Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Verbena officinalis
(vervain)

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Datasheet

Verbena officinalis (vervain)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Verbena officinalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • vervain
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Verbena officinalis is a perennial herb found in open areas, near dwellings, hillsides and roadsides in temperate, subtropical and tropical areas worldwide. It has been used in traditional medicine since the fourth century and has spread...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Verbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
HabitVerbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
HabitVerbena officinalis; Habit. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Habit. Found between Übersaxen and Dünserberg, Vorarlberg, Austria. August 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Habit. Found between Übersaxen and Dünserberg, Vorarlberg, Austria. August 2017.
Copyright©Robert Flogaus-Faust/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 4.0
Verbena officinalis; Habit. Found between Übersaxen and Dünserberg, Vorarlberg, Austria. August 2017.
HabitVerbena officinalis; Habit. Found between Übersaxen and Dünserberg, Vorarlberg, Austria. August 2017.©Robert Flogaus-Faust/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 4.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
InflorescenceVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
InflorescenceVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
InflorescenceVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleLeaf
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
LeafVerbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleLeaf
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
LeafVerbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleLeaf
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
LeafVerbena officinalis; Leaf, dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleLeaf
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
LeafVerbena officinalis; Leaf, ventral side. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Stem and foliage. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleStem and foliage
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Stem and foliage. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Stem and foliage. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Stem and foliageVerbena officinalis; Stem and foliage. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.
InflorescenceVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. New South Wales, Australia. April 2017.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Verbena officinalis; Infloresence. Altlußheim, Germany. June 2015.
TitleInfloresence
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Infloresence. Altlußheim, Germany. June 2015.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Verbena officinalis; Infloresence. Altlußheim, Germany. June 2015.
InfloresenceVerbena officinalis; Infloresence. Altlußheim, Germany. June 2015.Public Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. Eisenkraut, Hamburg. 2008.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. Eisenkraut, Hamburg. 2008.
Copyright©Malte/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Verbena officinalis; Inflorescence. Eisenkraut, Hamburg. 2008.
InflorescenceVerbena officinalis; Inflorescence. Eisenkraut, Hamburg. 2008.©Malte/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Verbena officinalis; Flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Flowers.
Copyright©Molekuel/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Verbena officinalis; Flowers.
FlowersVerbena officinalis; Flowers.©Molekuel/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 3.0
Verbena officinalis; Seedlings. Botanical Garden, Berlin, Germany. May 2018.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionVerbena officinalis; Seedlings. Botanical Garden, Berlin, Germany. May 2018.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Verbena officinalis; Seedlings. Botanical Garden, Berlin, Germany. May 2018.
SeedlingsVerbena officinalis; Seedlings. Botanical Garden, Berlin, Germany. May 2018.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Verbena officinalis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • vervain

Other Scientific Names

  • Verbena adulterina Hausskn.
  • Verbena domingensis Urb.
  • Verbena macrostachya F.Muell.
  • Verbena riparia Raf. ex Small & A.Heller
  • Verbena rumelica Velen.
  • Verbena spuria L.
  • Verbena vulgaris Bubani

International Common Names

  • English: European vervain; holywort; Juno’s tears; mosquito plant; official vervain; pigeon’s grass; Turkey grass; wild hyssop; wild verbena
  • Spanish: verbena común; verbena macho
  • French: herbe de cerceine; herbe sacrée; verveine officinale; verveine sauvage
  • Arabic: ben nout; tronjia
  • Portuguese: erva-dos-leprosos; urgebao

