Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aculus schlechtendali
(apple rust mite)

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Datasheet

Aculus schlechtendali (apple rust mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aculus schlechtendali
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple rust mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Line artwork of A. schlechtendali - adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region and legs; D, internal genitalia; E, detail of microtubercles; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of prodorsal shield region and legs.
TitleAdult female
CaptionLine artwork of A. schlechtendali - adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region and legs; D, internal genitalia; E, detail of microtubercles; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of prodorsal shield region and legs.
CopyrightFrom Keifer, 1946
Line artwork of A. schlechtendali - adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region and legs; D, internal genitalia; E, detail of microtubercles; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of prodorsal shield region and legs.
Adult femaleLine artwork of A. schlechtendali - adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region and legs; D, internal genitalia; E, detail of microtubercles; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of prodorsal shield region and legs.From Keifer, 1946

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa, 1890)

Preferred Common Name

  • apple rust mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Aculus malivagrans (Keifer)
  • Phyllocoptes schlechtendali Nalepa
  • Vasates malivagrans Keifer
  • Vasates schlechtendali (Nalepa)

International Common Names

  • English: apple bud mite; apple leaf mite; rusty leaf mite
  • French: acariose du pommier; eriophide de pommier; eriophyide du pommier et du poirier

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: aeblebladgallmide
  • Finland: kellastajapunkki, omenan
  • Germany: Eriophyide des Birn- und Apfelbaumes; Milbe, Apfelrost-
  • Norway: eplebladmidd
  • Sweden: aepplebladgallkvalster

EPPO code

  • VASAML (Vasates malivagrans)
  • VASASD (Aculus schlechtendali)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Eriophyidae
  •                                     Genus: Aculus
  •                                         Species: Aculus schlechtendali

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentAbou-Awad (1982); El-Halawany et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2009)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-GansuPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
JapanPresentKadono (1985); Funayama and Takahashi (1992); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-HonshuPresentFunayama and Takahashi (1993); CABI and EPPO (2009)
LebanonPresentBayan (1986); CABI and EPPO (2009)
PakistanPresentMohyuddin (1992); CABI and EPPO (2009)
South KoreaPresentLee JongHo et al. (2014)
TurkeyPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Denizhan and Çobanoglu (2008)

Europe

AustriaPresentNalepa (1890); Russ et al. (1974); Waldner et al. (1991); Koschier (1997); CABI and EPPO (2009)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadPaternotte and Soenen (1982); Sterk (1989); Sterk (1989a); Sterk (1990); Maeyer et al. (1993); Paternotte (1993); Sterk (1994); Paternotte (1997); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
BulgariaPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2009)Original citation: Natcheff (1978)
CroatiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
DenmarkPresentMatkowski and Schadegg (1988); Grauslund et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2009)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentLnjac et al. (1987); Injac and Dulič (1992)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadRoivainen (1947); Roivainen (1951); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
FrancePresentMeirleire (1976); CABI and EPPO (2009);
GermanyPresent, WidespreadKarg (1972); Karg et al. (1973); Schliesske (1984); Palm (1985); Michel (1988); Vogt et al. (1990); Schliesske (1992); Vogt (1992); Lange and Trautmann (1994); Gottwald and Krüger (1996); CABI and EPPO (2009)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2009);
HungaryPresentKuijpers and Zwaan (1992); CABI and EPPO (2009)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2009); Ciampolini et al. (1976); Laffi and Giovanni (1978); Strapazzon and Montà (1988); Forti et al. (1994); Ioriatti et al. (1996); CABI (Undated)
LithuaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadEpenhuijsen (1981); Alkema and Reede (1982); Trapman and Blommers (1985); Heitmans et al. (1986); Dicke (1988); Bodingius (1990); Wertheim (1990); Giezen (1993); Maeyer et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
NorwayPresentHossain (1992); CABI and EPPO (2009)
PolandPresent, WidespreadBOCZEK (1961); Boczek (1970); Boczek and Kozlowski (1985); Badowska-Czubik and Pala (1993); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
PortugalPresentCarmona (1966); CABI and EPPO (2009)
RussiaPresentSapozhnikova (1982); Shvanderov (1984); Emel'yanov (1986); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
SerbiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
SloveniaPresentBoh et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2009)
SwedenPresentRoivainen (1950); CABI and EPPO (2009)
SwitzerlandPresentHöhn and Höpli (1990); CABI and EPPO (2009)
UkrainePresentBulgak (1981); CABI and EPPO (2009)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadEasterbrook (1979); Easterbrook (1984); Wardlow and Jackson (1984); Easterbrook et al. (1985); Kapetanakis et al. (1986); Aveyard (1988); Pollak and Drinkall (1990); Young (1990); Solomon et al. (1993); Easterbrook and Palmer (1996); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
-Northern IrelandPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-British ColumbiaPresentDowning and Arrand (1976); Madsen and Carty (1977); Angerilli and Brochu (1987); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-New BrunswickPresentSantos (1976); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadHerbert and Butler (1973); Herbert (1974); Hardman et al. (1988); Hardman and Gaul (1990); Hardman et al. (1991); Hardman et al. (1995); Walde et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadWhite and Laing (1977); White and Laing (1977a); Li and Harmsen (1992); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
-QuebecPresent, WidespreadBostanian and Pitre (1978); Coulombe et al. (1978); Mailloux and Touzin (1978); Mailloux and Touzin (1978a); Paradis et al. (1979); Mailloux and Touzin (1980); Pitre and Bostanian (1980); Rivard et al. (1980); Bostanian et al. (1981); Bostanian et al. (1981a); Bostanian et al. (1983); Vincent et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2009)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-CaliforniaPresentKeifer (1952); KEIFER (1959); Croft and Jorgensen (1977); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-MassachusettsPresentHislop and Prokopy (1979); Hislop and Prokopy (1981); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-MichiganPresentCroft (1976); Johnson and Croft (1981); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated)
-New JerseyPresentSantos (1984); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadSantos (1976a); Lienk et al. (1978); Walton et al. (1978); Weires et al. (1979); Lienk et al. (1980); Leeper (1981); Santos (1984); Santos (1991); Lawson et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-OhioPresentFORSYTHE et al. (1966); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadZwick and Fields (1978); Hoy et al. (1983); Croft and MacRae (1992); Croft and MacRae (1993); Croft and Slone (1997); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2009)
-UtahPresentCroft and Jorgensen (1977); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-VermontPresentCurrier et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-VirginiaPresentParrella et al. (1981); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadBatchelor (1952); HOYT (1969); Hoyt (1969a); Hudson (1970); Hoy et al. (1983); Rathman et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated);
-WisconsinPresentOatman (1973); CABI and EPPO (2009)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009)
New ZealandPresentManson (1984); CABI and EPPO (2009)

