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Datasheet

Aculops lycopersici (tomato russet mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aculops lycopersici
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato russet mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Feeding by A. lycopersici on the foliage, inflorescence and young fruit of tomato plants causes shrivelling and necrosis of leaves, dropping of flowers, russeting of fruit and, if uncontrolled, death of the plants.
TitleDamage symptoms on tomato plant
CaptionFeeding by A. lycopersici on the foliage, inflorescence and young fruit of tomato plants causes shrivelling and necrosis of leaves, dropping of flowers, russeting of fruit and, if uncontrolled, death of the plants.
CopyrightFrom Keifer et al., 1982
Feeding by A. lycopersici on the foliage, inflorescence and young fruit of tomato plants causes shrivelling and necrosis of leaves, dropping of flowers, russeting of fruit and, if uncontrolled, death of the plants.
Damage symptoms on tomato plantFeeding by A. lycopersici on the foliage, inflorescence and young fruit of tomato plants causes shrivelling and necrosis of leaves, dropping of flowers, russeting of fruit and, if uncontrolled, death of the plants.From Keifer et al., 1982
Line artwork of A. lycopersici, adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region; D, detail of microtubercles; E, internal genitalia; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of legs.
TitleAdult female
CaptionLine artwork of A. lycopersici, adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region; D, detail of microtubercles; E, internal genitalia; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of legs.
CopyrightFrom Keifer, 1946
Line artwork of A. lycopersici, adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region; D, detail of microtubercles; E, internal genitalia; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of legs.
Adult femaleLine artwork of A. lycopersici, adult female: A, lateral view; B, featherclaw; C, dorsal view of prodorsal shield region; D, detail of microtubercles; E, internal genitalia; F, coxae and genital region; G, lateral view of legs.From Keifer, 1946

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917)

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato russet mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Aceria lycopersici
  • Aculops destructor
  • Aculops lycopersicae
  • Aculus destructor (Keifer, 1940)
  • Aculus lycopersici (Tryon, 1917)
  • Eriophyes lycopersici
  • Phyllocoptes destructor Keifer, 1940
  • Phyllocoptes lycopersici Tryon, 1917
  • Vasates destructor (Keifer, 1940)
  • Vasates lycopersici (Tryon, 1917)

International Common Names

  • English: tomato mite
  • Spanish: acaro de la roseta del tomate; acaro de la roseta del tomato (Mexico); acaro del tomate; acaro tostador de la tomate; canelilla de la roseta del tomato (Mexico); deca de los tomates
  • French: acarien de la tomate; acariose bronzée de la tomate

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Milbe, Tomaten-; Tomaten-Milbe

EPPO code

  • VASALY (Aculops lycopersici)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Eriophyidae
  •                                     Genus: Aculops
  •                                         Species: Aculops lycopersici

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917) is the correct name for the tomato russet mite. Tryon published a brief description of the damage caused by the mite and proposed the name Phyllocoptes lycopersici. Massee (1937) considered Tryon's description to be inadequate and the name to be a nomen nudum. He redescribed the mite as a new species under the same name, Phyllocoptes lycopersici, and most subsequent authors have attributed the name to Massee. However, as pointed out by Amrine (1994), Tryon's description and name take precedence over Massee's under Article 12b(8) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. There is now general agreement that the name Phyllocoptes destructor Keifer is a junior synonym of Phyllocoptes lycopersici Tryon.

Description

Top of page Adults of A. lycopersici were well described and illustrated by Keifer (1940) under the name Phyllocoptes destructor Keifer. Additional useful data and interpretations are found in Bailey and Keifer (1943), Lamb (1953a) and in Perring and Farrar (1986). Adult females are the most abundant and frequently encountered instar on symptomatic plants. They have the basic characters of Eriophyidae and Phyllocoptinae. The body is fusiform and from 150 to 200 µm long. The prodorsal shield is 40 to 50 µm long, has a broad, short anterior lobe that is abruptly deflected ventrally; is strongly sculptured with a diagnostic hourglass-shaped pattern of longitudinal striations, and bears a pair of moderately long, posteriorly-directed, divergent dorsal setae near the posterior edge. The body exhibits a series of annuli strongly differentiated into tergites and sternites. There are 25-30 tergites and more than 60 sternites, and the sternites bear pointed microtubercles at their posterior edges. The genital coverflap ranges from 14-16 µm in length and is sculptured with longitudinal striations. The two pairs of legs have distinctive claw-like structures terminally on the tarsi, termed feather-claws, with four pairs of rays.