Local Common Names

  • Australia: common verbena
  • Belgium: ijzerhard
  • Brazil: erva de ferro; ferraria; planta da sorte; verbena
  • China: ma bian cao; ma pien tsao
  • Cuba: verbena francesa
  • Czech Republic: sporýš lékařský
  • Denmark: jernurt
  • Estonia: harilik raudürt
  • Finland: rohtoverbena
  • Germany: Echtes Eisenkraut; Eisenkraut; Gemeines Eisenkraut; Gewöhnliches Eisenkraut
  • Honduras: verbena alta
  • Hungary: közönséges vasfű
  • India: panukh
  • Italy: berbena; columbaria; erba buona; erba di San Giovanni; verbena
  • Japan: kumatsuzura; kumatsuzura
  • Malaysia: marphin choo
  • Netherlands: ijzerhard
  • Portugal: algebâo; algebrado; algebrâo; algibom; alisbâo; crusados; erva da cruz; erva-sagrada; gerbâo; gerivâo; girbâo; herba da crus; herba do bazo; herba dos ensalmos; jarvâo; orgâo; orjabâo; orxaván; urgebâo; urjebâo; urjebâo macho; verjebâo
  • Romania: sporici
  • Slovakia: železník lekársky
  • South Africa: Europese verbena; seona-se-scholo
  • Spain: alemoña; barbera; barremal; berbena; berbera; cruzados; curalotodo; curasana; herba ‘l corral; herba barbera; herba berbena; herba berbera; herba da cruz; hierba de la ictericia; hierba de la verbena; hierba de los ribazos; hierba de Santa Isabel; jarvâo; orjaban; orxabán; orzabám; verbana; verbena blanca; verbena de San Juan; verbena de San Xuan; verbena derecho; verbena española; verbena fina; verbena macho derecho; verbena macho recta; verbena recta; verbena sevillana; vergeban; verxebám; xarraya; yerba sagrada; yerbuca de San Juan
  • Sweden: järnört; läkeverbena
  • Thailand: nang dong laang
  • UK: common verbena; common vervain; holly herb; prostrate verbena; simpler’s joy
  • USA: herb of the cross
  • Vietnam: cỏ roi ngựa; mã tiên thảo; mã tiên thuốc

EPPO code

  • VEBOF (Verbena officinalis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Verbena officinalis is a perennial herb found in open areas, near dwellings, hillsides and roadsides in temperate, subtropical and tropical areas worldwide. It has been used in traditional medicine since the fourth century and has spread mainly due to its use as a medicinal plant. ​There are no reports describing V. officinalis as an invasive species. Although it occurs in cultivated fields, it is not reported as affecting crops or other species. This species is described in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a 'weed, agricultural weed or environmental weed, casual alien, cultivation escape and garden thug'.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Verbenaceae
  •                             Genus: Verbena
  •                                 Species: Verbena officinalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Verbena is a genus in the family Verbenaceae. According to Nesom (2010), this genus includes 70 species, with other estimates listing 40 to 50 species (Sanders, 2001), 45 (O'Leary et al., 2007) and 44 (O'Leary et al., 2010) species. Atkins (2004), however estimated between 200 and 250 species, despite treating both Glandularia Gmelin and Junellia Moldenke as segregates of VerbenaVerbena officinalis is a hardy, herbaceous perennial distributed throughout the world, in Europe, the Americas, North and Central Africa, Asia and Australia. The genus name Verbena is Latin for ‘sacred plant’; the specific epithet officinalis means ‘to be kept or stored for medicinal uses’, both names refer to the species’ ritual and medicinal uses (Quattrocchi, 1999; Munir, 2002).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of Pakistan (2020):