South America

ChilePresentGonzalez (1981); González (1985); CABI and EPPO (2009)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius andersoni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius enab Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius potentillae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius sessor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius umbricatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anthoseius caudiglans Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anthoseius rhenanus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Balaustium putmani Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Haplothrips subtilissimus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Leptothrips mali Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera alpina Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera petulca Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera utahensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera xerophila Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulella tiliarum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus fallacis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus subsolidus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs USA; Virginia apples
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius vicinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phytoseiulus macropilis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phytoseius fotheringhamiae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Seiulus finlandicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethorus punctillum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus arboreus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus flumenis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus flumensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus longipilus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus pyri Predator Adults/Nymphs Netherlands apples
Typhlodromus reticulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Zetzellia mali Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Abou-Awad BA, 1982. Some eriophyoid mites from Egypt with descriptions of two new species (Acari: Eriophyoidea). Acarologia, 22(4):367-372

Ali Niazee MT; Rodriguez JG, 1979. Mite populations on apple foliage in western Oregon. Recent Advances in Acarology, 1:71-76.

Alkema P; Reede RH de, 1982. Integrated control in orchards in 1981. Fruitteelt, 72:227-229.

Angerilli NPD; Brochu L, 1987. Some influences of area and pest management on apple mite populations in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 84:3-9

Aveyard CS, 1988. Recent developments with amitraz for mite control on top fruit. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases. Thornton Heath, UK: British Crop Protection Council, No. 1:211-216

Badowska-Czubik T; Pala E, 1993. The apple leaf mite (Aculus schlechtendali) a pest of apple. Ochrona Roslin, 37:12-13.

Batchelor GS, 1952. The eriophyid mites of the state of Washington. State College of Washington Technical Bulletin, 6:1-32.

Bayan A, 1986. Tydeid mites associated with apples in Lebanon (Acari: Actinedida: Tydeidae). Acarologia, 27(4):311-316

Boczek J, 1961. Studies on eriophyid mites of Poland II. Acarologia, 3:560-570.

Boczek J, 1970. The Tetrapodili (Eriophyoidea) of orchard plants in Poland. Rozcniki Nauk Rolniczych, Seria E, 1:71-91.

Boczek J; Kozlowski J, 1985. Variation among offspring of one female Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). International Journal of Acarology, 11(3):151-155

Bodingius P, 1990. Apple rust mite an increasing problem. Fruitteelt (Den Haag), 80(8):26-27

Boh B; Kornhauser A; Krumpak A; Novosel F; Pokorny M; Radez I; Skerlava V, 1995. Pesticide with physical action. Sodobno Kmetijstvo, 28(2):55-59; 8 ref.