Distribution

Top of page A. lycopersici probably now occurs in all countries where tomatoes and related solanaceous crops are grown.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentEPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentKuang, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentAPPPC, 1987
Georgia (Republic of)PresentTukalevskii and Rogachev, 1959; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentGardenhire, 1959; Farahbakhsh, 1961; Baradaran-Anaraki and Daneshvar, 1992; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentMohamed and El-Heidari, 1968; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadHarpaz, 1955; Avidov and Harpaz, 1969; Berlinger et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentKim et al., 2002
LebanonPresentTalhouk, 1950; Jalloul, 1971; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentGentry, 1965; Martin, 1971; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentLamb, 1953a; Avidov and Harpaz, 1969; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentTalhouk, 1954; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentSekeroglu and Ozgur, 1984; Can and Çobanoglu, 2010; Akyazi, 2012; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentCheremushkina et al., 1991

Africa

AngolaPresentCarmona, 1968; Carvalho and Cardoso, 1970; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentAtalla & Atrouzy, 1971; Attiah, 1971; Wahab et al., 1974; Osman, 1975; Abou-Awad, 1979; Abou-Awad, 1980; Osman and Zaki, 1986; Hassan et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentInserra and Ciccarone, 1973; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentIntroduced1976 Invasive Kamau, 1977; Kamau et al., 1992; IPPC-Secretariat, 2005; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCavin, 1961; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentAnon., 1961; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentLamb, 1953b; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentRodrigues, 1968; EPPO, 2014
SenegalPresentCollingwood et al., 1981; Bourdouxhe and Collingwood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentRyke and Meyer, 1960; Daiber, 1985; Undurraga and Dybas, 1988; Daiber, 1996; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentMillet, 1959; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentEPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentWhelan, 1962; Taylor, 1978; EPPO, 2014

North America

BermudaPresentMonkman, 1992
CanadaPresentMacnay, 1953; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentAnon., 1953b; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentBrodeur et al., 1997
MexicoPresentEstebanes-Gonzales & Rodriguez-Navarro, 1991; Undurraga and Dybas, 1988; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentEPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentKeifer, 1940; Anon., 1943; Michelbacher, 1944; Michelbacher et al., 1950; Wilcox and Howland, 1950; Keifer, 1952; Wilcox and Howland, 1954; Wilcox and Howland, 1956; Hessein and Perring, 1986; Zalom et al., 1986; Royalty and Perring, 1988; Royalty and Perring, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentHoerner, 1944; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentAnon., 1953a; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentRolfs, 1893; WATSON and TISSOT, 1942; Wilcox and Elmore, 1943; Denmark, 1955; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentOsburn, 1953; Davis, 1964; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentHoldaway, 1940; Schmidt, 1943; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentDecker, 1952; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentRaun, 1953; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentBourne, 1952; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentHutson, 1952; Parks, 1952; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentEPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentParks, 1952; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentAnon., 1960; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentMitchell, 1955; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentHoyman and Post, 1948; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentCoppock, 1958; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCapizzi, 1956; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentParks, 1952; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentCuthbert and Reid, 1955; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentMorris, 1956; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentAnderson, 1954; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentEPPO, 2014
CubaPresentCabrera and McCoy, 1984; EPPO, 2014
CuraçaoPresentAnon., 1980
GrenadaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
GuadeloupePresentMessiaen, 1971; EPPO, 2014
MartiniquePresentEPPO, 2014
MontserratPresentEPPO, 2014
Netherlands AntillesRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentRossi, 1963; Undurraga and Dybas, 1988; Costilla and Barberis, 1990; Costilla, 1991; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCosta & Carvalho, 1962; Rossetto, 1972; Flechtmann, 1974; Ramalho, 1978; Ramalho and Leao-Veiga, 1980; Morales and Lima, 1983; Oliveira and Sponchiado, 1983; Haji et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentDa Silva et al., 1988
-Minas GeraisPresentLeite et al., 2000
-PernambucoPresentEgashira, 1973; Haji et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO, 2014
ChilePresentSepúlveda-Chavera et al., 2015
French GuianaPresentEPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentNunez and Maeso, 1983; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentAnon., 1979; Cermeli et al., 1982; EPPO, 2014