Erect perennial, 25-100 cm tall, somewhat woody at base, branched above; branches 4-angled with scabrous angles. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 3.5-8 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm broad, deeply serrate, lyrately pinnatifid to subentire, narrowed at the base; hispid, lower petiolate, upper ones sessile. Spikes terminal, paniculate, 10-20 cm long. Flowers pale pink or purplish, ca. 4 mm across, subsessile; bracts oblong-ovate, ca. 2 mm long, acuminate, ciliate. Calyx tube longer than bracts, minutely 5-toothed, ribbed, hairy. Corolla-tube almost cylindrical, ca. 6 mm long, unequally 5-lobed, hairy. Stamens 4, all fertile or occasionally two sterile, included; anthers appendaged. Ovary 4-lobed with short style. Fruits of four, 1-seeded, subcylindrical, smooth nutlets.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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The native distribution of V. officinalis is not clear, being reported as a cosmopolitan species, as native to the Old World or as only indigenous to the Mediterranean region (PFAF, 2020; POWO, 2020; PROTA, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020). Most references concur on V. officinalis being native to temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia reaching the Himalayas (Munir, 2002; PFAF, 2020). Barber (1982) suggests that V. officinalis is native to the Americas based on the observation that most Verbena species occur in the New World. The widespread use of V. officinalis in Europe since the fourth century and its occurrence in ballasts and dump grounds in the USA support the species’ origin in the Old World (Brown, 1878; Crackles, 1986; PROTA, 2020). V. officinalis is reported in Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (Brown, 1878; Méndez Santos, 2002; Munir, 2002; Encyclopedia of Life, 2020; Euro+Med, 2020; Flora do Brasil, 2020; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020; PROTA, 2020; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 13 Oct 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
BeninPresentIntroduced
BotswanaPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentNative
EritreaPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresent
LesothoPresentIntroduced
LibyaPresentNative
MauritiusPresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-RodriguesPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentNative
NigerPresentIntroduced
SomaliaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedReported as naturalized
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentNative
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GansuPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-JiangsuPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-ShanxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-TibetPresentNative
-XinjiangPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
GeorgiaPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-ManipurPresentNative
-MeghalayaPresentNative
-MizoramPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
-UttarakhandPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IranPresentNativeListed as a weed
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroduced
-HonshuPresentIntroduced
-KyushuPresentIntroduced
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroduced
-ShikokuPresentIntroduced
JordanPresentNative
KazakhstanPresentNative
LaosPresentIntroduced
LebanonPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PalestinePresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced1909
SyriaPresentNative
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresentNative
ThailandPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNative
UzbekistanPresentNative
VietnamPresentIntroduced
YemenPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AndorraPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CyprusPresentNative
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresentNative
FinlandPresentIntroducedDistribution described as irregular
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LiechtensteinPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
LuxembourgPresentNative
MaltaPresentNative
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentIntroducedDistribution described as irregular
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative
-Central RussiaPresentNative
-Northern RussiaPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
-Balearic IslandsPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentIntroducedDistribution described as irregular
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentIntroducedLikely introduced in Neolithic times and therefore listed as native by some sources,reported as naturalized

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1905
CanadaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced1865
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1887
GuadeloupePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1938
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedQuiché, Petén
HaitiPresentIntroduced1920
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1897
MexicoPresentIntroduced1901Sinaloa
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced1878
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced1869
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced1878
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced1880
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced1888
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedReported as a weed in cultivated and bushland areas
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1838
NiuePresentIntroduced

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced1909Cochabamba
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced1929
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Verbena officinalis is a perennial herb native to Europe, northern Africa and western Asia (Munir, 2002). Its spread has followed its cultivation mainly for its use as a medicinal herb (PROTA, 2020). It has a long-standing use as a medicinal plant and for religious ceremonies and rituals (PFAF, 2020; PROTA, 2020). This species has been used in herbal medicine since the fourth century and was a commonly cultivated species in herb gardens in medieval times (Crackles, 1986; PROTA, 2020). Collections of V. officinalis have been available from North America and the Caribbean since the 1860s, from South America since the early 1900s and from Oceania since the early 1880s (Munir, 2002; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Philippines 1909 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Mexico 1901 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
USA 1869 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Bermuda 1905 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Cuba 1865 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Dominican Republic 1887 Yes No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Guadeloupe 1938 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Haiti 1920 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Jamaica 1897 Yes No Méndez Santos (2002)
Bolivia 1909 Yes No Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Chile 1929 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Australia 1802-1805 Yes No Munir (2002)
New Zealand 1838 Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)

Risk of Introduction

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Verbena officinalis is widely distributed in temperate and subtropical habitats. It has a medium risk of introduction into suitable areas due to its use as a medicinal herb (PFAF, 2020). Its introduction to tropical areas is limited as it does not tolerate high relative humidity (PROTA, 2020).