Bostanian NJ; Paradis RO; Pitre D, 1981. Susceptibility of phytophagous mites to a single summer treatment of acaricides in a Quebec apple orchard. Phytoprotection, 62(1):33-38

Bostanian NJ; Paradis RO; Pitre D, 1981. Trials of preventive treatments in the orchard against the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa). Phytoprotection, 62(1):53-58

Bostanian NJ; Paradis RO; Pitre D, 1983. Additional chemical control trials against the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa), in south-western Quebec. Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec, 28(1):19-24

Bostanian NJ; Pitre D, 1978. Preventive treatments against the injurious mites of the apple tree (Panonychus ulmi and Aculus schlechtendali). Resume des Recherches, Station de Recherches, Saint-Jean, Queec, 7:17-18

Buholzer F; Skillman SW, 1995. Lufenuron: interesting new properties on sucking pests for a chitin synthesis inhibitor. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 60(3b):919-925; 3 ref.

Bulgak VD, 1981. Varietal resistance of apple to the main pests and diseases in the palmette orchards of the Crimea. Byul. VNII Zashchity Rast., 51:48-53.

Burrell RW; McCormick WJ, 1964. Thyphlodromus and Amblyseius (Acarina:Phytoseiidae) as predators on orchard mites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 57:483-487.

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Aculus schlechtendali. [Distribution Map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 717.

Cadogan BL; Laing JE, 1981. A study of Balaustium putmani (Acarina: Erythrpidae) in apple orchards in southern Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 112:13-22

Carmona MM, 1966. Contribuicao para o conhecimento dos acaros das plantas cultivadas em Portugal. IV. Agron. Lusitana., 24:175-203.

Ceparano G; Job S, 1996. Flucycloxuron: a new acaricide. Informatore Fitopatologico, 46(5):32-34.

Chant; DA, 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I. Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Canadian Entomologist, 91(12):5-44.

Ciampolini M; Rota PA; Schulthaus S de, 1976. Apple rust caused by the eriophyid Aculus schlechtendali. Informatore Agrario, 32:24243-24245.

Clements DR; Harmsen R, 1993. Prey preferences of adult and immature Zetzellia mali Ewing (Acari: Stigmaeidae) and Typhlodromus caudiglans Schuster (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Canadian Entomologist, 125(5):967-969

Coulombe LJ; Parent B; Pitre D, 1978. Fluctuations of populations of Panonychus ulmi (Koch) and Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.) on apple trees after fungicidal treatments in the south-west of Quebec. Phytoprotection, 59(3):121-131

Cranham JE, 1979. Managing spider mites on fruit trees. Span, 22(1):28-30

Croft BA, 1976. Pest management systems for phytophagous mites and the codling moth. Miscellaneous Publication, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 1276:99-121

Croft BA; Hoying SA, 1977. Competitive displacement of Panonychus ulmi (Acarina: Tetranychidae) by Aculus schlechtendali (Acarina: Eriophyidae) in apple orchards. Canadian Entomologist, 109(8):1025-1034

Croft BA; Jorgensen CD, 1977. Typhlodromus mcgregori Chant (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) and its control of phytophagous mites in Utah and southern California apple orchards. Great Basin Naturalist, 37(3):366-374

Croft BA; MacRae IV, 1992. Persistence of Typhlodromus pyri and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on apple after inoculative release and competition with Zetzellia mali (Acari: Stigmaeidae). Environmental Entomology, 21(5):1168-1177

Croft BA; MacRae IV, 1993. Biological control of apple mites: impact of Zetzellia mali (Acari: Stigmaeidae) on Typhlodromus pyri and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Environmental Entomology, 22(4):865-873

Croft BA; MacRae IV; Currans KG, 1992. Factors affecting biological control of apple mites by mixed populations of Metaseiulus occidentalis and Typhlodromus pyri. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 14(3-4):343-355

Croft BA; McGroarty DL, 1977. The role of Amblyseius fallacis (Acarina:Phytoseiidae) in Michigan apple orchards. Research Reports of the Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lansing, 333:24.

Croft BA; Slone DH, 1997. Equilibrium densities of European red mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) after exposure to three levels of predaceous mite diversity on apple. Environmental Entomology, 26(2):391-399; 25 ref.

Currier WW; Maccollom GB; Baumann GL, 1982. Drift residues of air-applied carbaryl in an orchard environment. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(6):1062-1068

Denizhan E; Çobanoglu S, 2008. Population development and predators of Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acarina: Eriophyidae) on Malus floribunda L. (Rosaceae) in Ankara. (Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acarina: Eriophyidae)'nin Ankara'da Malus floribunda L. (Rosaceae) üzerinde popülasyon degisimi ve predatörleri.) Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, 14(3):288-296. http://tarimbilimleri.agri.ankara.edu.tr/eng/index_eng.htm

Dicke M, 1988. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 1. Response to volatile kairomones. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 4(1):1-13

Dicke M; Groeneveld A, 1986. Hierarchical structure in kairomone preference of the predatory mite Amblyseius potentillp: dietary component indispensable for diapause induction affects prey location behaviour. Ecological Entomology, 11(2):131-138

Dicke M; Jong Mde, 1988. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 2. Electrophoretic diet analysis. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 4(1):15-25

Dicke M; Sabelis MW; Berg Hvan den, 1989. Does prey preference change as a result of prey species being presented together? Analysis of prey selection by the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Oecologia, 81(3):302-309; 24 ref.