Europe

BulgariaRestricted distribution196*Tsalev, 1967; Gerdzhikov, 1968; Atanasov et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentMilek and Simala, 2008
CyprusWidespreadGeorghiou, 1960; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentMáca, 2012
FinlandEradicatedLiro and Roivainen, 1951; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionBlanck et al., 1954; Blanck et al., 1956; Avidov and Harpaz, 1969; Trottin-Caudal et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentHatzinikolis, 1969a; Hatzinikolis, 1969b; EPPO, 2014
HungaryEradicated1988Kerenyine-Nemestothy and Budai, 1985; Klara and Csaba, 1985; Izhevskii, 1992; EPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionVacante, 1982; Vacante, 1985; Manzaroli and Benuzzi, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
MaltaPresentSaliba, 1963; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentIzhevskii, 1992
NetherlandsPresentVan Rossem, 1974; Bravenboer, 1975; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentEPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentEPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentCelar and Valic, 2003
SpainPresentPlanes, 1941; Arno et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentPettersson, 1995
SwitzerlandPresentFischer and Mourrut-Salesse, 2005
UKPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentEvans et al., 1961; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentTukalevskii and Rogachev, 1959; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentAnon., 1934; Anon., 1973; Hamilton, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentTryon, 1917; Sloan, 1938; Veitch, 1938; Sloan, 1941; Sloan, 1945; Anon., 1951; Smith, 1955; Smith and Saunders, 1960; Kay, 1986; Kay and Shepherd, 1988; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEvans, 1942; Anon., 1972; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentPescott, 1940; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
FijiPresentEPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentCohic, 1958; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentLamb, 1953a; Cottier and Taylor, 1937; Massee, 1937; Ferro and, 1976; Manson, 1984; EPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentEPPO, 2014

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. lycopersici is most often reported as a pest of tomatoes, but utilizes a wide range of Solanaceae, including several crop plants, as secondary hosts. The mites require perennial alternate hosts in order to survive during winter and, as a result of the catastrophic injury they cause to tomato plants, after death of their primary hosts.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Browallia americanaSolanaceaeWild host
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
Convolvulus (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple)SolanaceaeWild host
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Lycopersicon peruvianumSolanaceaeWild host
Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato)SolanaceaeWild host
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Petunia hybridaSolanaceaeWild host
Physalis minima (Sunberry)SolanaceaeWild host
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum muricatum (melon pear)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem-cherry)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Members of A. lycopersici feed on the foliage, inflorescence and young fruit of tomato plants causing shrivelling and necrosis of leaves, dropping of flowers, russeting of fruit and, if uncontrolled, death of the plants (Keifer et al., 1982). Feeding by the mites damages epidermal tissue (Royalty and Perring, 1988) and guard cells thereby inhibiting gas exchange and photosynthesis (Royalty and Perring, 1989). The mites cause similar, but usually less severe, injury to related solanaceous crops.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Fruit

  • lesions: scab or pitting

Leaves

  • abnormal forms
  • abnormal leaf fall
  • fungal growth
  • necrotic areas
  • wilting
  • yellowed or dead

Whole plant

  • early senescence
  • plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In field situations, airborne adults of A. lycopersici begin to infest tomatoes perennial alternate hosts shortly after transplanting (Bailey, 1942; Michelbacher, 1943; Sloan, 1945; Keifer, 1952; Ramalho, 1978). Females begin to oviposit soon after becoming established on the host, giving rise to a succession of generations (up to seven per growing season) that can develop from egg to adult in as little as 6 or 7 days each under optimum conditions of 26.5°C and 30% RH (Bailey and Keifer, 1943; Anderson, 1954; Wilcox and Howland, 1954; Rice and Strong, 1962; Gerdzhikov, 1968; Jeppson et al., 1975; Osman, 1975; Flechtmann, 1977; Abou-Awad, 1979). Consequently, populations increase rapidly to very high densities with catastrophic impact on the vitality of the host, especially under dry weather conditions (Holdaway, 1941). When the primary host dies, some of the mites are dispersed by wind to nearby alternative hosts where they form overwintering aggregations. In greenhouses, the sources of infestation of young plants are surviving populations of mites on remnants of previous crops of infected plants or mites newly introduced on young plants. Perring (1996) summarized information on the biology of A. lycopersici.

