Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ustilago maydis
(common smut of maize)

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Datasheet

Ustilago maydis (common smut of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ustilago maydis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common smut of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •         Class: Ustilaginomycetes
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on maize. Smut galls may form on leaves, stalks, ears, or tassels of infected plants.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on maize. Smut galls may form on leaves, stalks, ears, or tassels of infected plants.
Copyright©K.F. Cardwell/IITA
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on maize. Smut galls may form on leaves, stalks, ears, or tassels of infected plants.
SymptomsUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on maize. Smut galls may form on leaves, stalks, ears, or tassels of infected plants.©K.F. Cardwell/IITA
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
Copyright©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn/Germany
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
SymptomsUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn/Germany
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
Copyright©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn/Germany
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
SymptomsUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field. ©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn/Germany
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
Copyright©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn/Germany
Ustilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field.
SymptomsUstilago zeae (common smut of maize); symptoms on corn cob in the field. ©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn/Germany

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda

Preferred Common Name

  • common smut of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Lycoperdon zeae Beckm., Hannov. Mag.
  • Uredo maydis (DC.)
  • Uredo segetum f. zeae-maydis DC.
  • Uredo segetum var. mays-zeae DC.
  • Uredo zeae Schwein. (DC.)
  • Uredo zeae-mays DC.
  • Ustilago carbo-maydis Phillipar.
  • Ustilago zeae (Link) Unger
  • Ustilago zeae-mays (DC.) Magnus

International Common Names

  • English: blister smut of maize; boil smut of maize; gall of maize; maize smut; pustule tumor (of maize); sorus (of maize)
  • Spanish: carbón del maíz
  • French: charbon du maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Brand, Beulen-: Mais; Brand: Mais

EPPO code

  • USTIMA (Ustilago maydis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •                 Class: Ustilaginomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Ustilaginomycetidae
  •                         Order: Ustilaginales
  •                             Family: Ustilaginaceae
  •                                 Genus: Ustilago
  •                                     Species: Ustilago maydis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
GabonPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
South AfricaPresentMills and Kotze (1981); Mills et al. (1982); UK, CAB International (1986)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1986)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Wu (1988); Sun (1990)
-LiaoningPresentZhu et al. (1981)
GeorgiaPresentBatiashvili (1976); Oksuzyan and Chikovani (1988)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a); UK, CAB International (1986)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IranPresentMehrian (1984); UK, CAB International (1986)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Inoue et al. (1989)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
KyrgyzstanPresentFomina (1978); UK, CAB International (1986)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PhilippinesPresentFajardo and Celino (1975); UK, CAB International (1986)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SingaporePresentLim (1983)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
TaiwanPresentTseng (1988)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
TurkeyPresentAtaç (1984); UK, CAB International (1986); Gur'ev et al. (1990)
TurkmenistanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
VietnamPresentLe Doan Dien (1981); UK, CAB International (1986)

Europe

AustriaPresentBohm and Glaeser (1976); Zwatz (1986)
BelgiumPresentFrison and Verhoyen (1979); Legros and Geenen (1979)
BulgariaPresentPopov (1972); Hooker and Smiljaković (1979); Popov and Popova (1979)
CroatiaPresentČizmić (2007)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CzechoslovakiaPresentPolerecky (1980); Hampejs (1985); UK, CAB International (1986)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentSultan and Jovicevic (1982); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
FrancePresentLeroux and Gredt (1978); Vergnet (1989)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Kostandi and Geisler (1989)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
HungaryPresentKizmush (1985); UK, CAB International (1986); Odiemah and Kovacs (1990)
ItalyPresentBiondi et al. (1985); Caretta et al. (1985); UK, CAB International (1986)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MoldovaPresentKuporitskaya and Bikineeva (1977); Yurku et al. (1980)
NetherlandsPresentEbskamp (1981); UK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PolandPresentBabilas (1976); Walczak (1977)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1986); Matveeva and Babayants (1988)
RomaniaPresentCristea et al. (1977); Gutenmacher (1977)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-SiberiaPresentKostornoi et al. (1978)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
-Canary IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
United KingdomPresentCook (1977); UK, CAB International (1986)
-Channel IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1986)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-YukonPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1986); CABI (Undated)
MontserratPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Netherlands AntillesPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ConnecticutPresentDay (1981)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
-IowaPresentRussell and Hallauer (1974)
-MinnesotaPresentPeterson et al. (1976); Kommedahl and Windels (1977)
-New YorkPresentOka and Pimentel (1974)
-South DakotaPresentAnon (1976)
-TexasPresentCraig et al. (1976)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentJones (1986); Francki and Kirby (1991)
-New South WalesPresentLuig et al. (1983); Nuberg et al. (1986)
-QueenslandPresentJones (1982); Anon (1984)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
New ZealandAbsent, EradicatedNew Zealand MAF Biosecurity (2011)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
Solomon IslandsPresentGeaney (1984); UK, CAB International (1986)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
BrazilPresentDiaz (1977); Esteves (1984); UK, CAB International (1986)
ChilePresentParker V. and Paratori B. (1972); UK, CAB International (1986)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1986)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1986)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1986)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / black fungal spores
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / galls
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / internal feeding
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / empty grains
Seeds / galls
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / galls

