Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ustilago crameri
(head smut of millet)

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Datasheet

Ustilago crameri (head smut of millet)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ustilago crameri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • head smut of millet
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •         Class: Ustilaginomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ustilago crameri Körn

Preferred Common Name

  • head smut of millet

International Common Names

  • English: millet smut; navane smut
  • Spanish: carbon del mijo
  • French: charbon du millet

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Brand, Kolbenhirse-; Brand, Staub-: Kolbenhirse

EPPO code

  • USTICR (Ustilago crameri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
  •                 Class: Ustilaginomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Ustilaginomycetidae
  •                         Order: Ustilaginales
  •                             Family: Ustilaginaceae
  •                                 Genus: Ustilago
  •                                     Species: Ustilago crameri

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK CAB International, 1981
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-HeilongjiangPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-JiangsuPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-Nei MengguPresentLi et al., 1993
-SichuanPresentUK CAB International, 1981
IndiaPresentMundkur and Thirumalachar, 1952
-KarnatakaPresentJayaraghavan, 1978; UK CAB International, 1981
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-MaharashtraPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-Tamil NaduPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-UttarakhandPresentBijender Kumar, 2016
IranPresentUK CAB International, 1981
JapanPresentUK CAB International, 1981
Korea, DPRPresentUK CAB International, 1981
Korea, Republic ofPresentUK CAB International, 1981
NepalPresentUK CAB International, 1981
PakistanPresentUK CAB International, 1981
Sri LankaPresentUK CAB International, 1981
TaiwanPresentUK CAB International, 1981

Africa

KenyaPresentUK CAB International, 1981
South AfricaPresentUK CAB International, 1981

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-SaskatchewanPresentUK CAB International, 1981
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ColoradoPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-ConnecticutPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-IllinoisPresentFischer, 1953
-IndianaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-IowaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-KansasPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-MainePresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-MichiganPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-MinnesotaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-MissouriPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-MontanaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-NebraskaPresentCMI, 1951
-New JerseyPresentCMI, 1951
-North DakotaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-OhioPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-PennsylvaniaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953
-South DakotaPresentCMI, 1951; Fischer, 1953

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK CAB International, 1981

Europe

BulgariaPresentUK CAB International, 1981
GermanyPresentUK CAB International, 1981
HungaryPresentUK CAB International, 1981
ItalyPresentUK CAB International, 1981
PortugalPresentUK CAB International, 1981
RomaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1981
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK CAB International, 1981
-Russian Far EastPresentUK CAB International, 1981
-SiberiaPresentUK CAB International, 1981
SwitzerlandPresentUK CAB International, 1981
Yugoslavia (former)PresentUK CAB International, 1981
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentUK CAB International, 1981

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentUK CAB International, 1981

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / black fungal spores
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Seeds / discolorations
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Wood

References

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Bijender Kumar, 2016. Status of small millets diseases in Uttarakhand. International Journal of Plant Protection, 9(1):256-263. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPP.htm

CMI, 1951. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map No. 239. Edition 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Dickson JG, 1947. Disease of field crops. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.

Du SH, 1990. A new cultivar of Setaria italica Jiugu 7. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 3:31.

Fischer GW, 1953. Manual of the North American Smut Fungi. New York, USA: The Ronald Press Company.

Jayaraghavan BV, 1978. Studies on the grain smut disease of Setaria italica (Linn.) Beauv. (Italian millet or navane) in Karnataka. Thesis Abstracts, 4(4):318.

Kulkarni S; Siddaramaiah AL; Bhat RP; Basavarajaiah AB, 1979. Control of navane (fox tail millet) smut by seed treatment. Current Research, 8(8):128-129

Li ST; Jiang SH; Wu BH, 1993. New foxtail millet cultivars Chi Gu 4 and Chi Gu 5. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 2:45-46.

Liu RT; Wen QF; Qiao YX; Gao PP, 1988. Evaluation of resistance to smut and analysis of isoenzymes in millet cultivars. Shanxi Agricultural Science, No. 11:1-3.

McGee DC, 1988. Maize diseases. A reference source for seed technologists. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; APS Press, 149 pp.

Melchers LE, 1927. Studies on the control of millet smut. Phytopathology, 17:739-741.

Mundkur BB; Thirumalachar MJ, 1952. Ustilaginales of India. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 84 pp.

Popescu G, 1970. Contribution to the study of biology and control of Ustilago crameri Kornicke (III). Lucrari Stiintifice Agronomie, 13:365-373.

Porter RH; Yu TF; Chen HK, 1928. The effect of seed disinfectants on smut and on yield of millet. Phytopathology, 18:911-919.

UK CAB International, 1981. Ustilago crameri. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 3). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 239.

Vánky K, 1994. European smut fungi. Stuttgart, Germany; Gustav Fischer Verlag, 570 pp.

Vasey HE, 1918. Millet smuts and their control. Colorado Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. No. 242.

Vijayaraghavan B; Govindu HC, 1976. Production of teliospores in artificial culture of Ustilago crameri (Kornicke). Current Science, 45(1):35-36

Wang CS, 1936. Viability and longevity of chlamydospores of Ustilago crameri. Phytopatholgy, 26:1086-1087.

Wang CS, 1943. Studies on cytology of Ustilago crameri. Phytopathology, 33:1122-1133.

Wang CS, 1944. Physiologic specialization and the control of millet smut. Phytopathology, 34:1050-1055.

Yu TF; Chen HK; Hwang L, 1934. Seed treatment experiments for controlling kernel smut of millet (in Chinese). Journal of the Agriculture Association, 122:1-18.

Distribution Maps

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