A. lycopersici has been implicated as a vector of the fungal pathogen Hirsutella thompsonii (Cabrera and McCoy, 1984).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius victoriensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius concordis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius gossipi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hirsutella thompsonii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Cuba tomatoes
Homeopronematus anconai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pronematus ubiquitus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scolothrips sexmaculatus Predator Adults/Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Hessein and Perring (1988) reported predation of A. lycopersici by a tydeid mite Homeopronematus anconai. Osman and Zaki (1986) investigated the predation efficiency of the stigmaeid mite Agistemus exsertus against A. lycopersici. Sabelis (1996) summarized information on reported phytoseiid mite predators of A. lycopersici.

Impact

Top of page A. lycopersici may cause serious reductions in yield in tomato crops, especially when young plants are exposed to attack. Losses of up to 65% have been reported in situations where young plants have become heavily infested shortly after transplantation (Eschiapati et al., 1975; Oliveira et al., 1982).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Field infestations of A. lycopersici are detected by inspecting the foliage of symptomatic plants.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Eriophyoid mites can be identified with certainty only by examining properly cleared and slide-mounted specimens under high magnification. Members of A. lycopersici resemble members of other species of Aculops, but can be distinguished using the diagnostic character states listed by Keifer (1940), Bailey and Keifer (1943), Lamb (1953a) and Perring and Farrar (1986).

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

Approaches have changed from repeated application of broad spectrum insecticides to focused treatment of young plants to prevent establishment of A. lycopersici early in the growing season (Anon., 1934, 1942, 1951, 1972; Morgan, 1935; Cottier and Taylor, 1937; Sloan, 1938, 1941, 1945; Veitch, 1938; Keifer, 1940; Lockwood, 1940, 1942; Pescott, 1940; Planes, 1941; Bailey, 1942; Campbell, 1942a, b; Watson and Tissot, 1942; Bailey and Keifer, 1943; Wilcox and Elmore, 1943; Michelbacher, 1944; Michelbacher et al., 1948, 1950; Wilcox and Howland, 1950, 1954, 1956; Lamb and Jacks, 1952; Tuft and Anderson, 1953; Anderson, 1954; Blanck et al., 1954, 1956; Smith, 1955; Smith and Saunders, 1956, 1960; Rice and Strong, 1962; Tsalev, 1967; Gerdzhikov, 1968; Egashira, 1973; de Sales et al., 1973; Siqueira and Dunham, 1974; Jeppson et al., 1975; Osman, 1975; Hamilton, 1976; Kamau, 1977; Taylor, 1978; Ramalho and Leao-Veiga, 1980; Collingwood et al., 1981; Bourdouxhe and Collingwood, 1982; Vacante, 1982; Maeso and Nunez, 1983; Nunez and Maeso, 1983; Oliveira and Sponchiado, 1983; Perring and Trumble, 1984; Abou-Awad and El-Banhawy, 1985; Daiber, 1985; Perring and Farrar, 1986; Royalty and Perring, 1987; Kay and Shepherd, 1988; da Silva et al., 1988; Haji et al., 1988; Undurraga and Dybas, 1988; Costilla and Barberis, 1990; Baradaran-Anaraki and Daneshvar, 1992).

Of several acaricides tested against A. lycopersici in the field in Australia, dicofol, SLJ0312 (an experimental compound), cyhexatin, azocyclotin and sulprofos were found to be effective (Kay and Shepherd, 1988). Dicofol was recommended to control or prevent infestation of the mite. Royalty and Perring (1987) found avermectin B1 to be more toxic to A. lycopersici than dicofol, and selective doses of avermectin B1 gave good control of the pest without reducing numbers of the beneficial tydeid mite Homeopronematus anconai. Perring (1996) provides a short overview of the control of A. lycopersici.

Biological Control

Chemical methods have progressively been supplemented, especially in greenhouse situations, by increasingly well understood biological control strategies involving predatory phytoseid, stigmaeid and tydeid mites (Bailey and Keifer, 1943; Anderson, 1954; Bravenboer, 1975; Anon., 1977; Abou-Awad, 1979, 1980; de Morales and Lima, 1983; Hessein and Perring, 1986, 1988; Osman and Zaki, 1986; James, 1989; Manzaroli and Benuzzi, 1995; Brodeur et al., 1997). Integrated pest management of A. lycopersici in greenhouses has been reported in a number of recent studies (Berlinger et al., 1988; Arno et al., 1994; Atanasov et al., 1995).