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Myxococcus fulvus Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Ainsworth GC, 1965. Ustilago maydis. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 79. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Anon, 1976. Maize. Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota University: 88th Annual Report, 1975. South Dakota Farm and Home Research, 1976, 26:1-27

Anon, 1984. Annual Report, 1983-84, Queensland Department of Primary Industries. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries

Arnold C, 1992. Postharvest and marketing of cuitlacoche, the maize mushroom (Ustilago maydis - corn smut). Acta Horticulturae, No. 318:321-324; [Second international symposium on specialty and exotic vegetable crops, Miami, Florida, USA, 15-19 Mar., 1992]; 8 ref

Atac A, 1984. Survey of fungus disease of second crop maize in the Mediterranean region. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 24(3):137-147

Awuah RT, 1989. Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Annals of Applied Biology, 115(3):451-454

Babilas W, 1976. Characteristics of the development, occurrence and harmfulness of the main diseases of cereals in 1974 in Poland in comparison with earlier years. Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, No.60:15-74

Bakkeren G, Gibbard B, Yee A, Froeliger E, Leong S, Kronstad J, 1992. The a and b loci of Ustilago maydis hybridize with DNA sequences from other smut fungi. Molecular Plant - Microbe Interactions, 5(4):347-355

Batiashvili EV, 1975. On the viability of the pathogen of blister smut of maize, Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Unger. Trudy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii Gruz. SSR, 27:93-95

Batiashvili EV, 1976. Pathogenicity of the pathogen of maize smut - Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Unger. Trudy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii Gruz. SSR, 28:6-9

Beek DVan der, Dudok Van Heel EL, 1978. Maize smut. Bedrijfsontwikkeling, 9(5):451-452

Bettarini F, Borgonovi GE, Fiorani T, Gagliardi I, Caprioli V, Massardo P, Ogoche JIJ, Hassanali A, Nyandat E, Chapya A, 1993. Antiparasitic compounds from East African plants: isolation and biological activity of anonaine, matricarianol, canthin-6-one and caryophyllene oxide. Insect Science and its Application, 14(1):93-99; 22 ref

Billett EE, Burnett JH, 1978. The host-parasite physiology of the maize smut fungus, Ustilago maydis 1. The effect of smut infection on maize growth. Physiological Plant Pathology, 12(1):93-102

Billett EE, Burnett JH, 1978. The host-parasite physiology of the maize smut fungus, Ustilago maydis II. Translocation of 14C-labelled assimilates in smutted maize plants. Physiological Plant Pathology, 12(1):103-112

Biondi G, D'Aulerio AZ, Zambonelli A, 1985. Epidemiological study of fodder maize disorders in Emilia Romagna in 1983. Informatore Fitopatologico, 35(2):39-43; [2 fig., 5 tab.]; 18 ref

Bogachev YuI, 1994. Tests for resistance to Ustilago zeae. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 5:11-12

Bohm H, Glpser G, 1976. Report on the occurrence of important diseases and pests on cultivated plants in Austria in 1976. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 45(7/12):145-151

Bolker M, Urban M, Kahmann R, 1992. The a mating type locus of U. maydis specifies cell signaling components. Cell (Cambridge), 68(3):441-450

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Callow JA, Long DE, Lithgow ED, 1980. Multiple molecular forms of invertase in maize smut infections. Physiological Plant Pathology, 16(1):93-107