Habitat

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Verbena officinalis is a temperate to tropical herb reported in open areas, waste grounds, roadsides, cultivated fields, mountain slopes, ditches, pastures, meadows, railroad grounds, urban areas, rocky paths, ballast dumping grounds, shipyards and gardens (Brown, 1878; Munir, 2002; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; Flora of Pakistan, 2020; PFAF, 2020). It grows at elevations of 100 to 2000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; Flora of Pakistan, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Although V. officinalis occurs in cultivated fields, there are no reports of impacts on crops or other species (Flora of Pakistan, 2020).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Germplasm collections of V. officinalis are available in various facilities (Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020). The chromosome number reported for the species is 2n = 14 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 1997; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Reproductive Biology

Verbena officinalis reproduces by seed, and can also be propagated by stem cuttings and rootstock division. The flowers can self-pollinate or are cross pollinated by bees, flies, moths and butterflies. This species will self-sow in suitable areas; seeds take about 3 weeks to germinate (PFAF, 2020).

Physiology and Phenology

Verbena officinalis flowers from July to September, with seeds maturing from August to September (PFAF, 2020). Flowers are produced one year after establishment from seed (Woodward, 1997).

Longevity

Verbena officinalis is a perennial herb (PFAF, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Verbena officinalis is a perennial native to temperate to tropical climates. It grows in all types of soils, as long as they are well drained, retain moisture and are moderately fertile with a pH of 6.1 to 7.8. V. officinalis will not grow in the shade or tolerate maritime exposure. It can survive in dense weedy areas and tolerate strong winds (Dave’s Garden, 2020; PFAF, 2020; PROTA, 2020).

Woodward (1997) reports that V. officinalis grows best in temperatures above -4°C, and will not tolerate temperatures below -17°C. Temperatures above 16°C are required for flowering and temperatures above 19°C for seed germination. It does not tolerate high relative humidity (PROTA, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 43

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -17
Mean annual temperature (ºC) -4 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration2252500 number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Golovinomyces orontii Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific Encyclopedia of Life (2020)
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus Pathogen not specific EPPO (2020)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Pests and pathogens reported as affecting V. officinalis include the insects Acronicta rumicis and Margarodes vitis, and the fungi Septoria verbenae, Peronospora verbenae, Golovinomyces orontii and Phytophthora tentaculata (Braun et al., 2009; Choi et al., 2010;Encyclopedia of Life, 2020; EPPO, 2020). V. officinalis has been identified as a host of the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Italy and Bulgaria (Grieco et al., 2000; Dikova, 2012; EPPO, 2020).   

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Although V. officinalis is reported as being dispersed by wind, no further details are given (India Biodiversity Portal, 2020).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Verbena officinalis is reported as being dispersed by animals, with no details given (India Biodiversity Portal, 2020).

Accidental Introduction

Verbena officinalis is an escape from cultivation following its use as a medicinal and ritual herb (Méndez Santos, 2002; PROTA, 2020). It is also reported as spontaneously growing in ballast dumping grounds in the USA (Brown, 1878).