References

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1977. Annual report of the Research Branch 1971-1972. Report, Department of Agriculture, Zambia, 287 pp.

1980. New pest introductions or discovery. Quarterly Report, FAO Caribbean Plant Protection Commission, 9(3):4

Abou-Awad BA, 1979. On the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari, Eriophyidae) in Egypt. Anzeiger für Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 52(10):153-156

Abou-Awad BA, 1980. Two new species of genus Aculops in Egypt (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 21(2):234-238

Abou-Awad BA; El-Banhawy EM, 1985. Susceptibility of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Acari: Eriophyidae), in Egypt to methamidophos, pyridaphenthion, cypermethrin, dicofol and fenarimol. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 1(1):11-15

Akyazi R, 2012. First report of Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Pepino in Turkey. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 44(3):115-116. http://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/jear/article/view/jear.2012.e20/pdf

Amrine JW; Stasny TA, 1994. Catalog of the Eriophyoidea (Acarina: Prostigmata) of the world. West Bloomfield, USA; Indira Publishing House, viii + 798 pp.

Anderson LD, 1954. The tomato russet mite in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 47:1001-1005.

Anon., 1934. Insect pests and their control. Agricultural Gazette, New South Wales, 45:210-215.

Anon., 1942. Meet the tomato mite. Pacific Rural Press, 44:131.

Anon., 1943. Incidence of insect pests by counties. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture, 32:253-256.

Anon., 1951. Tomato mite. Queensland Agricultural and Pastoral Handbook, 3(373):388-390.

Anon., 1953. Canadian Insect Pest Report, 31:63.

Anon., 1953. Summary of Insect Conditions - Delaware. Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 3:630.

Anon., 1960. Truck crop insects - tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici - New Mexico. Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 10:946.

Anon., 1961. Report of the Mauritius Department of Agriculture for 1959:50.

Anon., 1972. Tomato mite. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 43:244-245.

Anon., 1973. Tomato mite (Aculus lycopersici). Bulletin, New South Wales Department of Agriculture, IP 56C.

Anon., 1979. The tomato russet mite, new tomato pest. Noticias Agricolas, 8:121-122.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arno J; Moliner J; Gabarra R, 1994. Integrated pest control of early greenhouse tomato in the Isle of Menorca. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 20(2):501-509

Atalla EAR; El-Atrouzy N, 1971. Survey of mites associated with vegetable crops in U.A.R. Agricultural Research Review, 49(1):116-117

Atanasov ND; Fernandez-Munoz R; Cuartero J; Gomez-Guillamon ML, 1995. Integrated control of mites on tomatoes. In: Fernandez-Munoz R, Cuartero J, eds. First International Symposium on Solanacea for Fresh Market, Malaga, Spain, 28-31 March, 1995. Acta Horticulturae, 412:546-550.

Attiah HH, 1971. New records of Eriophyid mites from Egypt (Acarina). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 54:43-47.

Avidov Z; Harpaz I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press.

Bailey SF, 1942. Winter control of the tomato russet mite. California Cultivator, 89:600.

Bailey SF; Keifer HH, 1943. The tomato russet mite, Phyllocoptes destructor Keifer: Its present status. Journal of Economic Entomology, 36:706-712.

Baradaran-Anaraki P; Daneshvar H, 1992. Studies on the biology and chemical control of tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Acari: Eriophyidae), in Varamin. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 59(1-2):25-27

Berlinger MJ; Dahan R; Mordechi S, 1988. Integrated pest management of organically grown greenhouse tomatoes in Israel. Applied Agricultural Research, 3(5):233-238

Blanck A; Miguel L; Motemps J, 1954. Premier essais defficacité comparée des nouveaux acaricides dans la lutte contre lacariose bronzée de la tomate. Phytoma, 7:5-9.

Blanck A; Miguel L; Motemps J, 1956. Lutte contre lacariose de la tomate. Phytoma, 8:37-41.

Bourdouxhe L; Collingwood EF, 1982. Effectiveness of three photostable pyrethroids with regard to the principal orders of insects and mites injurious to market-garden crops in Senegal. Agronomie Tropicale, 37(4):379-388

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