Caretta G, Frate Gdel, Franca Pdella, Guglielminetti M, Mangiarotti AM, Savino E, 1985. Maize mycoflora: soil and phylloplane fungi and air spora. Archivio Botanico e Biogeografico Italiano, 61(3/4):143-168; [13 fig., 1 graph, 5 tab.]; 50 ref

Christensen JJ, 1963. Corn smut caused by Ustilago maydis. Monograph No. 2. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society

Cizmic´ I, 2007. Disease causal agents which are seed transmitted in maize, and maize seed treatment. (Uzrocnici bolesti koji se prenose sjemenom kukuruza i tretiranje sjemena kukuruza.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 7(5):282-290

CMI, 1986. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 93, Edition 6. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Collaud JF, 1990. Technical notes on maize varieties. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 22(1):22-30, 35-42

Cook RJ, 1977. The importance of stalk rot and smut in British maize. Annals of Applied Biology, 87(2):266-270

Craig J, Webster OJ, Zuber MS, 1976. Registration of PR-MO2 maize germplasm (Reg. No. GP63). Crop Science, 16:446-447

Crespy A, Lagarde R, 1973. Contributions to the study of maize smut, Ustilago maydis (D.C.) Corda. Phytiatrie Phytopharmacie, 22:33-36

Cristea M, Reichbuch S, Funduianu D, 1977. Features of some local populations of maize of the Scorumnic type. Cerc. Agron. Moldovia, 1:51-55

Cross HZ, 1989. ND265: a new parental line of early corn. North Dakota Farm Research, 47(3):19-21; 2 ref

Cross HZ, 1991. Registration of ND265 parental line of maize. Crop Science, 31(5):1400; 2 ref

Day PR, 1981. Fungal virus populations in corn smut from Connecticut. Mycologia, 73(3):379-391

Diaz MEG, 1977. Downy mildew: a new maize disease. Comunicado Tecnico EMPASC-EMBRAPA, No.5:4 pp

Dracea AE, 1979. Investigation of the reactions of some maize hybrids to artificial infection with Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Unger. Lucrari Stiintifice Institutul Agronomic Timisoara Agronomie, 16:111-116

Ebskamp AG, 1981. Tests of the cultural value of silage maize varieties in the Netherlands (II). Criteria for the evaluation of silage maize varieties. Bedrijfsontwikkeling, 12(3):269-275

Esteves A, 1984. Incidence of diseases under field conditions on maize (Zea mays) cultivars in Dourados. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 9(1):155-160

Fajardo IR, Celino MS, 1975. Study on the mode of infection of corn smut. Araneta Research Journal, 22(1/2):1-9

Fed'ko IA, Morshchatskii AA, Tereshchenko BA, 1990. Testing maize for resistance to Ustilago zeae. Zashchita zernovykh ot vreditelei i boleznei pri intensivnoi tekhnologii Dnepropetrovsk, Ukrainian SSR, 11-17

Finkler A, Peery T, Tao J, Bruenn J, Koltin I, 1992. Immunity and resistance to the KP6 toxin of Ustilago maydis. Molecular and General Genetics, 233(3):395-403

Fomina AI, 1978. Changes in recommended maize varieties for 1978. Kukuruza, 1:27-28

Francki MG, Kirby GC, 1991. Detection of dsRNA viruses in isolates of Australian smut fungi and their serological relationship to viruses found in Ustilago maydis from the USA. Australian Journal of Botany, 39(1):59-65

Frison E, Verhoyen M, 1979. Presence of virus-like particles and "killer effect" of Ustilago maydis (D.C. Corda) in Belgium. Parasitica, 35(4):152-164

Froeliger EH, Leong SA, 1991. The a mating-type alleles of Ustilago maydis are idiomorphs. Gene, 100:113-122

Gass= AMM, Molina MC, 1999. Zea seedling reaction to inoculation with Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter, No. 73:58-60

Geaney M, 1984. New records Solomon Islands. Boil smut of maize. Quarterly Newsletter, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, FAO, 27(1/3):7

Geyer A, Schnurlein-Land G, Beiderbeck R, 1984. The isolation of soil-inhabiting enemies of the maize blister smut pathogen Ustilago maydis. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 111(3/4):317-322

Gur'ev BP, Kozubenko LV, Luk'yanenko LM, Rogulina LV, Chernobai LN, 1990. High-lysine hybrids with improved grain consistency. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 6:41