Intentional Introduction

Verbena officinalis, with possible origins around the Mediterranean region, spread to temperate and subtropical areas worldwide due to its use in rituals and traditional medicine, becoming a weed following its cultivation (Crackles, 1986; PROTA, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). The species is sold as an ornamental, but mainly for cultivation in herb gardens (PROTA, 2020).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationMainly for its use as a herbal medicine Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
DisturbanceAs an escape from cultivation and established mostly near populated areas Yes PFAF (2020)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeAs a weed following its cultivation Yes PROTA (2020)
Garden waste disposalAs an escape from cultivation Yes Méndez Santos (2002)
HitchhikerFound in ballasts and established in dump grounds Yes Yes Brown (1878)
Internet salesAvailable for sale in nurseries, specialty stores and the Internet Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
Medicinal useUsed as a medicinal herb since ancient times Yes Yes Crackles (1986); PROTA (2020)
Nursery tradeMainly for its use as a herbal remedy Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
Off-site preservation Germplasm collections are available at various facilities Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2020); USDA-ARS (2020)
Ornamental purposesUsed occasionally as an ornamental, mostly in herb gardens Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
People foragingForaged from the wild for medicinal uses Yes PFAF (2020)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
GermplasmGermplasm collections are available at various facilities Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2020); USDA-ARS (2020)
MailAvailable for sale in nurseries, specialty stores and the Internet Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesAs an escape from cultivation Yes Méndez Santos (2002)
Ship ballast water and sedimentFound in ballasts and established in dump grounds Yes Yes Brown (1878)
Soil, sand and gravelPossible, as it is an escape from cultivation and self-seeds Yes Yes Méndez Santos (2002); PFAF (2020)
WindReported as wind dispersed, but without further information Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2020)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Positive and negative

Impact: Economic

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Although V. officinalis has been reported in cultivated fields, there are no reports of impacts to crops or other species (Flora of Pakistan, 2020). 

Impact: Environmental

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In Australia, V. officinalis is listed as a weed in both cultivated and bushland areas with no further details (Adkins et al., 2000).

Impact: Social

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The consumption of high doses of V. officinalis can cause nervous system paralysis, stupor and convulsions. A physician should be consulted before its use if taking other medicines to prevent possible adverse interactions. Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers are advised not to use V. officinalis (PFAF, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Verbena officinalis is available locally and from online retailers, mostly for its use as an alternative medicine (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). It is available in local markets and commercialized on a larger scale. It is one of the herbs sold as part of the ‘Bach Flower Remedies’ since the 1930s in the UK, used in the treatment of  ‘strain, stress, tension and over-enthusiasm’ (PFAF, 2020; PROTA, 2020).

There is interest in the use of V. officinalis in the food and cosmetics industries in view of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities and the fragrance composition of the essential oils (Kubica et al., 2018; Kubica et al., 2020).

Verbena officinalis has recently been proposed as a plant model system for phyllotaxis research (Zagórska-Marek et al., 2021).

Social Benefit

Verbena officinalis has been in use at least since the fourth century for medicinal, ritual and religious purposes (Munir, 2002; PROTA, 2020). Archaeological studies report the species from European herbal gardens during medieval times (Crackles, 1986). The species is still grown in gardens for ornamental, herbal and ritual purposes (PROTA, 2020).

Various parts of the plants are used for medicinal purposes, including the treatment of insect and snake bites, fevers, colds, headaches, nervous disorders, insomnia, anxiety, depression, jaundice, chlorosis, dropsy, rheumatism, gout, kidney and bladder stones, haematuria, ophthalmia, sores, gum diseases, ulcers, contusions, eczema, bronchitis and menstrual disorders (Munir, 2002; Flora of Pakistan, 2020; PFAF, 2020; PROTA, 2020). Although the use of V. officinalis by pregnant women is not recommended, it is used to assist labour and for insufficient lactation (PROTA, 2020).  A recent review by Kubica et al. (2020) discusses the chemical components of V. officinalis, its use in traditional medicine and pharmacological studies conducted to date. 

The leaves are cooked as a vegetable and boiled as a tea substitute. The flowers are used as a food garnish. The woody base of the plants is used as winter fuel for cooking (PROTA, 2020).

