Winter EH, 1994. Activity of pyrimethanil on Venturia inaequalis. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1994. Volume 2. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 525-532

Deckers T, Daemen E, 2000. Growth regulation in IFP production systems. In: Muller W, Polesny F, Verheyden C, Webster AD, eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on integrated fruit production, Leuven, Belgium, 27 July-1 August 1998. Acta Horticulturae, 525:179-183.

Dempsey DA, Jyoti Shah, Klessig DF, 1999. Salicylic acid and disease resistance in plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 18(4):547-575; 8 pp. of ref.

Desilets H, Rochefort S, Coulombe J, Yelle S, Brodeur J, 1997. Potential of propane flamers for reduction of apple scab primary inoculum on orchard ground. HortScience, 32(2):267-270; 29 ref.

Errampalli D, 2004. Distribution of myclobutanil fungicide sensitivities among populations of Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab, in Ontario. Acta Horticulturae [Sustainability of horticultural systems in the 21st Century, a proceedings of the XXVI International Horticultural Congress, Toronto, Canada, 11-17 August, 2002.], No.638:157-162. http://www.actahort.org

Feucht W, Treutter D, Schwalb P, 1998. Principles of barrier formation of scab-infected apple fruits. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 105(4):394-403; 31 ref.

Fiaccadori R, 1997. Stato della resistenza di Venturia inaequalis ai fungicidi endoterapici. Informatore Fitopatologico, 47(6):9-11.

Fiaccadori R, Cesari A, 1998. Sanitation from Venturia inaequalis using antagonist Athelia bombacina to reduce ascospore inoculum. International Conference of Integrated Fruit Production. Leuven Belgium, IOBC WPRS, in press.

Fiaccadori R, Cesari A, 2000. Sanitation from Venturia inaequalis using an antagonist Athelia bombacina to reduce ascospore inoculum. In: Muller W, Polesny F, Verheyden C, Webster AD, eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on integrated fruit production, Leuven, Belgium, 27 July-1 August 1998. Acta Horticulturae, 525:245-250.

Fischer M, Fischer C, 1999. Evaluation of Malus species and cultivars at the Fruit Genebank Dresden-Pillnitz and its use for apple resistance breeding. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 46(3):235-241; 20 ref.

Fischer M, Fischer C, Mittelstadt H, 1998. Beitrag der Resistenzzuchtung zur Erhohung der Bestandssicherheit und Sicherung der Fruchtqualitat bei integrierter bzw. biologisch orientierter Apfelproduktion. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, Rebe und Wein, Obstbau und Fruchteverwertung, 48(6):223-231.

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