Gutenmacher I, 1977. The state of health of main crops in the Ilfov district in 1976. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 5(4):385-395

Hammann H, 1976. Results of the 1976 maize variety trials and variety recommendations for the 1977 season. Grune, 104:8-19

Hampejs J, 1985. Trichoderma sp. on maize smut galls. Mykologicke Listy, No.18:13-15

Handoo ML, Aulakh KS, 1982. Note on the fungi contaminating maize seeds grown in different agroclimatic regions of India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12(1):79-80

Hegewald H-B, 1984. Effect of legumes on maize disease incidence in mixed cultivation. Angewandte Botanik, 58(3/4):301-306

Hiscock SJ, Kues U, 1999. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of sexual incompatibility in plants and fungi. Int Rev Cytol., 193:165-295

Holliday R, 1974. Ustilago maydis. In: King RC, ed. Handbook of genetics. Vol. 1. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 575-595

Hooker AL, Smiljakovic H, 1979. Maize breeding for disease resistance. Proceedings of the tenth meeting of the Maize and Sorghum Section of Eucarpia, 17-19 September 1979, Varna, Bulgaria., 157-178; 65 ref

Inoue Y, Koinuma K, Mochizuki N, Kato A, 1989. Evaluation of Japanese corn landraces belonging to Caribbean flint for southern corn leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis) and some other practical traits. Sochi Shikenjo Kenkyu Hokoku = Bulletin of the National Grassland Research Institute, No. 42:49-67

Jacobs CW, Mattichak SJ, Knowles JF, 1994. Budding patterns during the cell cycle of the maize smut pathogen Ustilago maydis. Canadian Journal of Botany, 72(11):1675-1680

Jones DR, 1982. Boil smut: a new disease of maize and sweet corn in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 108(4):xxiii-xxiv

Jones DR, 1986. A chemical treatment for maize seed to control the germination of teliospores of Ustilago maydis. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26(2):187-191

Kahmann R, Basse C, 1997. Signaling and development in pathogenic fungi - new strategies for plant protection?. Trends in Plant Science, 2(10):366-368; 12 ref

Keon JPR, Broomfield PLE, Hargreaves JA, 1992. Molecular genetic analysis of carboxin resistance in Ustilago maydis. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1992. Volume 1 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 221-226

Kerns MR, Dudley JW, Rufener GKII, 1999. QTL for resistance to common rust and smut in maize. Maydica, 44(1):37-45; 24 ref

Kizmush L(Kizmus L), 1985. Pathological studies of maize in Martonvásár. Informatsionnyi Byulleten' po Kukuruze, No. 4:19-27

Koltin Y, Ginzberg I, Finkler A, 1993. Fungal "killer" toxins as potential agents for biocontrol. Biotechnology in plant disease control [edited by Chet, I.] New York, USA; Wiley-Liss Inc., 257-274

Kommedahl T, Windels CE, 1977. Fusarium stalk rot and common smut in cornfields of southern Minnesota in 1976. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(4):259-261

Kostandi SF, Geisler G, 1989. Maize smut induced by Ustilago maydis (D.C.) Corda specific effect of smut intensity and location of galls on yield losses. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 163(1):62-68

Kostandi SF, Soliman MF, 1991. Effect of nitrogen rates at different growth stages on corn yield and common smut disease (Ustilago maydis (D. C.) Corda). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 167(1):53-60

Kostandi SF, Soliman MF, 1991. The significance of NPK fertilizers on yield and smut incidence of corn. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 167(4):269-276

Kostornoi VF, Soboleva NV, Gof GN, 1978. Siberian inbred lines. Kukuruza, 2:27-28

Kronstad J, Maria Ade, Funnell D, Laidlaw RD, Lee N, Sß MMde, Ramesh M, 1998. Signaling via cAMP in fungi: interconnections with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Archives of Microbiology, 170(6):395-404; 66 ref

Kronstad JW, Leong SA, 1989. Isolation of two alleles of the b locus of Ustilago maydis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86(3):978-982

Kuporitskaya KI, Bikineeva LV, 1977. The characteristics of some mutant sublines of maize. Zashchita s.-kh. rastenii ot boleznei i vreditelei, 39-46