Environmental Services

The flowers of V. officinalis attract various insects that act as pollinators (PROTA, 2020).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Host of pest
  • Wildlife habitat

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Research model
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Verbena litoralis and V. officinalis can be confused in Australia. V. litoralis stems and inflorescences are not glandular; the leaves are coarsely toothed, neither pinnatifid nor pinnately incised or lobed. The calyx and corolla are not very conspicuous as in V. officinalis (Munir, 2002).

References

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Adkins, S. W., Davidson, P. J., Matthew, L., Navie, S. C., Wills, D. A., Taylor, I. N., Bellairs, S. M., 2000. Smoke and germination of arable and rangeland weeds. In: Seed biology: advances and applications. Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Seeds, Merida, Mexico, 1999, [ed. by Black, M., Bradford, K. J., Vazquez-Ramos, J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. 347-359. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20002303158 doi: 10.1079/9780851994048.0347

Atkins, S., 2004. Verbenaceae. In: The families and genera of vascular plants. Volume 7. Flowering plants - dicotyledons Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae), [ed. by Kadereit, J. W.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 449-468.

Barber, S. C., 1982. Taxonomic studies in the Verbena stricta complex . Systematic Botany, 7(4), 433-456.

Braun, U., Jage, H., Richter, U., Zimmermann, H., 2009. Peronospora verbenae sp. nov. - a new downy mildew on Verbena officinalis. Schlechtendalia, (No.19), 77-80.

Brown, A., 1878. Plants introduced with ballast and on made land. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 6(45), 255-258.

Choi, Y. J., Lebeda, A., Sedlarova, M., Shin, H. D., 2010. First report of downy mildew caused by Peronospora verbenae on verbena in the Czech Republic. Plant Pathology, 59(6), 1166. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02292.x

Crackles, F. E., 1986. Medieval gardens in Hull: archaeological evidence. Garden History, 14(1), 1-5.

Dave's Garden, 2020. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands.http://davesgarden.com

Dikova, B., 2012. Medicinal and essential oil-bearing plants new hosts of tomato spotted wilt virus in Bulgaria. Journal of Balkan Ecology, 15(2), 127-132. http://www.ecobalk.com

Encyclopedia of Life, 2020. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Euro+Med, 2020. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2020. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2020. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Grieco, P. D., Conte, D., Munno, I., Nuzzaci, M., Stradis, A. de, 2000. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on weeds and wild plants in Metapontino, Basilicata. (Presenza del virus della bronzatura del pomodoro (TSWV) su piante infestanti nell'area del Metapontino in Basilicata). Informatore Fitopatologico, 50(6), 43-46.

Ihsan Ullah, Wazir, S. M., Ayesha Farooq, Khan, S. U., Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 17(4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf

India Biodiversity Portal, 2020. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 1997. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN). St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2020. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. In: Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List Richmond, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens.http://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet

Khan, R. U., Wazir, S. M., Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah, I. A., Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 18(4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

Kubica, P., Szopa, A., Dominiak, J., Łuczkiewicz, M., Ekiert, H., 2018. Common vervain (Verbena officinalis L.) - botanical characteristics, chemical composition, therapeutic significance, studies on the biological activity and biotechnology researches. (Werbena lekarska (Verbena officinalis L.) - charakterystyka botaniczna, skład chemiczny, znaczenie lecznicze, badania aktywności biologicznej oraz badania biotechnologiczne). Postepy Fitoterapii, (3), 183-194. doi: 10.25121/PF.2018.19.3.183

Kubica, P., Szopa, A., Dominiak, J., Luczkiewicz, M., Halina, E., 2020. Verbena officinalis (common vervain) - a review on the investigations of this medicinally important plant species. Planta Medica, 86(17), 1241-1257. doi: 10.1055/a-1232-5758

Méndez Santos, IE, 2002. (Consideraciones sobre la presencia de Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) en Antillas Mayores). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 23(1), 147-149.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Munir, A. A., 2002. A taxonomic revision of the genus Verbena L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 20, 21-103.