Dicke M; Sabelis MW; Jong M de, 1988. Analysis of prey preference in phytoseiid mites by using an olfactometer, predation models and electrophoresis. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 5(3-4):225-241

Dicke M; Sabelis MW; Jong M de; Alers MPT, 1990. Do phytoseiid mites select the best prey species in terms of reproductive success? Experimental & Applied Acarology, 8(3):161-173.

Downing RS; Arrand JC, 1976. Integrated control of orchard mites on apple in British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist, 108(1):77-81

Easterbrook MA, 1979. The life-history of the eriophyid mite Aculus schlechtendali on apple in south-east England. Annals of Applied Biology, 91(3):287-295

Easterbrook MA, 1984. Chemical and integrated control of apple rust mite. 1984 British Crop Protection Conference. Pests and diseases. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, UK, November 19-22, 1984, Volume 3. Croydon, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 1107-1111

Easterbrook MA, 1984. Effects of pesticides on the apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.) (Eriophyidae). Journal of the Horticultural Society, 59:51-55.

Easterbrook MA, 1984. The biology and control of the rust mites Aculus schlechtendali and Epitrimerus piri on apple and pear in England. Acarology VI, 2:797-803.

Easterbrook MA, 1996. Damage and control of eriophyoid mites in apple and pear. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J, eds. Eriophyoid Mites - Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 527-541.

Easterbrook MA; Buss DS, 1988. Tests of acaricides against apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali). Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars No. 9. Annals of Applied Biology, 112:2-3.

Easterbrook MA; Campbell CAM, 1986. Tests of early ovicides against mites and insects on apple and pear. Annals of Applied Biology, (Supplement, Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars), 108:38-39

Easterbrook MA; Fuller MM, 1986. Russeting of apples caused by apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 109(1):1-9

Easterbrook MA; Palmer JW, 1996. The relationship between early-season leaf feeding by apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.), and fruit set and photosynthesis of apple. Journal of Horticultural Science, 71(6):939-944; 13 ref.

Easterbrook MA; Solomon MG, 1983. Damage to apple fruits by apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 1. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, UK, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare. Croydon, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 109

Easterbrook MA; Solomon MG; Cranham JE; Souter EF, 1985. Trials of an integrated pest management programme based on selective pesticides in English apple orchards. Crop Protection, 4(2):215-230

El-Halawany ME; Abou-El-Ela RG; Esmail HM, 1990. Population dynamics of mites and their natural enemies on apple and apricot trees. Agricultural Research Review, 68(1):59-66

Emel'yanov VA, 1986. The effect of some fungicides on the apple acarocoenosis. Trudy Latviiskoi Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii, No. 234:3-6

Epenhuijsen CW van, 1981. Fruit tree gall mite (Aculus schlechtendali) a pest on apple trees not to be underestimated. Fruitteelt, 71:238-241.

Forsythe HY Jr; Rings RW, 1966. Eriophyid mites new to Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science, 66:265.

Forti D; Ioriatti C; Angeli G; Catoni M, 1994. Two new acaricides, pyridaben and fenpyroximate: evaluation of their efficacy on Panonychus ulmi (Koch) and Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.) and their nontarget effects on beneficial arthropods. Informatore Fitopatologico, 44(7-8):38-42

Funayama K; Takahashi Y, 1992. Studies on the ecology of the apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Bulletin of the Akita Fruit-Tree Experiment Station, No. 22:9-22

Funayama K; Takahashi Y, 1993. Studies on the control and management of the apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa). I. Chemical control and valuation as alternative food for predatory mites. Bulletin of the Akita Fruit-Tree Experiment Station Japan, No. 23:1-13

Genini M; Baillod M, 1987. The introduction of resistant strains of Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) and Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 19(2):115-123

Giezen MM, 1993. Side-effect of a fungicide on Typhlodromus pyri and the flexibility of the predatory mite population. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 58(2b):491-495

Glass EH, 1975. Recent developments in deciduous orchard pest management in the United States. Bulletin, Organisation Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes, 5(2):101-111

Gonzalez RH, 1981. The red spider mites of apple and pear. Revista Fruticola, 2(1):3-9

Gonzalez RH, 1985. Eriophyid apple and pear mites in Chile (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 12:77-84

Gottwald R; Krnger F, 1996. Methodical investigations on infestation by the with European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali on leaves of different ages. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 48(4):69-72; 4 ref.

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