Le Doan Dien, 1981. Study of peroxidase isoenzymes in growth and development of Vietnamese maize. Khoa Hoc Va Ku Thuat Nongnghiep, 621-626

Legros P, Geenen J, 1979. Current problems concerning protection of important crops. 5. Maize smut. Revue de l'Agriculture, 32(2):445-451

Leroux P, Gredt M, 1978. Effects of some systemic fungicides on the biosynthesis of ergosterol in Botrytis cinerea Pers., Penicillium expansum Link. et Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda. Annales de Phytopathologie, 10(1):45-60

Lim G, 1983. New list of parasitic fungi in Singapore. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Societe Mycologique de France, 99(1):127-129

Lnbberstedt T, Klein D, Melchinger AE, 1998. Comparative QTL mapping of resistance to Ustilago maydis across four populations of European flint-maize. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97(8):1321-1330; 41 ref

Luig NH, Oates JD, Wellings CR, Allen RN, Jones DR, Wong PTW, Stovold G, Walker J, Bertus AL, Fitzell RD, Peak CM, Fahy PC, Tesoriero LA, Gunn LV, McLeod R, Nuzum C, 1983. Plant Disease Survey, 1980-81. Biology Branch, Biological and Chemical Research Institute, New South Wales Department of Agriculture. Rydalmere, New South Wales, Australia: New South Wales Department of Agriculture

Maksimova NI, Kuznetsov LV, 1981. Penetration and localization of haploid strains of Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Ung. in plant tissues and their effects on the growth and development of maize. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 15(4):305-309

Martfnez VM, Osuna J, Paredes-L=pez O, Guevara F, 1997. Production of indole-3-acetic acid by several wild-type strains of Ustilago maydis. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(3):295-298; 20 ref

Matveeva GV, Babayants AF, 1988. Inbred maize lines from Spain and Portugal - useful breeding material. Ispol'zovanie mirovykh kollektsii^breve~ polevykh kul'tur dlya sozdaniya sortov intensivnogo tipa v usloviyakh Uzbekistana, 65-68

McGee DC, 1988. Maize diseases. A reference source for seed technologists. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; APS Press, 149 pp

Mehrian F, 1984. Occurrence of maize common smut in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 20(1/4):11-12 (46-50 Farsi s

Mills LJ, Kotze JM, 1981. Scanning electron microscopy of the germination, growth and infection of Ustilago maydis on maize. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 102(1):21-27

Mills LJ, Kotze JM, Nel PC, 1982. The effects of fertilizers on boil smut of maize. Phytophylactica, 14(3):95-97

New Zealand MAF Biosecurity, 2011. Pest watch: 2 November 2010 - 21 March 2011, 38(2):53-54

Nuberg IK, Allen RN, Colless JM, Darnell RE, 1986. Field reactions of maize varieties commonly grown in Australia to boil smut caused by Ustilago zeae. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26(4):481-488

Odiemah M, Kovacs I, 1990. Combining ability for resistance to stalk rot, ear rot, common smut and head smut diseases. Maize Genetics Cooperation News Letter, No. 64:83-84

O'Donnell K, 1992. Ultrastructure of meiosis and the spindle pole body cycle in freeze-substituted basidia of the smut fungi Ustilago maydis and Ustilago avenae. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70(3):629-638

Oka IN, Pimentel D, 1974. Corn susceptibility to corn leaf aphids and common corn smut after herbicide treatment. Environmental Entomology, 3(6):911-916

Oksuzyan RA, Chikovani SO, 1988. Economic and biological characters of new introduced forms of maize in western Georgia. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii^breve~ Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva Imeni N. I. Vavilova, No. 178:70-73; 1 ref

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Parker V I, Paratori B O, 1972. A new variety of maize for human consumption when unripe: Choclero Platina. Investigacion y Progreso Agricola, 4:10-11

Patkhullaev S, Khodzhimuradova R-Kh, 1975. Study of resistance to Ustilago maydis in inbred lines and hybrids of maize. UzSSR Fanlar Akad. dokl, 8:44-45

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Polyakov IM, Vladimirskaya ME, Belaonova LI, 1976. Effects of the environment on the appearance of blister smut of maize in North Osetia. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 10(3):208-210

Popov A, 1972. Damage caused by common smut on maize. Rastenievudni-Nauki, 9(6):111-116