Nesom, G. L., 2010. Infrageneric classification of Verbena (Verbenaceae). Phytoneuron, 11, 1-15.

O'Leary, N., Múlgura, M. E., Morrone, O., 2007. (Revisión taxonómica de las especies del género Verbena (Verbenaceae): serie Pachystachyae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 94, 571–621.

O'Leary, N., Múlgura, M. E., Morrone, O., 2010. Taxonomic review of species of the genus Verbena (Verbenaceae). II: Series Verbena. (Revisión taxonómica de las especies del género Verbena (Verbenaceae). II: Serie Verbena). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97(3), 365-424. doi: 10.3417/2007070

PFAF, 2020. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

PROTA, 2020. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Kenya, Netherlands\Nairobi: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Quattrocchi, U., 1999. CRC world dictionary of plant names: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology, Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.728 pp. https://www.crcpress.com/CRC-World-Dictionary-of-Plant-Names-Common-Names-Scientific-Names-Eponyms/Quattrocchi/p/book/9780849326738

Sanders, R. W., 2001. The genera of Verbenaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany, 5(2), 303-358.

Shah, G. M., Khan, M. A., 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 12(3), 213-219. http://wssp.org.pk/

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2020. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Woodward, F. I., 1997. Life at the edge: a 14-year study of a Verbena officinalis population's interactions with climate. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 85(6), 899-906. doi: 10.2307/2960610

Zagórska-Marek, B., Turzańska, M., Chmiel, K., 2021. Verbena officinalis Verbenaceae (Lamiales): a new plant model system for phyllotaxis research. Journal of Plant Research, 134(3), 441-456. doi: 10.1007/s10265-021-01288-2

Distribution References

Adkins S W, Davidson P J, Matthew L, Navie S C, Wills D A, Taylor I N, Bellairs S M, 2000. Smoke and germination of arable and rangeland weeds. In: Seed biology: advances and applications. Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Seeds, Merida, Mexico, 1999. [ed. by Black M, Bradford K J, Vazquez-Ramos J]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. 347-359. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20002303158 DOI:10.1079/9780851994048.0347

Anderson K, 2011. A check list of the plants of New Jersey., Woodbury, USA: Karl Anderson. 61 pp. https://www.cumauriceriver.org/botany/checklist2011.pdf

CABI, 2021. CABI Distribution Database: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40

Encyclopedia of Life, 2020. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life, http://www.eol.org

Euro+Med, 2020. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity, http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2020. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Hjelmstad R, 2015. (Urtekildens planteleksikon. Jernurt - Verbena officinalis)., Norway: Urtekilden. https://www.rolv.no/urtemedisin/medisinplanter/verbe_off.htm

Ihsan Ullah, Wazir S M, Ayesha Farooq, Khan S U, Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf

India Biodiversity Portal, 2020. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

Liljeblad J, 2020. Dyntaxa - Swedish taxonomic database. Version 1.2. SLU Artdatabanken. (Dyntaxa - Svensk taxonomisk databas. Version 1.2. SLU Artdatabanken). Sweden: Dyntaxa. https://www.dyntaxa.se/

Méndez Santos IE, 2002. (Consideraciones sobre la presencia de Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) en Antillas Mayores). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional. 23 (1), 147-149.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Munir A A, 2002. A taxonomic revision of the genus Verbena L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 21-103.

PROTA, 2020. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database, Wageningen and Nairobi, Kenya, Netherlands\Nairobi: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Shah G M, Khan M A, 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 12 (3), 213-219. http://wssp.org.pk/

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections, Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Dave’s Gardenhttp://davesgarden.com
Encyclopedia of Lifehttp://www.eol.org
Euro+Med PlantBasehttp://ww2.bgbm.org/
India Biodiversity Portalhttp://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list
Plants For A Futurehttp://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx
Useful Tropical Plantshttp://tropical.theferns.info/

Contributors

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13/07/2020 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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