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Schulz B, Banuett F, Dahl M, Schlesinger R, Schafer W, Martin T, Herskowitz I, Kahmann R, 1990. The b alleles of U. maydis, whose combinations program pathogenic development, code for polypeptides containing a homeodomain-related motif. Cell (Cambridge), 60(2):295-306

Sha HongLin, Sha HongZhen, Fang ShuQin, Jin QiMing, Li Hong, 2004. Control effect of 6.9% corn seed coating of isofenphos-methyl triadimefon and tebuconazole on hypogeous pests and corn smut. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 26(4):438-440, 444

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Sultan M, Jovicevic B, 1982. Contribution to the study of resistance of inbred lines of maize to Ustilago maydis (D.C.) Corda. Zastita Bilja, 33(2):169-176

Sun JY, 1990. Some elite maize germplasm resources in China. Crop Genetic Resources, No.2:18-19

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Tseng CM, 1988. Studies on corn smut control in Taiwan. Research Bulletin Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station, 22:13-23

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Vergnet C, 1989. A new disease: head smut of maize. Phytoma, No. 404:31, 34-35

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Wenzler H, Meins F Jr, 1987. Persistent changes in the proliferative capacity of maize leaf tissues induced by Ustilago infection. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 30(2):309-319

Wu QN, 1988. Field techniques for the evaluation of resistance to four pathogens in maize. Zuowu Pinzhong Ziyuan, No. 1:42-43

Yanchenko AA, Maslova LG, 1990. New hybrid. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 5:45

Yurku AI, Lazu MN, Bordyuzhevich EL, Zapadaeva TV, 1980. Variation in populations of Ustilago zeae (Beck.) Unger in Moldavia. Bul. Akad. Stiince RSS Mold. Ser. biol. i. khim, 5:34-38

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Zhu YG, Cheng ZM, Song ZH, Lian JY, Lin H, Chen PS, Zhao SC, Jiang DR, Chen X, 1981. A modified technique for removing maize plants infected with head smut at the mature stage. Liaoning Agricultural Science, No.4:27-29

Zimmermann J, Rotschke W, Martin B, 1990. Observations on the occurrence of maize smut (Ustilago maydis). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 44(1):20

Ziogas BN, Girgis SM, 1993. Cross-resistance relationships between benzimidazole fungicides and diethofencarb in Botrytis cinerea and their genetical basis in Ustilago maydis. Pesticide Science, 39(3):199-205

Zwatz B, 1986. Importance of maize diseases in Austria with special consideration of varietal resistance. Pflanzenschutz, No. 6:8-10; [1 fig., 2 tab.]

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Parker V I, Paratori B O, 1972. A new variety of maize for human consumption when unripe: Choclero Platina. (Nueva variedad de maiz para consumo tierno: "choclero platina".). Investigacion y Progreso Agricola. 10-11.

Peterson R H, Geadelmann J L, Rinke E H, Sentz J C, 1976. Registration of six maize germplasm populations (Reg. No. GP64 to 69). Crop Science. 16 (4), 605. DOI:10.2135/cropsci1976.0011183X001600040055x

Polerecky O, 1980. New inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) for breeding work. (Nove samoopelovane linie kukurice Zea mays L. conv. saccharata pre sl'achtitel'ske vyuzitie.). Vedecke Prace Vyskumneho Ustavu Kukurice. 49-59.

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Walczak F, 1977. Characteristics of harmfulness of main diseases and pests of cereals in Poland in 1975. (Charakterystika szkodliwosci wazniejszych agrofagow roslin zbozowych w 1975 roku w Polsce.). Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin. 9-46.

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Yurku A I, Lazu M N, Bordyuzhevich E L, Zapadaeva T V, 1980. Variation in populations of Ustilago zeae (Beck.) Unger in Moldavia. Bul. Akad. Stiince RSS Mold., Ser. biol. i. khim, n. 34-38.

Zhu Y G, Cheng Z M, Song Z H, Lian J Y, Lin H, Chen P S, Zhao S C, Jiang D R, Chen X, 1981. A modified technique for removing maize plants infected with head smut at the mature stage. Liaoning Agricultural Science. 27-29.

Zwatz B, 1986. Importance of maize diseases in Austria with special consideration of varietal resistance. (Bedeutung von Maiskrankheiten in Österreich unter spezieller Berücksichtigung der Resistenz der Sorten.). Pflanzenschutz. 8-10.

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